TcInteract.lhs 83.4 KB
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\begin{code}
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{-# OPTIONS -fno-warn-tabs #-}
-- The above warning supression flag is a temporary kludge.
-- While working on this module you are encouraged to remove it and
-- detab the module (please do the detabbing in a separate patch). See
--     http://hackage.haskell.org/trac/ghc/wiki/Commentary/CodingStyle#TabsvsSpaces
-- for details

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module TcInteract ( 
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     solveInteractGiven,  -- Solves [EvVar],GivenLoc
     solveInteractCts,    -- Solves [Cts]
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  ) where  

#include "HsVersions.h"

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import BasicTypes ()
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import TcCanonical
import VarSet
import Type
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import Unify
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import FamInstEnv
import Coercion( mkAxInstRHS )
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import Id 
import Var

import TcType
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import PrelNames (typeNatClassName, typeStringClassName)
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import Class
import TyCon
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import Name
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import IParam
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import TysWiredIn ( eqTyCon )
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import FunDeps

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import TcEvidence
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import Outputable

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import TcMType ( zonkTcPredType )

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import TcRnTypes
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import TcErrors
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import TcSMonad
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import Maybes( orElse )
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import Bag
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import Control.Monad ( foldM )
import TrieMap

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import VarEnv
import qualified Data.Traversable as Traversable
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import Data.Maybe ( isJust )
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import Control.Monad( when, unless )
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import Pair ( pSnd )
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import UniqFM
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import FastString ( sLit ) 
import DynFlags
\end{code}
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**********************************************************************
*                                                                    * 
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*                      Main Interaction Solver                       *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************

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Note [Basic Simplifier Plan] 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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1. Pick an element from the WorkList if there exists one with depth 
   less thanour context-stack depth. 
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2. Run it down the 'stage' pipeline. Stages are: 
      - canonicalization
      - inert reactions
      - spontaneous reactions
      - top-level intreactions
   Each stage returns a StopOrContinue and may have sideffected 
   the inerts or worklist.
  
   The threading of the stages is as follows: 
      - If (Stop) is returned by a stage then we start again from Step 1. 
      - If (ContinueWith ct) is returned by a stage, we feed 'ct' on to 
        the next stage in the pipeline. 
4. If the element has survived (i.e. ContinueWith x) the last stage 
   then we add him in the inerts and jump back to Step 1.

If in Step 1 no such element exists, we have exceeded our context-stack 
depth and will simply fail.
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\begin{code}

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solveInteractCts :: [Ct] -> TcS ()
solveInteractCts cts 
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  = do { traceTcS "solveInteractCtS" (vcat [ text "cts =" <+> ppr cts ]) 
       ; updWorkListTcS (appendWorkListCt cts) >> solveInteract }

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solveInteractGiven :: GivenLoc -> [EvVar] -> TcS () 
solveInteractGiven gloc evs
  = solveInteractCts (map mk_noncan evs)
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  where mk_noncan ev = CNonCanonical { cc_flavor = Given gloc ev
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                                     , cc_depth = 0 }

-- The main solver loop implements Note [Basic Simplifier Plan]
---------------------------------------------------------------
solveInteract :: TcS ()
-- Returns the final InertSet in TcS, WorkList will be eventually empty.
solveInteract
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  = {-# SCC "solveInteract" #-}
    do { dyn_flags <- getDynFlags
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       ; let max_depth = ctxtStkDepth dyn_flags
             solve_loop
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              = {-# SCC "solve_loop" #-}
                do { sel <- selectNextWorkItem max_depth
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                   ; case sel of 
                      NoWorkRemaining     -- Done, successfuly (modulo frozen)
                        -> return ()
                      MaxDepthExceeded ct -- Failure, depth exceeded
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                        -> wrapErrTcS $ solverDepthErrorTcS (cc_depth ct) [ct]
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                      NextWorkItem ct     -- More work, loop around!
                        -> runSolverPipeline thePipeline ct >> solve_loop }
       ; solve_loop }

type WorkItem = Ct
type SimplifierStage = WorkItem -> TcS StopOrContinue

continueWith :: WorkItem -> TcS StopOrContinue
continueWith work_item = return (ContinueWith work_item) 

data SelectWorkItem 
       = NoWorkRemaining      -- No more work left (effectively we're done!)
       | MaxDepthExceeded Ct  -- More work left to do but this constraint has exceeded
                              -- the max subgoal depth and we must stop 
       | NextWorkItem Ct      -- More work left, here's the next item to look at 

selectNextWorkItem :: SubGoalDepth -- Max depth allowed
                   -> TcS SelectWorkItem
selectNextWorkItem max_depth
  = updWorkListTcS_return pick_next
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  where 
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    pick_next :: WorkList -> (SelectWorkItem, WorkList)
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    pick_next wl = case selectWorkItem wl of
                     (Nothing,_) 
                         -> (NoWorkRemaining,wl)           -- No more work
                     (Just ct, new_wl) 
                         | cc_depth ct > max_depth         -- Depth exceeded
                         -> (MaxDepthExceeded ct,new_wl)
                     (Just ct, new_wl) 
                         -> (NextWorkItem ct, new_wl)      -- New workitem and worklist
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runSolverPipeline :: [(String,SimplifierStage)] -- The pipeline 
                  -> WorkItem                   -- The work item 
                  -> TcS () 
-- Run this item down the pipeline, leaving behind new work and inerts
runSolverPipeline pipeline workItem 
  = do { initial_is <- getTcSInerts 
       ; traceTcS "Start solver pipeline {" $ 
                  vcat [ ptext (sLit "work item = ") <+> ppr workItem 
                       , ptext (sLit "inerts    = ") <+> ppr initial_is]

       ; final_res  <- run_pipeline pipeline (ContinueWith workItem)

       ; final_is <- getTcSInerts
       ; case final_res of 
           Stop            -> do { traceTcS "End solver pipeline (discharged) }" 
                                       (ptext (sLit "inerts    = ") <+> ppr final_is)
                                 ; return () }
           ContinueWith ct -> do { traceTcS "End solver pipeline (not discharged) }" $
                                       vcat [ ptext (sLit "final_item = ") <+> ppr ct
                                            , ptext (sLit "inerts     = ") <+> ppr final_is]
                                 ; updInertSetTcS ct }
       }
  where run_pipeline :: [(String,SimplifierStage)] -> StopOrContinue -> TcS StopOrContinue
        run_pipeline [] res = return res 
        run_pipeline _ Stop = return Stop 
        run_pipeline ((stg_name,stg):stgs) (ContinueWith ct)
          = do { traceTcS ("runStage " ++ stg_name ++ " {")
                          (text "workitem   = " <+> ppr ct) 
               ; res <- stg ct 
               ; traceTcS ("end stage " ++ stg_name ++ " }") empty
               ; run_pipeline stgs res 
               }
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\end{code}

Example 1:
  Inert:   {c ~ d, F a ~ t, b ~ Int, a ~ ty} (all given)
  Reagent: a ~ [b] (given)

React with (c~d)     ==> IR (ContinueWith (a~[b]))  True    []
React with (F a ~ t) ==> IR (ContinueWith (a~[b]))  False   [F [b] ~ t]
React with (b ~ Int) ==> IR (ContinueWith (a~[Int]) True    []

Example 2:
  Inert:  {c ~w d, F a ~g t, b ~w Int, a ~w ty}
  Reagent: a ~w [b]

React with (c ~w d)   ==> IR (ContinueWith (a~[b]))  True    []
React with (F a ~g t) ==> IR (ContinueWith (a~[b]))  True    []    (can't rewrite given with wanted!)
etc.

Example 3:
  Inert:  {a ~ Int, F Int ~ b} (given)
  Reagent: F a ~ b (wanted)

React with (a ~ Int)   ==> IR (ContinueWith (F Int ~ b)) True []
React with (F Int ~ b) ==> IR Stop True []    -- after substituting we re-canonicalize and get nothing

\begin{code}
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thePipeline :: [(String,SimplifierStage)]
thePipeline = [ ("canonicalization",        canonicalizationStage)
              , ("spontaneous solve",       spontaneousSolveStage)
              , ("interact with inerts",    interactWithInertsStage)
              , ("top-level reactions",     topReactionsStage) ]
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\end{code}


\begin{code}
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-- The canonicalization stage, see TcCanonical for details
----------------------------------------------------------
canonicalizationStage :: SimplifierStage
canonicalizationStage = TcCanonical.canonicalize 
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\end{code}

*********************************************************************************
*                                                                               * 
                       The spontaneous-solve Stage
*                                                                               *
*********************************************************************************

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Note [Efficient Orientation] 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

There are two cases where we have to be careful about 
orienting equalities to get better efficiency. 

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Case 1: In Rewriting Equalities (function rewriteEqLHS) 
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    When rewriting two equalities with the same LHS:
          (a)  (tv ~ xi1) 
          (b)  (tv ~ xi2) 
    We have a choice of producing work (xi1 ~ xi2) (up-to the
    canonicalization invariants) However, to prevent the inert items
    from getting kicked out of the inerts first, we prefer to
    canonicalize (xi1 ~ xi2) if (b) comes from the inert set, or (xi2
    ~ xi1) if (a) comes from the inert set.
    
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Case 2: Functional Dependencies 
    Again, we should prefer, if possible, the inert variables on the RHS

Case 3: IP improvement work
    We must always rewrite so that the inert type is on the right. 
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\begin{code}
spontaneousSolveStage :: SimplifierStage 
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spontaneousSolveStage workItem
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  = do { mSolve <- trySpontaneousSolve workItem
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       ; spont_solve mSolve } 
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  where spont_solve SPCantSolve 
          | isCTyEqCan workItem                    -- Unsolved equality
          = do { kickOutRewritableInerts workItem  -- NB: will add workItem in inerts
               ; return Stop }
          | otherwise
          = continueWith workItem
        spont_solve (SPSolved workItem')           -- Post: workItem' must be equality
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          = do { bumpStepCountTcS
               ; traceFireTcS (cc_depth workItem) $
                 ptext (sLit "Spontaneous") 
                           <+> parens (ppr (cc_flavor workItem)) <+> ppr workItem
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                 -- NB: will add the item in the inerts
               ; kickOutRewritableInerts workItem'
               -- .. and Stop
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               ; return Stop }

kickOutRewritableInerts :: Ct -> TcS () 
-- Pre:  ct is a CTyEqCan 
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-- Post: The TcS monad is left with the thinner non-rewritable inerts; but which
--       contains the new constraint.
--       The rewritable end up in the worklist
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kickOutRewritableInerts ct
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  = {-# SCC "kickOutRewritableInerts" #-}
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    do { traceTcS "kickOutRewritableInerts" $ text "workitem = " <+> ppr ct
       ; (wl,ieqs) <- {-# SCC "kick_out_rewritable" #-}
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                      modifyInertTcS (kick_out_rewritable ct)
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       ; traceTcS "Kicked out the following constraints" $ ppr wl
       ; is <- getTcSInerts 
       ; traceTcS "Remaining inerts are" $ ppr is
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       -- Step 1: Rewrite as many of the inert_eqs on the spot!
       -- NB: if it is a given constraint just use the cached evidence
       -- to optimize e.g. mkRefl coercions from spontaneously solved cts.
       ; bnds <- getTcEvBindsMap
       ; let ct_coercion = getCtCoercion bnds ct 
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       ; new_ieqs <- {-# SCC "rewriteInertEqsFromInertEq" #-}
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                     rewriteInertEqsFromInertEq (cc_tyvar ct,
                                                 ct_coercion,cc_flavor ct) ieqs
       ; let upd_eqs is = is { inert_cans = new_ics }
                        where ics     = inert_cans is
                              new_ics = ics { inert_eqs = new_ieqs }
       ; modifyInertTcS (\is -> ((), upd_eqs is)) 
         
       ; is <- getTcSInerts 
       ; traceTcS "Final inerts are" $ ppr is
       
         -- Step 2: Add the new guy in
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       ; updInertSetTcS ct
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       ; traceTcS "Kick out" (ppr ct $$ ppr wl)
       ; updWorkListTcS (unionWorkList wl) }
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rewriteInertEqsFromInertEq :: (TcTyVar, TcCoercion, CtFlavor) -- A new substitution
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                           -> TyVarEnv Ct                     -- All the inert equalities
                           -> TcS (TyVarEnv Ct)               -- The new inert equalities
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rewriteInertEqsFromInertEq (subst_tv, subst_co, subst_fl) ieqs
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-- The goal: traverse the inert equalities and rewrite some of them, dropping some others
-- back to the worklist. This is delicate, see Note [Delicate equality kick-out]
 = do { mieqs <- Traversable.mapM do_one ieqs 
      ; traceTcS "Original inert equalities:" (ppr ieqs)
      ; let flatten_justs elem venv
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              | Just act <- elem = extendVarEnv venv (cc_tyvar act) act
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              | otherwise = venv                                     
            final_ieqs = foldVarEnv flatten_justs emptyVarEnv mieqs
      ; traceTcS "Remaining inert equalities:" (ppr final_ieqs)
      ; return final_ieqs }
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 where do_one ct
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         | subst_fl `canRewrite` fl && (subst_tv `elemVarSet` tyVarsOfCt ct) 
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           -- Annoyingly inefficient, but we can't simply check 
           -- that isReflCo co because of cached solved ReflCo evidence.
         = if fl `canRewrite` subst_fl then
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               -- If also the inert can rewrite the subst it's totally safe 
               -- to rewrite on the spot
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               do { 

{- DV: I thought this might work but not because you don't have the full knowledge of the 
   implications (just the worklist). And it's a bit tedious. SPJ and I discussed about breaking
   the 'idempotent substitution' invariant to be a little more lazy. -} 

                    -- DV: Very experimental! 
                    -- If it's a given equality and its LHS does not appear in the worklist
                    -- there is no point in rewriting him. In fact there is not point in keeping him, 
                    -- at all, is there? 
                    worklist_tvs <- getTcSWorkListTvs 
                  ; if isGiven (cc_flavor ct) && not (tyVarsOfCt ct `elemVarSet` worklist_tvs) then
                        return Nothing
                    else do { 
                     ct' <- rewrite_on_the_spot ct
                    ; return $ Just ct' } 
                 }
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           else -- We have to throw inert back to worklist for occurs checks 
              do { updWorkListTcS (extendWorkListEq ct)
                 ; return Nothing }
         | otherwise -- Just keep it there
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         = return $ Just ct
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         where 
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           -- We have that:    subst_co :: subst_tv ~ tau
           -- An an old inert: tv ~ rhs
           -- That we want to rewrite on-the-spot to tv ~ rhs[tau/subst_tv]
           fl  = cc_flavor ct
           tv  = cc_tyvar ct
           rhs = cc_rhs ct
           
           rewrite_on_the_spot ct
             = do { let rhs_co = liftTcCoSubstWith [subst_tv] [subst_co] rhs
                        eq_co  = mkTcTyConAppCo eqTyCon $ 
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                                   [ mkTcReflCo (defaultKind $ typeKind rhs)
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                                   , mkTcReflCo (mkTyVarTy tv)
                                   , mkTcSymCo rhs_co ]
                        new_rhs = pSnd (tcCoercionKind rhs_co)
                        new_eq_pred = mkTcEqPred (mkTyVarTy tv) new_rhs
                        -- eq_co ::  (tv ~ rhs[s/x]) ~ (tv ~ rhs[x])
                        
                  ; mb_fl <- rewriteCtFlavor fl new_eq_pred eq_co
                  ; case mb_fl of
                       Just new_fl -> return $
                                      ct {cc_flavor=new_fl,cc_rhs=new_rhs}
                       Nothing -> -- Weird, rewritten constraint was solved
                                  -- before -- I am uncertain about what to do
                         pprPanic "Interesting: \
                                   rewrote inert equality to existing!" $ 
                                   vcat [ text "original   ="<+>ppr ct
                                        , text "new eqpred ="<+>ppr new_eq_pred ]
                  }
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kick_out_rewritable :: Ct 
                    -> InertSet 
                    -> ((WorkList, TyVarEnv Ct),InertSet)
-- Post: returns ALL inert equalities, to be dealt with later
-- 
kick_out_rewritable ct is@(IS { inert_cans = 
                                   IC { inert_eqs    = eqmap
                                      , inert_eq_tvs = inscope
                                      , inert_dicts  = dictmap
                                      , inert_ips    = ipmap
                                      , inert_funeqs = funeqmap
                                      , inert_irreds = irreds }
                              , inert_frozen = frozen })
  = ((kicked_out,eqmap), remaining)
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  where
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    rest_out = fro_out `andCts` dicts_out 
                   `andCts` ips_out `andCts` irs_out
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    kicked_out = WorkList { wl_eqs    = []
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                          , wl_funeqs = bagToList feqs_out
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                          , wl_rest   = bagToList rest_out }
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    remaining = is { inert_cans = IC { inert_eqs = emptyVarEnv
                                     , inert_eq_tvs = inscope 
                                       -- keep the same, safe and cheap
                                     , inert_dicts = dicts_in
                                     , inert_ips = ips_in
                                     , inert_funeqs = feqs_in
                                     , inert_irreds = irs_in }
                   , inert_frozen = fro_in } 
                -- NB: Notice that don't rewrite 
                -- inert_solved, inert_flat_cache and inert_solved_funeqs
                -- optimistically. But when we lookup we have to take the 
                -- subsitution into account
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    fl = cc_flavor ct
    tv = cc_tyvar ct
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    (ips_out,   ips_in)     = partitionCCanMap rewritable ipmap
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    (feqs_out,  feqs_in)    = partCtFamHeadMap rewritable funeqmap
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    (dicts_out, dicts_in)   = partitionCCanMap rewritable dictmap
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    (irs_out,   irs_in)   = partitionBag rewritable irreds
    (fro_out,   fro_in)   = partitionBag rewritable frozen
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    rewritable ct = (fl `canRewrite` cc_flavor ct)  &&
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                    (tv `elemVarSet` tyVarsOfCt ct) 
                    -- NB: tyVarsOfCt will return the type 
                    --     variables /and the kind variables/ that are 
                    --     directly visible in the type. Hence we will
                    --     have exposed all the rewriting we care about
                    --     to make the most precise kinds visible for 
                    --     matching classes etc. No need to kick out 
                    --     constraints that mention type variables whose
                    --     kinds could contain this variable!

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\end{code}
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Note [Delicate equality kick-out]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 
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Delicate:
When kicking out rewritable constraints, it would be safe to simply
kick out all rewritable equalities, but instead we only kick out those
that, when rewritten, may result in occur-check errors. We rewrite the
rest on the spot. Example:
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          WorkItem =   [S] a ~ b
          Inerts   = { [W] b ~ [a] }
Now at this point the work item cannot be further rewritten by the
inert (due to the weaker inert flavor), so we are examining if we can
instead rewrite the inert from the workitem. But if we rewrite it on
the spot we have to recanonicalize because of the danger of occurs
errors.  On the other hand if the inert flavor was just as powerful or
more powerful than the workitem flavor, the work-item could not have
reached this stage (because it would have already been rewritten by
the inert).

The coclusion is: we kick out the 'dangerous' equalities that may
require recanonicalization (occurs checks) and the rest we rewrite
unconditionally without further checks, on-the-spot with function
rewriteInertEqsFromInertEq.


\begin{code}
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data SPSolveResult = SPCantSolve
                   | SPSolved WorkItem 
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-- SPCantSolve means that we can't do the unification because e.g. the variable is untouchable
-- SPSolved workItem' gives us a new *given* to go on 

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-- @trySpontaneousSolve wi@ solves equalities where one side is a
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-- touchable unification variable.
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--     	    See Note [Touchables and givens] 
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trySpontaneousSolve :: WorkItem -> TcS SPSolveResult
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trySpontaneousSolve workItem@(CTyEqCan { cc_flavor = gw
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                                       , cc_tyvar = tv1, cc_rhs = xi, cc_depth = d })
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  | isGivenOrSolved gw
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  = return SPCantSolve
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  | Just tv2 <- tcGetTyVar_maybe xi
  = do { tch1 <- isTouchableMetaTyVar tv1
       ; tch2 <- isTouchableMetaTyVar tv2
       ; case (tch1, tch2) of
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           (True,  True)  -> trySpontaneousEqTwoWay d gw tv1 tv2
           (True,  False) -> trySpontaneousEqOneWay d gw tv1 xi
           (False, True)  -> trySpontaneousEqOneWay d gw tv2 (mkTyVarTy tv1)
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	   _ -> return SPCantSolve }
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  | otherwise
  = do { tch1 <- isTouchableMetaTyVar tv1
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       ; if tch1 then trySpontaneousEqOneWay d gw tv1 xi
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                 else do { traceTcS "Untouchable LHS, can't spontaneously solve workitem:" $
                           ppr workItem 
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                         ; return SPCantSolve }
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       }
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  -- No need for 
  --      trySpontaneousSolve (CFunEqCan ...) = ...
  -- See Note [No touchables as FunEq RHS] in TcSMonad
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trySpontaneousSolve _ = return SPCantSolve
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----------------
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trySpontaneousEqOneWay :: SubGoalDepth 
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                       -> CtFlavor -> TcTyVar -> Xi -> TcS SPSolveResult
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-- tv is a MetaTyVar, not untouchable
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trySpontaneousEqOneWay d gw tv xi
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  | not (isSigTyVar tv) || isTyVarTy xi
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  = solveWithIdentity d gw tv xi
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  | otherwise -- Still can't solve, sig tyvar and non-variable rhs
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  = return SPCantSolve
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----------------
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trySpontaneousEqTwoWay :: SubGoalDepth 
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                       -> CtFlavor -> TcTyVar -> TcTyVar -> TcS SPSolveResult
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-- Both tyvars are *touchable* MetaTyvars so there is only a chance for kind error here
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trySpontaneousEqTwoWay d gw tv1 tv2
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  = do { let k1_sub_k2 = k1 `tcIsSubKind` k2
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       ; if k1_sub_k2 && nicer_to_update_tv2
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         then solveWithIdentity d gw tv2 (mkTyVarTy tv1)
         else solveWithIdentity d gw tv1 (mkTyVarTy tv2) }
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  where
    k1 = tyVarKind tv1
    k2 = tyVarKind tv2
    nicer_to_update_tv2 = isSigTyVar tv1 || isSystemName (Var.varName tv2)
\end{code}

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Note [Kind errors] 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider the wanted problem: 
      alpha ~ (# Int, Int #) 
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where alpha :: ArgKind and (# Int, Int #) :: (#). We can't spontaneously solve this constraint, 
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but we should rather reject the program that give rise to it. If 'trySpontaneousEqTwoWay' 
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simply returns @CantSolve@ then that wanted constraint is going to propagate all the way and 
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get quantified over in inference mode. That's bad because we do know at this point that the 
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constraint is insoluble. Instead, we call 'recKindErrorTcS' here, which will fail later on.
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The same applies in canonicalization code in case of kind errors in the givens. 
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However, when we canonicalize givens we only check for compatibility (@compatKind@). 
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If there were a kind error in the givens, this means some form of inconsistency or dead code.
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You may think that when we spontaneously solve wanteds we may have to look through the 
bindings to determine the right kind of the RHS type. E.g one may be worried that xi is 
@alpha@ where alpha :: ? and a previous spontaneous solving has set (alpha := f) with (f :: *).
But we orient our constraints so that spontaneously solved ones can rewrite all other constraint
so this situation can't happen. 
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Note [Spontaneous solving and kind compatibility] 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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Note that our canonical constraints insist that *all* equalities (tv ~
xi) or (F xis ~ rhs) require the LHS and the RHS to have *compatible*
the same kinds.  ("compatible" means one is a subKind of the other.)
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  - It can't be *equal* kinds, because
     b) wanted constraints don't necessarily have identical kinds
               eg   alpha::? ~ Int
     b) a solved wanted constraint becomes a given

  - SPJ thinks that *given* constraints (tv ~ tau) always have that
    tau has a sub-kind of tv; and when solving wanted constraints
    in trySpontaneousEqTwoWay we re-orient to achieve this.

  - Note that the kind invariant is maintained by rewriting.
    Eg wanted1 rewrites wanted2; if both were compatible kinds before,
       wanted2 will be afterwards.  Similarly givens.

Caveat:
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  - Givens from higher-rank, such as: 
          type family T b :: * -> * -> * 
          type instance T Bool = (->) 

          f :: forall a. ((T a ~ (->)) => ...) -> a -> ... 
          flop = f (...) True 
     Whereas we would be able to apply the type instance, we would not be able to 
     use the given (T Bool ~ (->)) in the body of 'flop' 

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Note [Avoid double unifications] 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The spontaneous solver has to return a given which mentions the unified unification
variable *on the left* of the equality. Here is what happens if not: 
  Original wanted:  (a ~ alpha),  (alpha ~ Int) 
We spontaneously solve the first wanted, without changing the order! 
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      given : a ~ alpha      [having unified alpha := a] 
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Now the second wanted comes along, but he cannot rewrite the given, so we simply continue.
At the end we spontaneously solve that guy, *reunifying*  [alpha := Int] 

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We avoid this problem by orienting the resulting given so that the unification
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variable is on the left.  [Note that alternatively we could attempt to
enforce this at canonicalization]
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See also Note [No touchables as FunEq RHS] in TcSMonad; avoiding
double unifications is the main reason we disallow touchable
unification variables as RHS of type family equations: F xis ~ alpha.
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\begin{code}
----------------
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solveWithIdentity :: SubGoalDepth 
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                  -> CtFlavor -> TcTyVar -> Xi -> TcS SPSolveResult
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-- Solve with the identity coercion 
-- Precondition: kind(xi) is a sub-kind of kind(tv)
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-- Precondition: CtFlavor is Wanted or Derived
-- See [New Wanted Superclass Work] to see why solveWithIdentity 
--     must work for Derived as well as Wanted
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-- Returns: workItem where 
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--        workItem = the new Given constraint
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solveWithIdentity d wd tv xi 
  = do { let tv_ty = mkTyVarTy tv
       ; traceTcS "Sneaky unification:" $ 
                       vcat [text "Constraint:" <+> ppr wd,
                             text "Coercion:" <+> pprEq tv_ty xi,
                             text "Left Kind is:" <+> ppr (typeKind tv_ty),
                             text "Right Kind is:" <+> ppr (typeKind xi) ]
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       ; let xi' = defaultKind xi      
               -- We only instantiate kind unification variables
               -- with simple kinds like *, not OpenKind or ArgKind
               -- cf TcUnify.uUnboundKVar

       ; setWantedTyBind tv xi'
       ; let refl_xi = mkTcReflCo xi'
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       ; when (isWanted wd) $ 
              setEvBind (flav_evar wd) (EvCoercion refl_xi)
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       ; ev_given <- newGivenEvVar (mkTcEqPred tv_ty xi') 
                                   (EvCoercion refl_xi) >>= (return . mn_thing)
       ; let given_fl = Given (mkGivenLoc (flav_wloc wd) UnkSkol) ev_given
             
       ; return $ 
         SPSolved (CTyEqCan { cc_flavor = given_fl
                            , cc_tyvar  = tv, cc_rhs = xi', cc_depth = d }) }
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\end{code}

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*********************************************************************************
*                                                                               * 
                       The interact-with-inert Stage
*                                                                               *
*********************************************************************************

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Note [The Solver Invariant]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We always add Givens first.  So you might think that the solver has
the invariant

   If the work-item is Given, 
   then the inert item must Given

But this isn't quite true.  Suppose we have, 
    c1: [W] beta ~ [alpha], c2 : [W] blah, c3 :[W] alpha ~ Int
After processing the first two, we get
     c1: [G] beta ~ [alpha], c2 : [W] blah
Now, c3 does not interact with the the given c1, so when we spontaneously
solve c3, we must re-react it with the inert set.  So we can attempt a 
reaction between inert c2 [W] and work-item c3 [G].

It *is* true that [Solver Invariant]
   If the work-item is Given, 
   AND there is a reaction
   then the inert item must Given
or, equivalently,
   If the work-item is Given, 
   and the inert item is Wanted/Derived
   then there is no reaction

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\begin{code}
-- Interaction result of  WorkItem <~> AtomicInert

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data InteractResult 
    = IRWorkItemConsumed { ir_fire :: String } 
    | IRInertConsumed    { ir_fire :: String } 
    | IRKeepGoing        { ir_fire :: String }
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irWorkItemConsumed :: String -> TcS InteractResult
irWorkItemConsumed str = return (IRWorkItemConsumed str) 
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irInertConsumed :: String -> TcS InteractResult
irInertConsumed str = return (IRInertConsumed str) 
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irKeepGoing :: String -> TcS InteractResult 
irKeepGoing str = return (IRKeepGoing str) 
-- You can't discard neither workitem or inert, but you must keep 
-- going. It's possible that new work is waiting in the TcS worklist. 
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interactWithInertsStage :: WorkItem -> TcS StopOrContinue 
-- Precondition: if the workitem is a CTyEqCan then it will not be able to 
-- react with anything at this stage. 
interactWithInertsStage wi 
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  = do { ctxt <- getTcSContext
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       ; if simplEqsOnly ctxt && not (isCFunEqCan wi) then 
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                    -- Why not just "simplEqsOnly"? See Note [SimplEqsOnly and InteractWithInerts]
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             return (ContinueWith wi)
         else 
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           do { traceTcS "interactWithInerts" $ text "workitem = " <+> ppr wi
              ; rels <- extractRelevantInerts wi 
              ; traceTcS "relevant inerts are:" $ ppr rels
              ; foldlBagM interact_next (ContinueWith wi) rels } }
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  where interact_next Stop atomic_inert 
          = updInertSetTcS atomic_inert >> return Stop
        interact_next (ContinueWith wi) atomic_inert 
          = do { ir <- doInteractWithInert atomic_inert wi
               ; let mk_msg rule keep_doc 
                       = text rule <+> keep_doc
      	                 <+> vcat [ ptext (sLit "Inert =") <+> ppr atomic_inert
      	                          , ptext (sLit "Work =")  <+> ppr wi ]
               ; case ir of 
                   IRWorkItemConsumed { ir_fire = rule } 
                       -> do { bumpStepCountTcS
                             ; traceFireTcS (cc_depth wi) 
                                            (mk_msg rule (text "WorkItemConsumed"))
                             ; updInertSetTcS atomic_inert
                             ; return Stop } 
                   IRInertConsumed { ir_fire = rule }
                       -> do { bumpStepCountTcS
                             ; traceFireTcS (cc_depth atomic_inert) 
                                            (mk_msg rule (text "InertItemConsumed"))
                             ; return (ContinueWith wi) }
                   IRKeepGoing {} -- Should we do a bumpStepCountTcS? No for now.
                       -> do { updInertSetTcS atomic_inert
                             ; return (ContinueWith wi) }
               }
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\end{code}

Note [SimplEqsOnly and InteractWithInerts]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

It may be possible when we are simplifying a RULE that we have two wanted constraints
of the form: 
  [W] c1 : F Int ~ Bool
  [W] c2 : F Int ~ alpha

When we simplify RULES we only do equality reactions (simplEqsOnly). So the question is:
are we allowed to do type family interactions? We definitely do not want to apply top-level
family and dictionary instances but what should we do with the constraint set above? 

Suppose that c1 gets processed first and enters the inert. Remember that he will enter a 
CtFamHead map with (F Int) as the index. Now c2 comes along, we can't add him to the inert
set since it has exactly the same key, so we'd better react him with the inert c1. In fact 
one might think that we should react him anyway to learn that (alpha ~ Bool). This is why
we allow CFunEqCan's to perform reactions with the inerts. 

If we don't allow this, we will try to add both elements to the inert set and will panic! 
The relevant example that fails when we don't allow such family reactions is:

        indexed_types/should_compile/T2291.hs

NB: In previous versions of TcInteract the extra guard (not (isCFunEqCan wi)) was not there 
but family reactions were actually happening earlier, during canonicalization. So the behaviour 
has not changed -- previously this tricky point was completely lost and worked by accident.

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\begin{code}
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--------------------------------------------

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doInteractWithInert :: Ct -> Ct -> TcS InteractResult
-- Identical class constraints.
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doInteractWithInert
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  inertItem@(CDictCan { cc_flavor = fl1, cc_class = cls1, cc_tyargs = tys1 }) 
   workItem@(CDictCan { cc_flavor = fl2, cc_class = cls2, cc_tyargs = tys2 })
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  | cls1 == cls2  
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  = do { let pty1 = mkClassPred cls1 tys1
             pty2 = mkClassPred cls2 tys2
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             inert_pred_loc     = (pty1, pprFlavorArising fl1)
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             work_item_pred_loc = (pty2, pprFlavorArising fl2)
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       ; traceTcS "doInteractWithInert" (vcat [ text "inertItem = " <+> ppr inertItem
                                              , text "workItem  = " <+> ppr workItem ])

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       ; any_fundeps 
           <- if isGivenOrSolved fl1 && isGivenOrSolved fl2 then return Nothing
              -- NB: We don't create fds for given (and even solved), have not seen a useful
              -- situation for these and even if we did we'd have to be very careful to only
              -- create Derived's and not Wanteds. 

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              else do { let fd_eqns = improveFromAnother inert_pred_loc work_item_pred_loc
                      ; wloc  <- get_workitem_wloc fl2 
                      ; rewriteWithFunDeps fd_eqns tys2 wloc }
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                      -- See Note [Efficient Orientation], [When improvement happens]

       ; case any_fundeps of
           -- No Functional Dependencies 
           Nothing             
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               | eqTypes tys1 tys2 -> solveOneFromTheOther "Cls/Cls" fl1 workItem
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               | otherwise         -> irKeepGoing "NOP"
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           -- Actual Functional Dependencies
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           Just (_rewritten_tys2,_cos2,fd_work)
              -- Standard thing: create derived fds and keep on going. Importantly we don't
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               -- throw workitem back in the worklist because this can cause loops. See #5236.
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               -> do { emitFDWorkAsDerived fd_work (cc_depth workItem)
                     ; irKeepGoing "Cls/Cls (new fundeps)" } -- Just keep going without droping the inert 
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       }
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  where get_workitem_wloc (Wanted wl _)  = return wl 
        get_workitem_wloc (Derived wl _) = return wl
        get_workitem_wloc _ = pprPanic "Unexpected given workitem!" $
                              vcat [ text "Work item =" <+> ppr workItem
                                   , text "Inert item=" <+> ppr inertItem]

-- Two pieces of irreducible evidence: if their types are *exactly identical* 
-- we can rewrite them. We can never improve using this: 
-- if we want ty1 :: Constraint and have ty2 :: Constraint it clearly does not 
-- mean that (ty1 ~ ty2)
doInteractWithInert (CIrredEvCan { cc_flavor = ifl, cc_ty = ty1 })
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           workItem@(CIrredEvCan { cc_ty = ty2 })
  | ty1 `eqType` ty2
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  = solveOneFromTheOther "Irred/Irred" ifl workItem
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-- Two implicit parameter constraints.  If the names are the same,
-- but their types are not, we generate a wanted type equality 
-- that equates the type (this is "improvement").  
-- However, we don't actually need the coercion evidence,
-- so we just generate a fresh coercion variable that isn't used anywhere.
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doInteractWithInert (CIPCan { cc_flavor = ifl, cc_ip_nm = nm1, cc_ip_ty = ty1 }) 
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           workItem@(CIPCan { cc_flavor = wfl, cc_ip_nm = nm2, cc_ip_ty = ty2 })
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  | nm1 == nm2 && isGivenOrSolved wfl && isGivenOrSolved ifl
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  = 	-- See Note [Overriding implicit parameters]
        -- Dump the inert item, override totally with the new one
	-- Do not require type equality
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	-- For example, given let ?x::Int = 3 in let ?x::Bool = True in ...
	--              we must *override* the outer one with the inner one
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    irInertConsumed "IP/IP (override inert)"
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  | nm1 == nm2 && ty1 `eqType` ty2 
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  = solveOneFromTheOther "IP/IP" ifl workItem 
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  | nm1 == nm2
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  =  	-- See Note [When improvement happens]
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    do { mb_eqv <- newWantedEvVar (mkEqPred ty2 ty1)
         -- co :: ty2 ~ ty1, see Note [Efficient orientation]
       ; cv <- case mb_eqv of
                 Fresh eqv  -> 
                   do { updWorkListTcS $ extendWorkListEq $ 
                        CNonCanonical { cc_flavor = Wanted new_wloc eqv
                                      , cc_depth = cc_depth workItem }
                      ; return eqv }
                 Cached eqv -> return eqv
       ; case wfl of
            Wanted  {} ->
              let ip_co = mkTcTyConAppCo (ipTyCon nm1) [mkTcCoVarCo cv]
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              in do { setEvBind (ctId workItem) $
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                      mkEvCast (flav_evar ifl) (mkTcSymCo ip_co)
                    ; irWorkItemConsumed "IP/IP (solved by rewriting)" }
            _ -> pprPanic "Unexpected IP constraint" (ppr workItem) }
  where new_wloc
          | Wanted wl _  <- wfl = wl
          | Derived wl _ <- wfl = wl
          | Wanted wl _  <- ifl = wl
          | Derived wl _ <- ifl = wl
          | otherwise = panic "Solve IP: no WantedLoc!"
    
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doInteractWithInert ii@(CFunEqCan { cc_flavor = fl1, cc_fun = tc1
                                  , cc_tyargs = args1, cc_rhs = xi1, cc_depth = d1 }) 
                    wi@(CFunEqCan { cc_flavor = fl2, cc_fun = tc2
                                  , cc_tyargs = args2, cc_rhs = xi2, cc_depth = d2 })
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  | lhss_match  
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  , isSolved fl1 -- Inert is solved and we can simply ignore it
                 -- when workitem is given/solved
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  , isGivenOrSolved fl2
  = irInertConsumed "FunEq/FunEq"
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  | lhss_match
  , isSolved fl2 -- Workitem is solved and we can ignore it when
                 -- the inert is given/solved
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  , isGivenOrSolved fl1                 
  = irWorkItemConsumed "FunEq/FunEq" 
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  | fl1 `canSolve` fl2 && lhss_match
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  = do { traceTcS "interact with inerts: FunEq/FunEq" $ 
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         vcat [ text "workItem =" <+> ppr wi
              , text "inertItem=" <+> ppr ii ]

       ; let xev = XEvTerm xcomp xdecomp
             -- xcomp : [(xi2 ~ xi1)] -> (F args ~ xi2) 
             xcomp [x] = EvCoercion (co1 `mkTcTransCo` mk_sym_co x)
             xcomp _   = panic "No more goals!"
             -- xdecomp : (F args ~ xi2) -> [(xi2 ~ xi1)]                 
             xdecomp x = [EvCoercion (mk_sym_co x `mkTcTransCo` co1)]

       ; xCtFlavor_cache False fl2 [mkTcEqPred xi2 xi1] xev $ what_next d2
                         -- Why not simply xCtFlavor? See Note [Cache-caused loops]
                         -- Why not (mkTcEqPred xi1 xi2)? See Note [Efficient orientation]
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       ; irWorkItemConsumed "FunEq/FunEq" }
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  | fl2 `canSolve` fl1 && lhss_match
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  = do { traceTcS "interact with inerts: FunEq/FunEq" $ 
         vcat [ text "workItem =" <+> ppr wi
              , text "inertItem=" <+> ppr ii ]

       ; let xev = XEvTerm xcomp xdecomp
              -- xcomp : [(xi2 ~ xi1)] -> [(F args ~ xi1)]
             xcomp [x] = EvCoercion (co2 `mkTcTransCo` mkTcCoVarCo x)
             xcomp _ = panic "No more goals!"
             -- xdecomp : (F args ~ xi1) -> [(xi2 ~ xi1)]
             xdecomp x = [EvCoercion (mkTcSymCo co2 `mkTcTransCo` mkTcCoVarCo x)]

       ; xCtFlavor_cache False fl1 [mkTcEqPred xi2 xi1] xev $ what_next d1
                          -- Why not simply xCtFlavor? See Note [Cache-caused loops]
                          -- Why not (mkTcEqPred xi1 xi2)? See Note [Efficient orientation]

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       ; irInertConsumed "FunEq/FunEq"}
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  where
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    lhss_match = tc1 == tc2 && eqTypes args1 args2 
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    what_next d [new_fl] 
      = updWorkListTcS $ 
        extendWorkListEq (CNonCanonical {cc_flavor=new_fl,cc_depth = d})
    what_next _ _ = return ()
    co1 = mkTcCoVarCo $ flav_evar fl1
    co2 = mkTcCoVarCo $ flav_evar fl2
    mk_sym_co x = mkTcSymCo (mkTcCoVarCo x)
    
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doInteractWithInert _ _ = irKeepGoing "NOP"

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\end{code}

Note [Cache-caused loops]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
It is very dangerous to cache a rewritten wanted family equation as 'solved' in our 
solved cache (which is the default behaviour or xCtFlavor), because the interaction 
may not be contributing towards a solution. Here is an example:

Initial inert set:
  [W] g1 : F a ~ beta1
Work item:
  [W] g2 : F a ~ beta2
The work item will react with the inert yielding the _same_ inert set plus:
    i)   Will set g2 := g1 `cast` g3   
    ii)  Will add to our solved cache that [S] g2 : F a ~ beta2
    iii) Will emit [W] g3 : beta1 ~ beta2 
Now, the g3 work item will be spontaneously solved to [G] g3 : beta1 ~ beta2
and then it will react the item in the inert ([W] g1 : F a ~ beta1). So it 
will set 
      g1 := g ; sym g3 
and what is g? Well it would ideally be a new goal of type (F a ~ beta2) but
remember that we have this in our solved cache, and it is ... g2! In short we 
created the evidence loop:

        g2 := g1 ; g3 
        g3 := refl
        g1 := g2 ; sym g3 

To avoid this situation we do not cache as solved any workitems (or inert) 
which did not really made a 'step' towards proving some goal. Solved's are 
just an optimization so we don't lose anything in terms of completeness of 
solving.

\begin{code}

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solveOneFromTheOther :: String    -- Info 
                     -> CtFlavor  -- Inert 
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                     -> Ct        -- WorkItem 
                     -> TcS InteractResult
-- Preconditions: 
-- 1) inert and work item represent evidence for the /same/ predicate
-- 2) ip/class/irred evidence (no coercions) only
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solveOneFromTheOther info ifl workItem
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  | isDerived wfl
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  = irWorkItemConsumed ("Solved[DW] " ++ info)
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  | isDerived ifl -- The inert item is Derived, we can just throw it away, 
    	      	  -- The workItem is inert wrt earlier inert-set items, 
		  -- so it's safe to continue on from this point
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  = irInertConsumed ("Solved[DI] " ++ info)
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  | isSolved ifl, isGivenOrSolved wfl
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    -- Same if the inert is a GivenSolved -- just get rid of it
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  = irInertConsumed ("Solved[SI] " ++ info)
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  | otherwise
  = ASSERT( ifl `canSolve` wfl )
      -- Because of Note [The Solver Invariant], plus Derived dealt with
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    do { when (isWanted wfl) $ setEvBind wid (EvId iid)
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           -- Overwrite the binding, if one exists
	   -- If both are Given, we already have evidence; no need to duplicate
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       ; irWorkItemConsumed ("Solved " ++ info) }
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  where 
     wfl = cc_flavor workItem
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     wid = ctId workItem
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     iid = flav_evar ifl
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\end{code}

Note [Superclasses and recursive dictionaries]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    Overlaps with Note [SUPERCLASS-LOOP 1]
                  Note [SUPERCLASS-LOOP 2]
                  Note [Recursive instances and superclases]
    ToDo: check overlap and delete redundant stuff

Right before adding a given into the inert set, we must
produce some more work, that will bring the superclasses 
of the given into scope. The superclass constraints go into 
our worklist. 

When we simplify a wanted constraint, if we first see a matching
instance, we may produce new wanted work. To (1) avoid doing this work 
twice in the future and (2) to handle recursive dictionaries we may ``cache'' 
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this item as given into our inert set WITHOUT adding its superclass constraints, 
otherwise we'd be in danger of creating a loop [In fact this was the exact reason
for doing the isGoodRecEv check in an older version of the type checker]. 
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But now we have added partially solved constraints to the worklist which may 
interact with other wanteds. Consider the example: 

Example 1: 

    class Eq b => Foo a b        --- 0-th selector
    instance Eq a => Foo [a] a   --- fooDFun

and wanted (Foo [t] t). We are first going to see that the instance matches 
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and create an inert set that includes the solved (Foo [t] t) but not its superclasses:
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       d1 :_g Foo [t] t                 d1 := EvDFunApp fooDFun d3 
Our work list is going to contain a new *wanted* goal
       d3 :_w Eq t 

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Ok, so how do we get recursive dictionaries, at all: 
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Example 2:

    data D r = ZeroD | SuccD (r (D r));
    
    instance (Eq (r (D r))) => Eq (D r) where
        ZeroD     == ZeroD     = True
        (SuccD a) == (SuccD b) = a == b
        _         == _         = False;
    
    equalDC :: D [] -> D [] -> Bool;
    equalDC = (==);

We need to prove (Eq (D [])). Here's how we go:

	d1 :_w Eq (D [])

by instance decl, holds if
	d2 :_w Eq [D []]
	where 	d1 = dfEqD d2

*BUT* we have an inert set which gives us (no superclasses): 
        d1 :_g Eq (D []) 
By the instance declaration of Eq we can show the 'd2' goal if 
	d3 :_w Eq (D [])
	where	d2 = dfEqList d3
		d1 = dfEqD d2
Now, however this wanted can interact with our inert d1 to set: 
        d3 := d1 
and solve the goal. Why was this interaction OK? Because, if we chase the 
evidence of d1 ~~> dfEqD d2 ~~-> dfEqList d3, so by setting d3 := d1 we 
are really setting
        d3 := dfEqD2 (dfEqList d3) 
which is FINE because the use of d3 is protected by the instance function 
applications. 

So, our strategy is to try to put solved wanted dictionaries into the
inert set along with their superclasses (when this is meaningful,
i.e. when new wanted goals are generated) but solve a wanted dictionary
from a given only in the case where the evidence variable of the
wanted is mentioned in the evidence of the given (recursively through
the evidence binds) in a protected way: more instance function applications 
than superclass selectors.

Here are some more examples from GHC's previous type checker


Example 3: 
This code arises in the context of "Scrap Your Boilerplate with Class"

    class Sat a
    class Data ctx a
    instance  Sat (ctx Char)             => Data ctx Char       -- dfunData1
    instance (Sat (ctx [a]), Data ctx a) => Data ctx [a]        -- dfunData2

    class Data Maybe a => Foo a    

    instance Foo t => Sat (Maybe t)                             -- dfunSat

    instance Data Maybe a => Foo a                              -- dfunFoo1
    instance Foo a        => Foo [a]                            -- dfunFoo2
    instance                 Foo [Char]                         -- dfunFoo3

Consider generating the superclasses of the instance declaration
	 instance Foo a => Foo [a]

So our problem is this
    d0 :_g Foo t
    d1 :_w Data Maybe [t] 

We may add the given in the inert set, along with its superclasses
[assuming we don't fail because there is a matching instance, see 
 tryTopReact, given case ]
  Inert:
    d0 :_g Foo t 
  WorkList 
    d01 :_g Data Maybe t  -- d2 := EvDictSuperClass d0 0 
    d1 :_w Data Maybe [t] 
Then d2 can readily enter the inert, and we also do solving of the wanted
  Inert: 
    d0 :_g Foo t 
    d1 :_s Data Maybe [t]           d1 := dfunData2 d2 d3 
  WorkList
    d2 :_w Sat (Maybe [t])          
    d3 :_w Data Maybe t
    d01 :_g Data Maybe t 
Now, we may simplify d2 more: 
  Inert:
      d0 :_g Foo t 
      d1 :_s Data Maybe [t]           d1 := dfunData2 d2 d3 
      d1 :_g Data Maybe [t] 
      d2 :_g Sat (Maybe [t])          d2 := dfunSat d4 
  WorkList: 
      d3 :_w Data Maybe t 
      d4 :_w Foo [t] 
      d01 :_g Data Maybe t 

Now, we can just solve d3.
  Inert
      d0 :_g Foo t 
      d1 :_s Data Maybe [t]           d1 := dfunData2 d2 d3 
      d2 :_g Sat (Maybe [t])          d2 := dfunSat d4 
  WorkList
      d4 :_w Foo [t] 
      d01 :_g Data Maybe t 
And now we can simplify d4 again, but since it has superclasses we *add* them to the worklist:
  Inert
      d0 :_g Foo t 
      d1 :_s Data Maybe [t]           d1 := dfunData2 d2 d3 
      d2 :_g Sat (Maybe [t])          d2 := dfunSat d4 
      d4 :_g Foo [t]                  d4 := dfunFoo2 d5 
  WorkList:
      d5 :_w Foo t 
      d6 :_g Data Maybe [t]           d6 := EvDictSuperClass d4 0
      d01 :_g Data Maybe t 
Now, d5 can be solved! (and its superclass enter scope) 
  Inert
      d0 :_g Foo t 
      d1 :_s Data Maybe [t]           d1 := dfunData2 d2 d3 
      d2 :_g Sat (Maybe [t])          d2 := dfunSat d4 
      d4 :_g Foo [t]                  d4 := dfunFoo2 d5 
      d5 :_g Foo t                    d5 := dfunFoo1 d7
  WorkList:
      d7 :_w Data Maybe t
      d6 :_g Data Maybe [t]
      d8 :_g Data Maybe t            d8 := EvDictSuperClass d5 0
      d01 :_g Data Maybe t 

Now, two problems: 
   [1] Suppose we pick d8 and we react him with d01. Which of the two givens should 
       we keep? Well, we *MUST NOT* drop d01 because d8 contains recursive evidence 
       that must not be used (look at case interactInert where both inert and workitem
       are givens). So we have several options: 
       - Drop the workitem always (this will drop d8)
              This feels very unsafe -- what if the work item was the "good" one
              that should be used later to solve another wanted?
       - Don't drop anyone: the inert set may contain multiple givens! 
              [This is currently implemented] 

The "don't drop anyone" seems the most safe thing to do, so now we come to problem 2: 
  [2] We have added both d6 and d01 in the inert set, and we are interacting our wanted
      d7. Now the [isRecDictEv] function in the ineration solver 
      [case inert-given workitem-wanted] will prevent us from interacting d7 := d8 
      precisely because chasing the evidence of d8 leads us to an unguarded use of d7. 

      So, no interaction happens there. Then we meet d01 and there is no recursion 
      problem there [isRectDictEv] gives us the OK to interact and we do solve d7 := d01! 
             
Note [SUPERCLASS-LOOP 1]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We have to be very, very careful when generating superclasses, lest we
accidentally build a loop. Here's an example:

  class S a

  class S a => C a where { opc :: a -> a }
  class S b => D b where { opd :: b -> b }
  
  instance C Int where
     opc = opd
  
  instance D Int where
     opd = opc

From (instance C Int) we get the constraint set {ds1:S Int, dd:D Int}
Simplifying, we may well get:
	$dfCInt = :C ds1 (opd dd)
	dd  = $dfDInt
	ds1 = $p1 dd
Notice that we spot that we can extract ds1 from dd.  

Alas!  Alack! We can do the same for (instance D Int):

	$dfDInt = :D ds2 (opc dc)
	dc  = $dfCInt
	ds2 = $p1 dc

And now we've defined the superclass in terms of itself.
Two more nasty cases are in
	tcrun021
	tcrun033

Solution: 
  - Satisfy the superclass context *all by itself* 
    (tcSimplifySuperClasses)
  - And do so completely; i.e. no left-over constraints
    to mix with the constraints arising from method declarations


Note [SUPERCLASS-LOOP 2]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We need to be careful when adding "the constaint we are trying to prove".
Suppose we are *given* d1:Ord a, and want to deduce (d2:C [a]) where

	class Ord a => C a where
	instance Ord [a] => C [a] where ...

Then we'll use the instance decl to deduce C [a] from Ord [a], and then add the
superclasses of C [a] to avails.  But we must not overwrite the binding
for Ord [a] (which is obtained from Ord a) with a superclass selection or we'll just
build a loop! 

Here's another variant, immortalised in tcrun020
	class Monad m => C1 m
	class C1 m => C2 m x
	instance C2 Maybe Bool
For the instance decl we need to build (C1 Maybe), and it's no good if
we run around and add (C2 Maybe Bool) and its superclasses to the avails 
before we search for C1 Maybe.

Here's another example 
 	class Eq b => Foo a b
	instance Eq a => Foo [a] a
If we are reducing
	(Foo [t] t)

we'll first deduce that it holds (via the instance decl).  We must not
then overwrite the Eq t constraint with a superclass selection!

At first I had a gross hack, whereby I simply did not add superclass constraints
in addWanted, though I did for addGiven and addIrred.  This was sub-optimal,
becuase it lost legitimate superclass sharing, and it still didn't do the job:
I found a very obscure program (now tcrun021) in which improvement meant the
simplifier got two bites a the cherry... so something seemed to be an Stop
first time, but reducible next time.

Now we implement the Right Solution, which is to check for loops directly 
when adding superclasses.  It's a bit like the occurs check in unification.

Note [Recursive instances and superclases]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider this code, which arises in the context of "Scrap Your 
Boilerplate with Class".  

    class Sat a
    class Data ctx a
    instance  Sat (ctx Char)             => Data ctx Char
    instance (Sat (ctx [a]), Data ctx a) => Data ctx [a]

    class Data Maybe a => Foo a

    instance Foo t => Sat (Maybe t)

    instance Data Maybe a => Foo a
    instance Foo a        => Foo [a]
    instance                 Foo [Char]

In the instance for Foo [a], when generating evidence for the superclasses
(ie in tcSimplifySuperClasses) we need a superclass (Data Maybe [a]).
Using the instance for Data, we therefore need
        (Sat (Maybe [a], Data Maybe a)
But we are given (Foo a), and hence its superclass (Data Maybe a).
So that leaves (Sat (Maybe [a])).  Using the instance for Sat means
we need (Foo [a]).  And that is the very dictionary we are bulding
an instance for!  So we must put that in the "givens".  So in this
case we have
	Given:  Foo a, Foo [a]
	Wanted: Data Maybe [a]

BUT we must *not not not* put the *superclasses* of (Foo [a]) in
the givens, which is what 'addGiven' would normally do. Why? Because
(Data Maybe [a]) is the superclass, so we'd "satisfy" the wanted 
by selecting a superclass from Foo [a], which simply makes a loop.

On the other hand we *must* put the superclasses of (Foo a) in
the givens, as you can see from the derivation described above.

Conclusion: in the very special case of tcSimplifySuperClasses
we have one 'given' (namely the "this" dictionary) whose superclasses
must not be added to 'givens' by addGiven.  

There is a complication though.  Suppose there are equalities
      instance (Eq a, a~b) => Num (a,b)
Then we normalise the 'givens' wrt the equalities, so the original
given "this" dictionary is cast to one of a different type.  So it's a
bit trickier than before to identify the "special" dictionary whose
superclasses must not be added. See test
   indexed-types/should_run/EqInInstance

We need a persistent property of the dictionary to record this
special-ness.  Current I'm using the InstLocOrigin (a bit of a hack,
but cool), which is maintained by dictionary normalisation.
Specifically, the InstLocOrigin is
	     NoScOrigin
then the no-superclass thing kicks in.  WATCH OUT if you fiddle
with InstLocOrigin!

Note [MATCHING-SYNONYMS]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When trying to match a dictionary (D tau) to a top-level instance, or a 
type family equation (F taus_1 ~ tau_2) to a top-level family instance, 
we do *not* need to expand type synonyms because the matcher will do that for us.


Note [RHS-FAMILY-SYNONYMS] 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The RHS of a family instance is represented as yet another constructor which is 
like a type synonym for the real RHS the programmer declared. Eg: 
    type instance F (a,a) = [a] 
Becomes: 
    :R32 a = [a]      -- internal type synonym introduced
    F (a,a) ~ :R32 a  -- instance 

When we react a family instance with a type family equation in the work list 
we keep the synonym-using RHS without expansion. 


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%************************************************************************
%*                                                                      *
%*          Functional dependencies, instantiation of equations
%*                                                                      *
%************************************************************************

When we spot an equality arising from a functional dependency,
we now use that equality (a "wanted") to rewrite the work-item
constraint right away.  This avoids two dangers

 Danger 1: If we send the original constraint on down the pipeline
           it may react with an instance declaration, and in delicate
	   situations (when a Given overlaps with an instance) that
	   may produce new insoluble goals: see Trac #4952

 Danger 2: If we don't rewrite the constraint, it may re-react
           with the same thing later, and produce the same equality
           again --> termination worries.

To achieve this required some refactoring of FunDeps.lhs (nicer
now!).  

\begin{code}
rewriteWithFunDeps :: [Equation]
                   -> [Xi] 
                   -> WantedLoc 
                   -> TcS (Maybe ([Xi], [TcCoercion], [(EvVar,WantedLoc)])) 
                                           -- Not quite a WantedEvVar unfortunately
                                           -- Because our intention could be to make 
                                           -- it derived at the end of the day
-- NB: The flavor of the returned EvVars will be decided by the caller
-- Post: returns no trivial equalities (identities) and all EvVars returned are fresh
rewriteWithFunDeps eqn_pred_locs xis wloc
 = do { fd_ev_poss <- mapM (instFunDepEqn wloc) eqn_pred_locs
      ; let fd_ev_pos :: [(Int,(EqVar,WantedLoc))]
            fd_ev_pos = concat fd_ev_poss
            (rewritten_xis, cos) = unzip (rewriteDictParams fd_ev_pos xis)
      ; if null fd_ev_pos then return Nothing
        else return (Just (rewritten_xis, cos, map snd fd_ev_pos)) }

instFunDepEqn :: WantedLoc -> Equation -> TcS [(Int,(EvVar,WantedLoc))]
-- Post: Returns the position index as well as the corresponding FunDep equality
instFunDepEqn wl (FDEqn { fd_qtvs = qtvs, fd_eqs = eqs
                        , fd_pred1 = d1, fd_pred2 = d2 })
  = do { let tvs = varSetElems qtvs
       ; tvs' <- mapM instFlexiTcS tvs  -- IA0_TODO: we might need to do kind substitution
       ; let subst = zipTopTvSubst tvs (mkTyVarTys tvs')
       ; foldM (do_one subst) [] eqs }
  where 
    do_one subst ievs (FDEq { fd_pos = i, fd_ty_left = ty1, fd_ty_right = ty2 })
       = let sty1 = Type.substTy subst ty1 
             sty2 = Type.substTy subst ty2 
         in if eqType sty1 sty2 then return ievs -- Return no trivial equalities
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            else do { mb_eqv <- newWantedEvVar (mkTcEqPred sty1 sty2)
                    ; case mb_eqv of
                         Fresh eqv -> return $ (i,(eqv, push_ctx wl)):ievs
                         Cached {} -> return ievs }
                           -- We are eventually going to emit FD work back in the work list so 
                           -- it is important that we only return the /freshly created/ and not 
                           -- some existing equality!
    push_ctx :: WantedLoc -> WantedLoc 
    push_ctx loc = pushErrCtxt FunDepOrigin (False, mkEqnMsg d1 d2) loc

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mkEqnMsg :: (TcPredType, SDoc) 
         -> (TcPredType, SDoc) -> TidyEnv -> TcM (TidyEnv, SDoc)
mkEqnMsg (pred1,from1) (pred2,from2) tidy_env
  = do  { zpred1 <- zonkTcPredType pred1
        ; zpred2 <- zonkTcPredType pred2
	; let { tpred1 = tidyType tidy_env zpred1
              ; tpred2 = tidyType tidy_env zpred2 }
	; let msg = vcat [ptext (sLit "When using functional dependencies to combine"),
			  nest 2 (sep [ppr tpred1 <> comma, nest 2 from1]), 
			  nest 2 (sep [ppr tpred2 <> comma, nest 2 from2])]
	; return (tidy_env, msg) }

rewriteDictParams :: [(Int,(EqVar,WantedLoc))] -- A set of coercions : (pos, ty' ~ ty)
                  -> [Type]                    -- A sequence of types: tys
                  -> [(Type, TcCoercion)]      -- Returns: [(ty', co : ty' ~ ty)]
rewriteDictParams param_eqs tys
  = zipWith do_one tys [0..]
  where
    do_one :: Type -> Int -> (Type, TcCoercion)
    do_one ty n = case lookup n param_eqs of
                    Just wev -> (get_fst_ty wev, mkTcCoVarCo (fst wev))
                    Nothing  -> (ty,             mkTcReflCo ty)	-- Identity

    get_fst_ty (wev,_wloc) 
      | Just (ty1, _) <- getEqPredTys_maybe (evVarPred wev )
      = ty1
      | otherwise 
      = panic "rewriteDictParams: non equality fundep!?"

        
emitFDWorkAsDerived :: [(EvVar,WantedLoc)] 
                    -> SubGoalDepth -> TcS () 
emitFDWorkAsDerived evlocs d 
  = updWorkListTcS $ appendWorkListEqs fd_cts
  where fd_cts = map mk_fd_ct evlocs 
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        mk_fd_ct (v,wl) 
          = CNonCanonical { cc_flavor = Derived wl (evVarPred v) 
                          , cc_depth = d }
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\end{code}




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*********************************************************************************
*                                                                               * 
                       The top-reaction Stage
*                                                                               *
*********************************************************************************

\begin{code}
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topReactionsStage :: SimplifierStage 
topReactionsStage workItem 
 = tryTopReact workItem 
   

tryTopReact :: WorkItem -> TcS StopOrContinue
tryTopReact wi 
 = do { inerts <- getTcSInerts
      ; ctxt   <- getTcSContext
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      ; if simplEqsOnly ctxt then 
          return (ContinueWith wi) 
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        else 
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          do { tir <- doTopReact inerts wi