Previously the code generator generated small code fragments labelled with __stginit_M for each module M, and these performed whatever initialisation was necessary for that module and recursively invoked the initialisation functions for imported modules. This appraoch had drawbacks: - FFI users had to call hs_add_root() to ensure the correct initialisation routines were called. This is a non-standard, and ugly, API. - unless we were using -split-objs, the __stginit dependencies would entail linking the whole transitive closure of modules imported, whether they were actually used or not. In an extreme case (#4387, #4417), a module from GHC might be imported for use in Template Haskell or an annotation, and that would force the whole of GHC to be needlessly linked into the final executable. So now instead we do our initialisation with C functions marked with __attribute__((constructor)), which are automatically invoked at program startup time (or DSO load-time). The C initialisers are emitted into the stub.c file. This means that every time we compile with -prof or -hpc, we now get a stub file, but thanks to #3687 that is now invisible to the user. There are some refactorings in the RTS (particularly for HPC) to handle the fact that initialisers now get run earlier than they did before. The __stginit symbols are still generated, and the hs_add_root() function still exists (but does nothing), for backwards compatibility.