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Add cmm-notes, describing Simon and John's work on Cmm pipeline

parent 50e6ff31
Notes on new codegen (Sept 09)
Things to do:
- Top-level SRT threading is a bit ugly
- Add type/newtype for CmmModule = [CmmGroup] -- A module
CmmGroup = [CmmTop] -- A .o file
CmmTop = Proc | Data -- A procedure or data
- This is a *change*: currently a CmmGroup is one function's-worth of code
regardless of SplitObjs. Question: can we *always* generate M.o if there
is just one element in the list (rather than M/M1.o, M/M2.o etc)
- Change
type CmmZ = GenCmm CmmStatic CmmInfo (CmmStackInfo, CmmGraph)
type CmmZ = GenCmm CmmStatic (CmmInfo, CmmStackInfo) CmmGraph
-- And perhaps take opportunity to prune CmmInfo?
- Clarify which fields of CmmInfo are still used
- Maybe get rid of CmmFormals arg of CmmProc in all versions?
- We aren't sure whether cmmToRawCmm is actively used by the new pipeline; check
And what does CmmBuildInfoTables do?!
- Nuke CmmZipUtil, move zipPreds into ZipCfg
- Pull out Areas into its own module
Parameterise AreaMap
Add ByteWidth = Int
type SubArea = (Area, ByteOff, ByteWidth)
ByteOff should not be defined in SMRep -- that is too high up the hierarchy
- Think about a non-flattened representation?
- LastCall:
* Use record fields for LastCall!
* cml_ret_off should be a ByteOff
* Split into
LastCall (which has a successor) and
LastJump (which does not, includes return?)
- does not have cml_cont, cml_ret_args, cml_ret_off
- safe!
- expands into save/MidForeignCall/restore/goto
- like any LastCall, target of the call gets an info table
- JD: remind self of what goes wrong if you turn off the
liveness of the update frame
- Garbage-collect
moving good stuff into
- We believe that all of CmmProcPointZ.addProcPointProtocols is dead. What
goes wrong if we simply never call it?
- Something fishy in CmmStackLayout.hs
* In particular, 'getAreaSize' returns an AreaMap, but we *know* the width of
LocalRegs, so it'd be better to return FiniteMap AreaId ByteWidth
* setSuccSPs looks fishy. Rather than lookin in procPoints, it could
just lookup the block in areaSize which, after all, has a binding
for precisely successors of calls. All other blocks (including proc
points that are not successors of a call, we think) can be treated
uniformly: zero-size Area, and use inSP.
Dead files
CmmProcPoint (Michael Adams)
CmmCPS (ditto)
DynFlags: -fconvert-to-zipper-and-back, -frun-cps, -frun-cpsz
Consider this program, which has a diamond control flow,
with a call on one branch
fn(p,x) {
if b then { ... f(x) ...; q=5; goto J }
else { ...; q=7; goto J }
J: ..p...q...
then the join point J is a "proc-point". So, is 'p' passed to J
as a parameter? Or, if 'p' was saved on the stack anyway, perhaps
to keep it alive across the call to h(), maybe 'p' gets communicated
to J that way. This is an awkward choice. (We think that we currently
never pass variables to join points via arguments.)
Furthermore, there is *no way* to pass q to J in a register (other
than a paramter register).
What we want is to do register allocation across the whole caboodle.
Then we could drop all the code that deals with the above awkward
decisions about spilling variables across proc-points.
Note that J doesn't need an info table.
What we really want is for each Block to have an optional info table.
To do that, we need to be polymorphic over first nodes.
Figuring out proc-points
Proc-points are identified by
CmmProcPointZ.minimalProcPointSet/extendPPSet Although there isn't
that much code, JD thinks that it could be done much more nicely using
a dominator analysis, using the Dataflow Engine.
Top-level structure
* New codgen called in HscMain.hscGenHardCode, by calling HscMain.tryNewCodeGen,
enabled by -fnew-codegen (Opt_TryNewCodeGen)
THEN it calls CmmInfo.cmmToRawCmm to lay out the details of info tables
type Cmm = GenCmm CmmStatic CmmInfo (ListGraph CmmStmt)
type RawCmm = GenCmm CmmStatic [CmmStatic] (ListGraph CmmStmt)
* HscMain.tryNewCodeGen
- STG->Cmm: StgCmm.codeGen (new codegen)
- Optimise: CmmContFlowOpt (simple optimisations, very self contained)
- Cps convert: CmmCPSZ.protoCmmCPSZ
- Optimise: CmmContFlowOpt again
- Convert: CmmCvt.cmmOfZgraph (convert to old rep) very self contained
* StgCmm.hs The new STG -> Cmm conversion code generator
Lots of modules StgCmmXXX
CmmCPSZ.protoCmmCPSZ The new pipeline
1. Do cpsTop for each procedures separately
2. Build SRT representation; this spans multiple procedures
(unless split-objs)
* CmmCommonBlockElimZ.elimCommonBlocks:
eliminate common blocks
* CmmProcPointZ.minimalProcPointSet
identify proc-points
* CmmProcPointZ.addProcPointProtocols
something to do with the MA optimisation
probably entirely unnecessary
* Spill and reload:
- CmmSpillReload.dualLivenessWithInsertion
insert spills/reloads across
LastCalls, and
Branches to proc-points
Now sink those reloads:
- CmmSpillReload.insertLateReloads
- CmmSpillReload.removeDeadAssignmentsAndReloads
* CmmStackLayout.stubSlotsOnDeath
debug only: zero out dead slots when they die
* Stack layout
- CmmStackLayout.lifeSlotAnal:
find which sub-areas are live on entry to each block
- CmmStackLayout.layout
Lay out the stack, returning an AreaMap
type AreaMap = FiniteMap Area ByteOff
-- Byte offset of the oldest byte of the Area,
-- relative to the oldest byte of the Old Area
- CmmStackLayout.manifestSP
Manifest the stack pointer
* Split into separate procedures
- CmmProcPointZ.procPointAnalysis
Given set of proc points, which blocks are reachable from each
- CmmProcPointZ.splitAtProcPoints
Using this info, split into separate procedures
* The code for a procedure f may refer to either the *closure*
or the *entry point* of another top-level procedure g.
If f is live, then so is g. f's SRT must include g's closure.
* The CLabel for the entry-point/closure reveals whether g is
a CAF (or refers to CAFs). See the IdLabell constructor of CLabel.
* The CAF-ness of the original top-level defininions is figured out
(by TidyPgm) before we generate C--. This CafInfo is only set for
top-level Ids; nested bindings stay with NoCafRefs.
* Currently an SRT contains (only) pointers to (top-level) closures.
* Consider this Core code
f = \x -> let g = \y -> ...x...y...h1...
in ...h2...g...
and suppose that h1, h2 have IdInfo of MayHaveCafRefs.
Therefore, so will f, But g will not (since it's nested).
This generates C-- roughly like this:
f_closure: .word f_entry
f_entry() [info-tbl-for-f] { ...jump g_entry...jump h2... }
g_entry() [info-tbl-for-g] { ...jump h1 }
Note that there is no top-level closure for g (only an info table).
So: info-tbl-for-f must have an SRT that keeps h1,h2 alive
info-tbl-for-g must have an SRT that keeps h1 (only) alive
But if we just look for the free CAF refs, we get:
f h2 (only)
g h1
So we need to do a transitive closure thing to flesh out
f's keep-alive refs to include h1.
* The SRT info is the C_SRT field of Cmm.ClosureTypeInfo in a
CmmInfoTable attached to each CmmProc. CmmCPSZ.toTops actually does
the attaching, right at the end of the pipeline. The C_SRT part
gives offsets within a single, shared table of closure pointers.
Foreign calls
See Note [Foreign calls] in ZipCfgCmmRep! This explains that a safe
foreign call must do this:
save thread state
push info table (on thread stack) to describe frame
make call (via C stack)
pop info table
restore thread state
and explains why this expansion must be done late in the day.
- Every foreign call is represented as a middle node
- *Unsafe* foreign calls are simply "fat machine instructions"
and are passed along to the native code generator
- *Safe* foreign calls are "lowered" to unsafe calls by wrapping
them in the above save/restore sequence. This step is done
very late in the pipeline, just before handing to the native
code gen.
This lowering is done by BuildInfoTables.lowerSafeForeignCalls
NEW PLAN for foreign calls:
- Unsafe foreign calls remain as a middle node (fat machine instruction)
Even the parameter passing is not lowered (just as machine instrs
get arguments).
- Initially, safe foreign calls appear as LastCalls with
Cmm representations
* Cmm.hs
The type [GenCmm d h g] represents a whole module,
** one list element per .o file **
Without SplitObjs, the list has exactly one element
newtype GenCmm d h g = Cmm [GenCmmTop d h g] -- A whole .o file
data GenCmmTop d h g
= CmmProc h g -- One procedure, graph d
| CmmData <stuff> [d] -- Initialised data, items d
Old and new piplines use different representations
(CmmCvt.hs converts between the two)
OLD BACK END representations (Cmm.hs):
type Cmm = GenCmm CmmStatic CmmInfo (ListGraph CmmStmt)
-- A whole module
newtype ListGraph i = ListGraph [GenBasicBlock i]
data CmmStmt = Assign | Store | Return etc -- OLD BACK END ONLY
Once the info tables are laid out, we replace CmmInfo with [CmmStatic]
type RawCmm = GenCmm CmmStatic [CmmStatic] (ListGraph CmmStmt)
which represents the info tables as data, that should
immediately precede the code
NEW BACK END representations
* Not Cmm-specific at all
ZipCfg.hs defines Graph, LGraph, FGraph,
ZHead, ZTail, ZBlock ...
classes LastNode, HavingSuccessors
MkZipCfg.hs: AGraph: building graphs
* ZipCfgCmmRep: instantiates ZipCfg for Cmm
data Middle = ...CmmExpr...
data Last = ...CmmExpr...
type CmmGraph = Graph Middle Last
type CmmZ = GenCmm CmmStatic CmmInfo (CmmStackInfo, CmmGraph)
type CmmStackInfo = (ByteOff, Maybe ByteOff)
-- (SP offset on entry, update frame space = SP offset on exit)
-- The new codegen produces CmmZ, but once the stack is
-- manifested we can drop that in favour of
-- GenCmm CmmStatic CmmInfo CmmGraph
Inside a CmmProc:
- CLabel: used
- CmmInfo: partly used by NEW
- CmmFormals: not used at all PERHAPS NOT EVEN BY OLD PIPELINE!
* MkZipCfgCmm.hs: smart constructors for ZipCfgCmmRep
Depends on (a) MkZipCfg (Cmm-independent)
(b) ZipCfgCmmRep (Cmm-specific)
* SHARED stuff
CmmExpr.hs defines the Cmm expression types
- CmmExpr, CmmReg, Width, CmmLit, LocalReg, GlobalReg
- CmmType, Width etc (saparate module?)
- MachOp (separate module?)
- Area, AreaId etc (separate module?)
BlockId.hs defines BlockId, BlockEnv, BlockSet
* Transactions indicate whether or not the result changes: CmmTx
type Tx a = a -> TxRes a
data TxRes a = TxRes ChangeFlag a
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