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  1. 10 Nov, 2006 1 commit
  2. 24 Oct, 2006 1 commit
    •'s avatar
      Haskell Program Coverage · d5934bbb authored
      This large checkin is the new ghc version of Haskell
      Program Coverage, an expression-level coverage tool for Haskell.
       - Hpc.[ch] - small runtime support for Hpc; reading/writing *.tix files.
       - Coverage.lhs - Annotates the HsSyn with coverage tickboxes.
        - New Note's in Core,
            - TickBox      -- ticked on entry to sub-expression
            - BinaryTickBox  -- ticked on exit to sub-expression, depending
      	       	     -- on the boolean result.
        - New Stg level TickBox (no BinaryTickBoxes, though) 
      You can run the coverage tool with -fhpc at compile time. 
      Main must be compiled with -fhpc. 
  3. 11 Oct, 2006 1 commit
  4. 10 Oct, 2006 1 commit
  5. 05 Oct, 2006 1 commit
  6. 29 Sep, 2006 1 commit
  7. 20 Sep, 2006 1 commit
    •'s avatar
      Complete the evidence generation for GADTs · 15cb792d authored
      Mon Sep 18 14:43:22 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <>
        * Complete the evidence generation for GADTs
        Sat Aug  5 21:39:51 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <>
          * Complete the evidence generation for GADTs
          Thu Jul 13 17:18:07 EDT 2006
            This patch completes FC evidence generation for GADTs.
            It doesn't work properly yet, because part of the compiler thinks
            	(t1 :=: t2) => t3
            is represented with FunTy/PredTy, while the rest thinks it's represented
            using ForAllTy.  Once that's done things should start to work.
  8. 15 Sep, 2006 1 commit
    •'s avatar
      Massive patch for the first months work adding System FC to GHC #14 · 108361d0 authored
      Fri Aug  4 15:59:09 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <>
        * Massive patch for the first months work adding System FC to GHC #14
        Broken up massive patch -=chak
        Original log message:  
        This is (sadly) all done in one patch to avoid Darcs bugs.
        It's not complete work... more FC stuff to come.  A compiler
        using just this patch will fail dismally.
  9. 06 Aug, 2006 1 commit
  10. 07 Apr, 2006 1 commit
    • Simon Marlow's avatar
      Reorganisation of the source tree · 0065d5ab
      Simon Marlow authored
      Most of the other users of the fptools build system have migrated to
      Cabal, and with the move to darcs we can now flatten the source tree
      without losing history, so here goes.
      The main change is that the ghc/ subdir is gone, and most of what it
      contained is now at the top level.  The build system now makes no
      pretense at being multi-project, it is just the GHC build system.
      No doubt this will break many things, and there will be a period of
      instability while we fix the dependencies.  A straightforward build
      should work, but I haven't yet fixed binary/source distributions.
      Changes to the Building Guide will follow, too.
  11. 03 Feb, 2006 1 commit
  12. 02 Feb, 2006 1 commit
  13. 30 Jan, 2006 1 commit
    •'s avatar
      Add mkHsCoerce to avoid junk in typechecked code · eb57096f authored
      Avoiding identity coercions is a Good Thing generally, but
      it turns out that the desugarer has trouble recognising 
      'otherwise' and 'True' guards if they are wrapped in an
      identity coercion; and that leads to bogus overlap warnings.
  14. 25 Jan, 2006 1 commit
    •'s avatar
      Simon's big boxy-type commit · ac10f840 authored
      This very large commit adds impredicativity to GHC, plus
      numerous other small things.
      *** WARNING: I have compiled all the libraries, and
      ***	     a stage-2 compiler, and everything seems
      ***	     fine.  But don't grab this patch if you 
      ***	     can't tolerate a hiccup if something is
      ***	     broken.
      The big picture is this:
      a) GHC handles impredicative polymorphism, as described in the
         "Boxy types: type inference for higher-rank types and
         impredicativity" paper
      b) GHC handles GADTs in the new simplified (and very sligtly less
         epxrssive) way described in the
         "Simple unification-based type inference for GADTs" paper
      But there are lots of smaller changes, and since it was pre-Darcs
      they are not individually recorded.
      Some things to watch out for:
      c)   The story on lexically-scoped type variables has changed, as per
           my email.  I append the story below for completeness, but I 
           am still not happy with it, and it may change again.  In particular,
           the new story does not allow a pattern-bound scoped type variable
           to be wobbly, so (\(x::[a]) -> ...) is usually rejected.  This is
           more restrictive than before, and we might loosen up again.
      d)   A consequence of adding impredicativity is that GHC is a bit less
           gung ho about converting automatically between
        	(ty1 -> forall a. ty2)    and    (forall a. ty1 -> ty2)
           In particular, you may need to eta-expand some functions to make
           typechecking work again.
           Furthermore, functions are now invariant in their argument types,
           rather than being contravariant.  Again, the main consequence is
           that you may occasionally need to eta-expand function arguments when
           using higher-rank polymorphism.
      Please test, and let me know of any hiccups
      Scoped type variables in GHC
      	January 2006
      0) Terminology.
         A *pattern binding* is of the form
      	pat = rhs
         A *function binding* is of the form
      	f pat1 .. patn = rhs
         A binding of the formm
      	var = rhs
         is treated as a (degenerate) *function binding*.
         A *declaration type signature* is a separate type signature for a
         let-bound or where-bound variable:
      	f :: Int -> Int
         A *pattern type signature* is a signature in a pattern: 
      	\(x::a) -> x
      	f (x::a) = x
         A *result type signature* is a signature on the result of a
         function definition:
      	f :: forall a. [a] -> a
      	head (x:xs) :: a = x
         The form
      	x :: a = rhs
         is treated as a (degnerate) function binding with a result
         type signature, not as a pattern binding.
      1) The main invariants:
           A) A lexically-scoped type variable always names a (rigid)
       	type variable (not an arbitrary type).  THIS IS A CHANGE.
              Previously, a scoped type variable named an arbitrary *type*.
           B) A type signature always describes a rigid type (since
      	its free (scoped) type variables name rigid type variables).
      	This is also a change, a consequence of (A).
           C) Distinct lexically-scoped type variables name distinct
      	rigid type variables.  This choice is open; 
      2) Scoping
      2(a) If a declaration type signature has an explicit forall, those type
         variables are brought into scope in the right hand side of the 
         corresponding binding (plus, for function bindings, the patterns on
         the LHS).  
      	f :: forall a. a -> [a]
      	f (x::a) = [x :: a, x]
         Both occurences of 'a' in the second line are bound by 
         the 'forall a' in the first line
         A declaration type signature *without* an explicit top-level forall
         is implicitly quantified over all the type variables that are
         mentioned in the type but not already in scope.  GHC's current
         rule is that this implicit quantification does *not* bring into scope
         any new scoped type variables.
      	f :: a -> a
      	f x = ...('a' is not in scope here)...
         This gives compatibility with Haskell 98
      2(b) A pattern type signature implicitly brings into scope any type
         variables mentioned in the type that are not already into scope.
         These are called *pattern-bound type variables*.
      	g :: a -> a -> [a]
      	g (x::a) (y::a) = [y :: a, x]
         The pattern type signature (x::a) brings 'a' into scope.
         The 'a' in the pattern (y::a) is bound, as is the occurrence on 
         the RHS.  
         A pattern type siganture is the only way you can bring existentials 
         into scope.
      	data T where
      	  MkT :: forall a. a -> (a->Int) -> T
      	f x = case x of
      		MkT (x::a) f -> f (x::a)
      2a) QUESTION
      	class C a where
      	  op :: forall b. b->a->a
      	instance C (T p q) where
      	  op = <rhs>
          Clearly p,q are in scope in <rhs>, but is 'b'?  Not at the moment.
          Nor can you add a type signature for op in the instance decl.
          You'd have to say this:
      	instance C (T p q) where
      	  op = let op' :: forall b. ...
      	           op' = <rhs>
      	       in op'
      3) A pattern-bound type variable is allowed only if the pattern's
         expected type is rigid.  Otherwise we don't know exactly *which*
         skolem the scoped type variable should be bound to, and that means
         we can't do GADT refinement.  This is invariant (A), and it is a 
         big change from the current situation.
      	f (x::a) = x	-- NO; pattern type is wobbly
      	g1 :: b -> b
      	g1 (x::b) = x	-- YES, because the pattern type is rigid
      	g2 :: b -> b
      	g2 (x::c) = x	-- YES, same reason
      	h :: forall b. b -> b
      	h (x::b) = x	-- YES, but the inner b is bound
      	k :: forall b. b -> b
      	k (x::c) = x	-- NO, it can't be both b and c
      3a) You cannot give different names for the same type variable in the same scope
          (Invariant (C)):
      	f1 :: p -> p -> p		-- NO; because 'a' and 'b' would be
      	f1 (x::a) (y::b) = (x::a)	--     bound to the same type variable
      	f2 :: p -> p -> p		-- OK; 'a' is bound to the type variable
      	f2 (x::a) (y::a) = (x::a)	--     over which f2 is quantified
      					-- NB: 'p' is not lexically scoped
      	f3 :: forall p. p -> p -> p	-- NO: 'p' is now scoped, and is bound to
      	f3 (x::a) (y::a) = (x::a)	--     to the same type varialble as 'a'
      	f4 :: forall p. p -> p -> p	-- OK: 'p' is now scoped, and its occurences
      	f4 (x::p) (y::p) = (x::p)	--     in the patterns are bound by the forall
      3b) You can give a different name to the same type variable in different
          disjoint scopes, just as you can (if you want) give diferent names to 
          the same value parameter
      	g :: a -> Bool -> Maybe a
      	g (x::p) True  = Just x  :: Maybe p
      	g (y::q) False = Nothing :: Maybe q
      3c) Scoped type variables respect alpha renaming. For example, 
          function f2 from (3a) above could also be written:
      	f2' :: p -> p -> p
      	f2' (x::b) (y::b) = x::b
         where the scoped type variable is called 'b' instead of 'a'.
      4) Result type signatures obey the same rules as pattern types signatures.
         In particular, they can bind a type variable only if the result type is rigid
      	f x :: a = x	-- NO
      	g :: b -> b
      	g x :: b = x	-- YES; binds b in rhs
      5) A *pattern type signature* in a *pattern binding* cannot bind a 
         scoped type variable
      	(x::a, y) = ...		-- Legal only if 'a' is already in scope
         Reason: in type checking, the "expected type" of the LHS pattern is
         always wobbly, so we can't bind a rigid type variable.  (The exception
         would be for an existential type variable, but existentials are not
         allowed in pattern bindings either.)
         Even this is illegal
      	f :: forall a. a -> a
      	f x = let ((y::b)::a, z) = ... 
         Here it looks as if 'b' might get a rigid binding; but you can't bind
         it to the same skolem as a.
      6) Explicitly-forall'd type variables in the *declaration type signature(s)*
         for a *pattern binding* do not scope AT ALL.
      	x :: forall a. a->a	  -- NO; the forall a does 
      	Just (x::a->a) = Just id  --     not scope at all
      	y :: forall a. a->a
      	Just y = Just (id :: a->a)  -- NO; same reason
         THIS IS A CHANGE, but one I bet that very few people will notice.
         Here's why:
      	strange :: forall b. (b->b,b->b)
      	strange = (id,id)
      	x1 :: forall a. a->a
      	y1 :: forall b. b->b
      	(x1,y1) = strange
          This is legal Haskell 98 (modulo the forall). If both 'a' and 'b'
          both scoped over the RHS, they'd get unified and so cannot stand
          for distinct type variables. One could *imagine* allowing this:
      	x2 :: forall a. a->a
      	y2 :: forall a. a->a
      	(x2,y2) = strange
          using the very same type variable 'a' in both signatures, so that
          a single 'a' scopes over the RHS.  That seems defensible, but odd,
          because though there are two type signatures, they introduce just
          *one* scoped type variable, a.
      7) Possible extension.  We might consider allowing
      	\(x :: [ _ ]) -> <expr>
          where "_" is a wild card, to mean "x has type list of something", without
          naming the something.
  15. 06 Jan, 2006 1 commit
    • simonmar's avatar
      [project @ 2006-01-06 16:30:17 by simonmar] · 9d7da331
      simonmar authored
      Add support for UTF-8 source files
      GHC finally has support for full Unicode in source files.  Source
      files are now assumed to be UTF-8 encoded, and the full range of
      Unicode characters can be used, with classifications recognised using
      the implementation from Data.Char.  This incedentally means that only
      the stage2 compiler will recognise Unicode in source files, because I
      was too lazy to port the unicode classifier code into libcompat.
      Additionally, the following synonyms for keywords are now recognised:
        forall symbol 	(U+2200)	forall
        right arrow   	(U+2192)	->
        left arrow   		(U+2190)	<-
        horizontal ellipsis 	(U+22EF)	..
      there are probably more things we could add here.
      This will break some source files if Latin-1 characters are being used.
      In most cases this should result in a UTF-8 decoding error.  Later on
      if we want to support more encodings (perhaps with a pragma to specify
      the encoding), I plan to do it by recoding into UTF-8 before parsing.
      Internally, there were some pretty big changes:
        - FastStrings are now stored in UTF-8
        - Z-encoding has been moved right to the back end.  Previously we
          used to Z-encode every identifier on the way in for simplicity,
          and only decode when we needed to show something to the user.
          Instead, we now keep every string in its UTF-8 encoding, and
          Z-encode right before printing it out.  To avoid Z-encoding the
          same string multiple times, the Z-encoding is cached inside the
          FastString the first time it is requested.
          This speeds up the compiler - I've measured some definite
          improvement in parsing at least, and I expect compilations overall
          to be faster too.  It also cleans up a lot of cruft from the
          OccName interface.  Z-encoding is nicely hidden inside the
          Outputable instance for Names & OccNames now.
        - StringBuffers are UTF-8 too, and are now represented as
        - I've put together some test cases, not by any means exhaustive,
          but there are some interesting UTF-8 decoding error cases that
          aren't obvious.  Also, take a look at unicode001.hs for a demo.
  16. 14 Oct, 2005 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2005-10-14 11:22:41 by simonpj] · 36436bc6
      simonpj authored
      Add record syntax for GADTs
      Atrijus Tang wanted to add record syntax for GADTs and existential
      types, so he and I worked on it a bit at ICFP.  This commit is the
      result.  Now you can say
       data T a where
        T1 { x :: a }           	 :: T [a]
        T2 { x :: a, y :: Int } 	 :: T [a]
        forall b. Show b =>
       	T3 { naughty :: b, ok :: Int } :: T Int
        T4 :: Eq a => a -> b -> T (a,b)
      Here the constructors are declared using record syntax.
      Still to come after this commit:
        - User manual documentation
        - More regression tests
        - Some missing cases in the parser (e.g. T3 won't parse)
      Autrijus is going to do these.
      Here's a quick summary of the rules.  (Atrijus is going to write
      proper documentation shortly.)
      Defnition: a 'vanilla' constructor has a type of the form
      	forall t1 -> ... -> tm -> T a1 ... an
      No existentials, no context, nothing.  A constructor declared with
      Haskell-98 syntax is vanilla by construction.  A constructor declared
      with GADT-style syntax is vanilla iff its type looks like the above.
      (In the latter case, the order of the type variables does not matter.)
      * You can mix record syntax and non-record syntax in a single decl
      * All constructors that share a common field 'x' must have the
        same result type (T [a] in the example).
      * You can use field names without restriction in record construction
        and record pattern matching.
      * Record *update* only works for data types that only have 'vanilla'
      * Consider the field 'naughty', which uses a type variable that does
        not appear in the result type ('b' in the example).  You can use the
        field 'naughty' in pattern matching and construction, but NO
        SELECTOR function is generated for 'naughty'.  [An attempt to use
        'naughty' as a selector function will elicit a helpful error
      * Data types declared in GADT syntax cannot have a context. So this
      is illegal:
      	data (Monad m) => T a where
      * Constructors in GADT syntax can have a context (t.g. T3, T4 above)
        and that context is stored in the constructor and made available
        when the constructor is pattern-matched on.  WARNING: not competely
        implemented yet, but that's the plan.
      Implementation notes
      - Data constructors (even vanilla ones) no longer share the type
        variables of their parent type constructor.
      - HsDecls.ConDecl has changed quite a bit
      - TyCons don't record the field labels and type any more (doesn't
        make sense for existential fields)
      - GlobalIdDetails records which selectors are 'naughty', and hence
        don't have real code.
  17. 10 Aug, 2005 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2005-08-10 11:05:06 by simonpj] · e3a4d6c3
      simonpj authored
      It turned out that doing all binding dependency analysis in the typechecker
      meant that the renamer's unused-binding error messages got worse.  So now
      I've put the first dep anal back into the renamer, while the second (which
      is specific to type checking) remains in the type checker.
      I've also made the pretty printer sort the decls back into source order
      before printing them (except with -dppr-debug).
      Fixes rn041.
  18. 25 Jul, 2005 1 commit
  19. 19 Jul, 2005 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2005-07-19 16:44:50 by simonpj] · a7ecdf96
      simonpj authored
      WARNING: this is a big commit.  You might want 
      	to wait a few days before updating, in case I've 
      	broken something.
      	However, if any of the changes are what you wanted,
      	please check it out and test!
      This commit does three main things:
      1. A re-organisation of the way that GHC handles bindings in HsSyn.
         This has been a bit of a mess for quite a while.  The key new
         types are
      	-- Bindings for a let or where clause
      	data HsLocalBinds id
      	  = HsValBinds (HsValBinds id)
      	  | HsIPBinds  (HsIPBinds id)
      	  | EmptyLocalBinds
      	-- Value bindings (not implicit parameters)
      	data HsValBinds id
      	  = ValBindsIn  -- Before typechecking
      		(LHsBinds id) [LSig id]	-- Not dependency analysed
      					-- Recursive by default
      	  | ValBindsOut	-- After typechecking
      		[(RecFlag, LHsBinds id)]-- Dependency analysed
      2. Implement Mark Jones's idea of increasing polymoprhism
         by using type signatures to cut the strongly-connected components
         of a recursive group.  As a consequence, GHC no longer insists
         on the contexts of the type signatures of a recursive group
         being identical.
         This drove a significant change: the renamer no longer does dependency
         analysis.  Instead, it attaches a free-variable set to each binding,
         so that the type checker can do the dep anal.  Reason: the typechecker
         needs to do *two* analyses:
      	one to find the true mutually-recursive groups
      		(which we need so we can build the right CoreSyn)
      	one to find the groups in which to typecheck, taking
      		account of type signatures
      3. Implement non-ground SPECIALISE pragmas, as promised, and as
         requested by Remi and Ross.  Certainly, this should fix the 
         current problem with GHC, namely that if you have
      	g :: Eq a => a -> b -> b
         then you can now specialise thus
      	SPECIALISE g :: Int -> b -> b
          (This didn't use to work.)
         However, it goes further than that.  For example:
      	f :: (Eq a, Ix b) => a -> b -> b
         then you can make a partial specialisation
      	SPECIALISE f :: (Eq a) => a -> Int -> Int
          In principle, you can specialise f to *any* type that is
          "less polymorphic" (in the sense of subsumption) than f's 
          actual type.  Such as
      	SPECIALISE f :: Eq a => [a] -> Int -> Int
          But I haven't tested that.
          I implemented this by doing the specialisation in the typechecker
          and desugarer, rather than leaving around the strange SpecPragmaIds,
          for the specialiser to find.  Indeed, SpecPragmaIds have vanished 
          altogether (hooray).
          Pragmas in general are handled more tidily.  There's a new
          data type HsBinds.Prag, which lives in an AbsBinds, and carries
          pragma info from the typechecker to the desugarer.
      Smaller things
      - The loop in the renamer goes via RnExpr, instead of RnSource.
        (That makes it more like the type checker.)
      - I fixed the thing that was causing 'check_tc' warnings to be 
  20. 20 May, 2005 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2005-05-20 11:42:57 by simonpj] · 02a06a56
      simonpj authored
      Improve the GHCi interaction
      		Merge to STABLE?
      This fix addresses Sourceforge #1156554 "GHCi: No instance for (Show (IO ()))",
      and simultaneously improves the top-level interaction in two other ways:
      - Only one error can show up (previously there could be two)
      - If an I/O action gives a Showable result, the result is printed
        (provided it isn't ()).  So
      	prompt> return 4
        prints 4, rather than nothing
      - For command-line 'let' and 'x<-e' forms, if exactly one variable
        is bound, we print its value if it is Showable and not ()
      	prompt> let x = 4
      	prompt> x <- return 5
  21. 04 Apr, 2005 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2005-04-04 11:55:11 by simonpj] · d551dbfe
      simonpj authored
      This commit combines three overlapping things:
      1.  Make rebindable syntax work for do-notation. The idea
          here is that, in particular, (>>=) can have a type that
          has class constraints on its argument types, e.g.
             (>>=) :: (Foo m, Baz a) => m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b
          The consequence is that a BindStmt and ExprStmt must have
          individual evidence attached -- previously it was one
          batch of evidence for the entire Do
          Sadly, we can't do this for MDo, because we use bind at
          a polymorphic type (to tie the knot), so we still use one
          blob of evidence (now in the HsStmtContext) for MDo.
          For arrow syntax, the evidence is in the HsCmd.
          For list comprehensions, it's all built-in anyway.
          So the evidence on a BindStmt is only used for ordinary
      2.  Tidy up HsSyn.  In particular:
      	- Eliminate a few "Out" forms, which we can manage
      	without (e.g. 
      	- It ought to be the case that the type checker only
      	decorates the syntax tree, but doesn't change one
      	construct into another.  That wasn't true for NPat,
      	LitPat, NPlusKPat, so I've fixed that.
      	- Eliminate ResultStmts from Stmt.  They always had
      	to be the last Stmt, which led to awkward pattern
      	matching in some places; and the benefits didn't seem
      	to outweigh the costs.  Now each construct that uses
      	[Stmt] has a result expression too (e.g. GRHS).
      3.  Make 'deriving( Ix )' generate a binding for unsafeIndex,
          rather than for index.  This is loads more efficient.
          (This item only affects TcGenDeriv, but some of point (2)
          also affects TcGenDeriv, so it has to be in one commit.)
  22. 30 Sep, 2004 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2004-09-30 10:35:15 by simonpj] · 23f40f0e
      simonpj authored
      	Add Generalised Algebraic Data Types
      This rather big commit adds support for GADTs.  For example,
          data Term a where
       	  Lit :: Int -> Term Int
      	  App :: Term (a->b) -> Term a -> Term b
      	  If  :: Term Bool -> Term a -> Term a
          eval :: Term a -> a
          eval (Lit i) = i
          eval (App a b) = eval a (eval b)
          eval (If p q r) | eval p    = eval q
          		    | otherwise = eval r
      Lots and lots of of related changes throughout the compiler to make
      this fit nicely.
      One important change, only loosely related to GADTs, is that skolem
      constants in the typechecker are genuinely immutable and constant, so
      we often get better error messages from the type checker.  See
      There's a new module types/Unify.lhs, which has purely-functional
      unification and matching for Type. This is used both in the typechecker
      (for type refinement of GADTs) and in Core Lint (also for type refinement).
  23. 06 May, 2004 1 commit
  24. 05 Apr, 2004 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2004-04-05 10:35:11 by simonpj] · 86b3c951
      simonpj authored
      In the derived code for gunfold, use a wild-card for the 
      final case, to avoid a redundant test, and to eliminate the
      annoying warning about un-matched cases.
      While I'm at it, rename HsUtils.wildPat to nlWildPat, for
  25. 10 Dec, 2003 2 commits
    • simonmar's avatar
      [project @ 2003-12-10 17:25:12 by simonmar] · c7b38930
      simonmar authored
      - Move the collect* functions from HsSyn into HsUtils.  Check that we
        have a clean separation of utilties over HsSyn, with the generic
        versions in HsUtils, and the specific versions in RdrHsSyn, RnHsSyn
        and TcHsSyn as appropriate.
      - Remove the RdrBinding data type, which was really just a nested list
        with O(1) append, and use OrdList instead.  This makes it much clearer
        that there's nothing strange going on.
      - Various other minor cleanups.
    • simonmar's avatar
      [project @ 2003-12-10 14:21:36 by simonmar] · 76465093
      simonmar authored
      New file of miscellaneous utility functions over HsSyn.