1. 30 Jan, 2013 1 commit
  2. 29 Jan, 2013 1 commit
  3. 28 Jan, 2013 2 commits
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Pure refactoring · f1fa6eb2
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      * Move tidyType and friends from TcType to TypeRep
        (It was always wrong to have it in TcType.)
      * Move mkCoAxBranch and friends from FamInst to Coercion
      * Move pprCoAxBranch and friends from FamInstEnv to Coercion
      No change in functionality, though there might be a little
      wibble in error message output, because I combined two different
      functions both called pprCoAxBranch!
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      More refactoring of FamInst/FamInstEnv; finally fixes Trac #7524 · a98e51ec
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      Quite a bit of tidying up here; the fix to #7524 is actually
      only a small part.
      * Be fully clear that the cab_tvs in a CoAxBranch are not
        fresh.  See Note [CoAxBranch type variables] in CoAxiom.
      * Use CoAxBranch to replace the ATDfeault type in Class.
        CoAxBranch is perfect here.  This change allowed me to
        delete quite a bit of boilerplate code, including the
        corresponding IfaceSynType.
      * Tidy up the construction of CoAxBranches, and when FamIntBranch is
        freshened.  The latter onw happens only in FamInst.newFamInst.
      * Tidy the tyvars of a CoAxBranch when we build them, done in
        FamInst.mkCoAxBranch.  See Note [Tidy axioms when we build them]
        in that module.  This is what fixes #7524.
      Much niceer now.
  4. 25 Jan, 2013 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Refactor and improve the promotion inference · 09ff0e0d
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      It should be the case that either an entire mutually recursive
      group of data type declarations can be promoted, or none of them.
      It's really odd to promote some data constructors of a type but
      not others. Eg
        data T a = T1 a | T2 Int
      Here T1 is sort-of-promotable but T2 isn't (becuase Int isn't
      This patch makes it all-or-nothing. At the same time I've made
      the TyCon point to its promoted cousin (via the tcPromoted field
      of an AlgTyCon), as well as vice versa (via the ty_con field of
      The inference for the group is done in TcTyDecls, the same place
      that infers which data types are recursive, another global question.
  5. 08 Jan, 2013 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Re-engineer the ambiguity test for user type signatures · 97db0edc
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      Two main changes. First, re-engineer the ambiguity test.  Previously
      TcMType.checkAmbiguity used a rather syntactic test to detect some
      types that are certainly ambiguous.  But a much easier test is available,
      and it is used for inferred types in TcBinds. Namely
          <type> is ambiguous
         <type> `TcUnify.isSubType` <type>
      fails to hold, where "isSubType" means "is provably more polymorphic than".
            C a => Int
      is ambiguous, because isSubType instantiates the (C a => Int)
      to (C alpha => Int) and then tries to deduce (C alpha) from (C a). This is
      Martin Sulzmann's definition of ambiguity.  (Defn 10 of "Understanding
      functional dependencies via constraint handling rules", JFP.)
      This change is neat, reduces code, and correctly rejects more programs.
      However is *is* just possible to have a useful program that would be
      rejected. For example
                class C a b
                f :: C Int b => Int -> Int
      Here 'f' would be rejected as having an ambiguous type. But it is
      just possible that, at a *call* site there might be an instance
      declaration  instance C Int b, which does not constrain 'b' at all.
      This is pretty strange -- why is 'b' overloaded at all? -- but it's
      possible, so I also added a flag -XAllowAmbiguousTypes that simply
      removes the ambiguity check.  Let's see if anyone cares.  Meanwhile
      the earlier error report will be useful for everyone else.
      A handful of regression tests had to be adjusted as a result, because
      they used ambiguous types, somewhat accidentally.
      Second, split TcMType (already too large) into two
        * TcMType: a low-level module dealing with monadic operations like
          zonking, creating new evidence variables, etc
        * TcValidity: a brand-new higher-level module dealing with
          validity checking for types: checkValidType, checkValidInstance,
          checkFamInstPats etc
      Apart from the fact that TcMType was too big, this allows TcValidity
      to import TcUnify(tcSubType) without causing a loop.
  6. 05 Jan, 2013 1 commit
    • eir@cis.upenn.edu's avatar
      Refactor invariants for FamInsts. · 5765248b
      eir@cis.upenn.edu authored
      This commit mirrors work done in the commit for ClsInsts, 5efe9b...
      - All FamInsts have *fresh* type variables. So, no more freshness work
      in addLocalFamInst
      - Some pretty-printing code around FamInsts was cleaned up a bit
      This caused location information to be added to CoAxioms and index
      information to be added to FamInstBranches.
  7. 02 Jan, 2013 2 commits
  8. 01 Jan, 2013 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Refactor the invariants for ClsInsts · 5efe9b11
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      We now have the invariant for a ClsInst that the is_tvs field
      is always completely fresh type variables. See
      Note [Template tyvars are fresh] in InstEnv.
      (Previously we frehened them when extending the instance environment,
      but that seems messier because it was an invariant only when the
      ClsInst was in an InstEnv.  Moreover, there was an invariant that
      thet tyvars of the DFunid in the ClsInst had to match, and I have
      removed that invariant altogether; there is no need for it.)
      Other changes I made at the same time:
       * Make is_tvs into a *list*, in the right order for the dfun type
         arguments.  This removes the wierd need for the dfun to have the
         same tyvars as the ClsInst template, an invariant I have always
         hated. The cost is that we need to make it a VarSet when matching.
         We could cache an is_tv_set instead.
       * Add a cached is_cls field to the ClsInst, to save fishing
         the Class out of the DFun.  (Renamed is_cls to is_cls_nm.)
       * Make tcSplitDFunTy return the dfun args, not just the *number*
         of dfun args
       * Make InstEnv.instanceHead return just the *head* of the
         instance declaration.  Add instanceSig to return the whole
  9. 22 Dec, 2012 1 commit
    • eir@cis.upenn.edu's avatar
      Implement overlapping type family instances. · 8366792e
      eir@cis.upenn.edu authored
      An ordered, overlapping type family instance is introduced by 'type
      where', followed by equations. See the new section in the user manual
      ( for details. The canonical example is Boolean equality at the
      type family Equals (a :: k) (b :: k) :: Bool
      type instance where
        Equals a a = True
        Equals a b = False
      A branched family instance, such as this one, checks its equations in
      and applies only the first the matches. As explained in the note
      checking within groups] in FamInstEnv.lhs, we must be careful not to
      say, (Equals Int b) to False, because b might later unify with Int.
      This commit includes all of the commits on the overlapping-tyfams
      branch. SPJ
      requested that I combine all my commits over the past several months
      into one
      monolithic commit. The following GHC repos are affected: ghc, testsuite,
      utils/haddock, libraries/template-haskell, and libraries/dph.
      Here are some details for the interested:
      - The definition of CoAxiom has been moved from TyCon.lhs to a
        new file CoAxiom.lhs. I made this decision because of the
        number of definitions necessary to support BranchList.
      - BranchList is a GADT whose type tracks whether it is a
        singleton list or not-necessarily-a-singleton-list. The reason
        I introduced this type is to increase static checking of places
        where GHC code assumes that a FamInst or CoAxiom is indeed a
        singleton. This assumption takes place roughly 10 times
        throughout the code. I was worried that a future change to GHC
        would invalidate the assumption, and GHC might subtly fail to
        do the right thing. By explicitly labeling CoAxioms and
        FamInsts as being Unbranched (singleton) or
        Branched (not-necessarily-singleton), we make this assumption
        explicit and checkable. Furthermore, to enforce the accuracy of
        this label, the list of branches of a CoAxiom or FamInst is
        stored using a BranchList, whose constructors constrain its
        type index appropriately.
      I think that the decision to use BranchList is probably the most
      controversial decision I made from a code design point of view.
      Although I provide conversions to/from ordinary lists, it is more
      efficient to use the brList... functions provided in CoAxiom than
      always to convert. The use of these functions does not wander far
      from the core CoAxiom/FamInst logic.
      BranchLists are motivated and explained in the note [Branched axioms] in
      - The CoAxiom type has changed significantly. You can see the new
        type in CoAxiom.lhs. It uses a CoAxBranch type to track
        branches of the CoAxiom. Correspondingly various functions
        producing and consuming CoAxioms had to change, including the
        binary layout of interface files.
      - To get branched axioms to work correctly, it is important to have a
        of type "apartness": two types are apart if they cannot unify, and no
        substitution of variables can ever get them to unify, even after type
        simplification. (This is different than the normal failure to unify
        of the type family bit.) This notion in encoded in tcApartTys, in
        Because apartness is finer-grained than unification, the tcUnifyTys
        calls tcApartTys.
      - CoreLinting axioms has been updated, both to reflect the new
        form of CoAxiom and to enforce the apartness rules of branch
        application. The formalization of the new rules is in
      - The FamInst type (in types/FamInstEnv.lhs) has changed
        significantly, paralleling the changes to CoAxiom. Of course,
        this forced minor changes in many files.
      - There are several new Notes in FamInstEnv.lhs, including one
        discussing confluent overlap and why we're not doing it.
      - lookupFamInstEnv, lookupFamInstEnvConflicts, and
        lookup_fam_inst_env' (the function that actually does the work)
        have all been more-or-less completely rewritten. There is a
        Note [lookup_fam_inst_env' implementation] describing the
        implementation. One of the changes that affects other files is
        to change the type of matches from a pair of (FamInst, [Type])
        to a new datatype (which now includes the index of the matching
        branch). This seemed a better design.
      - The TySynInstD constructor in Template Haskell was updated to
        use the new datatype TySynEqn. I also bumped the TH version
        number, requiring changes to DPH cabal files. (That's why the
        DPH repo has an overlapping-tyfams branch.)
      - As SPJ requested, I refactored some of the code in HsDecls:
       * splitting up TyDecl into SynDecl and DataDecl, correspondingly
         changing HsTyDefn to HsDataDefn (with only one constructor)
       * splitting FamInstD into TyFamInstD and DataFamInstD and
         splitting FamInstDecl into DataFamInstDecl and TyFamInstDecl
       * making the ClsInstD take a ClsInstDecl, for parallelism with
         InstDecl's other constructors
       * changing constructor TyFamily into FamDecl
       * creating a FamilyDecl type that stores the details for a family
         declaration; this is useful because FamilyDecls can appear in classes
         other decls cannot
       * restricting the associated types and associated type defaults for a
       * class
         to be the new, more restrictive types
       * splitting cid_fam_insts into cid_tyfam_insts and cid_datafam_insts,
         according to the new types
       * perhaps one or two more that I'm overlooking
      None of these changes has far-reaching implications.
      - The user manual, section, is updated to describe the new type
  10. 14 Dec, 2012 2 commits
    • ian@well-typed.com's avatar
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Major refactoring of the way that UNPACK pragmas are handled · faa8ff40
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      The situation was pretty dire.  The way in which data constructors
      were handled, notably the mapping between their *source* argument types
      and their *representation* argument types (after seq'ing and unpacking)
      was scattered in three different places, and hard to keep in sync.
      Now it is all in one place:
       * The dcRep field of a DataCon gives its representation,
         specified by a DataConRep
       * As well as having the wrapper, the DataConRep has a "boxer"
         of type DataConBoxer (defined in MkId for loopy reasons).
         The boxer used at a pattern match to reconstruct the source-level
         arguments from the rep-level bindings in the pattern match.
       * The unboxing in the wrapper and the boxing in the boxer are dual,
         and are now constructed together, by MkId.mkDataConRep. This is
         the key function of this change.
       * All the computeBoxingStrategy code in TcTyClsDcls disappears.
      Much nicer.
      There is a little bit of refactoring left to do; the strange
      deepSplitProductType functions are now called only in WwLib, so
      I moved them there, and I think they could be tidied up further.
  11. 16 Nov, 2012 1 commit
  12. 01 Oct, 2012 1 commit
  13. 21 Sep, 2012 1 commit
  14. 18 Sep, 2012 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Make a start towards eta-rules and injective families · 58470fb7
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      * Make Any into a type family (which it should always have been)
        This is to support the future introduction of eta rules for
        product types (see email on ghc-users title "PolyKind issue"
        early Sept 2012)
      * Add the *internal* data type support for
          (a) closed type families [so that you can't give
              type instance for 'Any']
          (b) injective type families [because Any is really
        This amounts to two boolean flags on the SynFamilyTyCon
        constructor of TyCon.SynTyConRhs.
      There is some knock-on effect, but all of a routine nature.
      It remains to offer source syntax for either closed or
      injective families.
  15. 17 Sep, 2012 1 commit
  16. 14 Aug, 2012 1 commit
  17. 13 Aug, 2012 1 commit
  18. 15 Jul, 2012 1 commit
  19. 14 Jul, 2012 1 commit
  20. 27 Jun, 2012 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Add silent superclass parameters (again) · aa1e0976
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      Silent superclass parameters solve the problem that
      the superclasses of a dicionary construction can easily
      turn out to be (wrongly) bottom.  The problem and solution
      are described in
         Note [Silent superclass arguments] in TcInstDcls
      I first implemented this fix (with Dimitrios) in Dec 2010, but removed
      it again in Jun 2011 becuase we thought it wasn't necessary any
      more. (The reason we thought it wasn't necessary is that we'd stopped
      generating derived superclass constraints for *wanteds*.  But we were
      wrong; that didn't solve the superclass-loop problem.)
      So we have to re-implement it.  It's not hard.  Main features:
        * The IdDetails for a DFunId says how many silent arguments it has
        * A DFunUnfolding describes which dictionary args are
          just parameters (DFunLamArg) and which are a function to apply
          to the parameters (DFunPolyArg).  This adds the DFunArg type
          to CoreSyn
        * Consequential changes to IfaceSyn.  (Binary hi file format changes
        * TcInstDcls changes to generate the right dfuns
        * CoreSubst.exprIsConApp_maybe handles the new DFunUnfolding
      The thing taht is *not* done yet is to alter the vectoriser to
      pass the relevant extra argument when building a PA dictionary.
  21. 12 Jun, 2012 1 commit
  22. 07 Jun, 2012 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Support polymorphic kind recursion · c9117200
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      This is (I hope) the last major patch for kind polymorphism.
      The big new feature is polymorphic kind recursion when you
      supply a complete kind signature for a type constructor.
      (I've documented it in the user manual too.)
      This fixes Trac #6137, #6093, #6049.
      The patch also makes type/data families less polymorphic by default.
         data family T a
      now defaults to T :: * -> *
      If you want T :: forall k. k -> *, use
         data family T (a :: k)
      This defaulting to * is done whenever there is a
      "complete, user-specified kind signature", something that is
      carefully defined in the user manual.
  23. 07 May, 2012 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Yet another major refactoring of the constraint solver · dd7522c3
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      This is the result of Simon and Dimitrios doing a code walk through.
      There is no change in behaviour, but the structure is much better.
      Main changes:
      * Given constraints contain an EvTerm not an EvVar
      * Correspondingly, TcEvidence is a recursive types that uses
        EvTerms rather than EvVars
      * Rename CtFlavor to CtEvidence
      * Every CtEvidence has a ctev_pred field.  And use record fields
        consistently for CtEvidence
      * The solved-constraint fields of InertSet (namely inert_solved and
        inert_solved_funeqs) contain CtEvidence, not Ct
      There is a long cascade of follow-on changes.
  24. 26 Apr, 2012 1 commit
  25. 20 Apr, 2012 2 commits
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Do SCC on instance declarations (fixes Trac #5715) · fa9fdc28
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      The trouble here is that given
          {-# LANGUAGE DataKinds, TypeFamilies #-}
          data instance Foo a = Bar (Bar a)
      we want to get a sensible message that we can't use the promoted 'Bar'
      constructor until after its definition; it's a staging error.  Bud the
      staging mechanism that we use for vanilla data declarations don't work
      Solution is to perform strongly-connected component analysis on the
      instance declarations. But that in turn means that we need to track
      free-variable information on more HsSyn declarations, which is why
      so many files are touched.  All the changes are boiler-platey except
      the ones in TcInstDcls.
  26. 12 Apr, 2012 1 commit
  27. 22 Mar, 2012 1 commit
  28. 02 Mar, 2012 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Hurrah! This major commit adds support for scoped kind variables, · 3bf54e78
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      which (finally) fills out the functionality of polymorphic kinds.
      It also fixes numerous bugs.
      Main changes are:
      Renaming stuff
      * New type in HsTypes:
           data HsBndrSig sig = HsBSig sig [Name]
        which is used for type signatures in patterns, and kind signatures
        in types.  So when you say
             f (x :: [a]) = x ++ x
             data T (f :: k -> *) (x :: *) = MkT (f x)
        the signatures in both cases are a HsBndrSig.
      * The [Name] in HsBndrSig records the variables bound by the
        pattern, that is 'a' in the first example, 'k' in the second,
        and nothing in the third.  The renamer initialises the field.
      * As a result I was able to get rid of
           RnHsSyn.extractHsTyNames :: LHsType Name -> NameSet
        and its friends altogether.  Deleted the entire module!
        This led to some knock-on refactoring; in particular the
        type renamer now returns the free variables just like the
        term renamer.
      Kind-checking types: mainly TcHsType
      A major change is that instead of kind-checking types in two
      passes, we now do one. Under the old scheme, the first pass did
      kind-checking and (hackily) annotated the HsType with the
      inferred kinds; and the second pass desugared the HsType to a
      Type.  But now that we have kind variables inside types, the
      first pass (TcHsType.tc_hs_type) can go straight to Type, and
      zonking will squeeze out any kind unification variables later.
      This is much nicer, but it was much more fiddly than I had expected.
      The nastiest corner is this: it's very important that tc_hs_type
      uses lazy constructors to build the returned type. See
      Note [Zonking inside the knot] in TcHsType.
      Type-checking type and class declarations: mainly TcTyClsDecls
      I did tons of refactoring in TcTyClsDecls.  Simpler and nicer now.
      Typechecking bindings: mainly TcBinds
      I rejigged (yet again) the handling of type signatures in TcBinds.
      It's a bit simpler now.  The main change is that tcTySigs goes
      right through to a TcSigInfo in one step; previously it was split
      into two, part here and part later.
      Unsafe coercions
      Usually equality coercions have exactly the same kind on both
      sides.  But we do allow an *unsafe* coercion between Int# and Bool,
      say, used in
          case error Bool "flah" of { True -> 3#; False -> 0# }
          (error Bool "flah") |> unsafeCoerce Bool Int#
      So what is the instantiation of (~#) here?
         unsafeCoerce Bool Int# :: (~#) ??? Bool Int#
      I'm using OpenKind here for now, but it's un-satisfying that
      the lhs and rhs of the ~ don't have precisely the same kind.
      More minor
      * HsDecl.TySynonym has its free variables attached, which makes
        the cycle computation in TcTyDecls.mkSynEdges easier.
      * Fixed a nasty reversed-comparison bug in FamInstEnv:
        @@ -490,7 +490,7 @@ lookup_fam_inst_env' match_fun one_sided ie fam tys
           n_tys = length tys
           extra_tys = drop arity tys
           (match_tys, add_extra_tys)
      -       | arity > n_tys = (take arity tys, \res_tys -> res_tys ++ extra_tys)
      +       | arity < n_tys = (take arity tys, \res_tys -> res_tys ++ extra_tys)
              | otherwise     = (tys,            \res_tys -> res_tys)
  29. 16 Feb, 2012 1 commit
  30. 06 Feb, 2012 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Refactor HsDecls again, to put family instances in InstDecl · f92591de
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      This continues the clean up of the front end.  Since they
      were first invented, type and data family *instance* decls
      have been in the TyClDecl data type, even though they always
      treated separately.
      This patch takes a step in the right direction
        * The InstDecl type now includes both class instances and
          type/data family instances
        * The hs_tyclds field of HsGroup now never has any family
          instance declarations in it
      However a family instance is still a TyClDecl.  It should really
      be a separate type, but that's the next step.
      All this was provoked by fixing Trac #5792 in the HEAD.
      (I did a less invasive fix on the branch.)
  31. 19 Jan, 2012 1 commit
  32. 18 Jan, 2012 1 commit
  33. 03 Jan, 2012 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Major refactoring of CoAxioms · 98a642cf
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      This patch should have no user-visible effect.  It implements a
      significant internal refactoring of the way that FC axioms are
      handled.  The ultimate goal is to put us in a position to implement
      "pattern-matching axioms".  But the changes here are only does
      refactoring; there is no change in functionality.
       * We now treat data/type family instance declarations very,
         very similarly to types class instance declarations:
         - Renamed InstEnv.Instance as InstEnv.ClsInst, for symmetry with
           FamInstEnv.FamInst.  This change does affect the GHC API, but
           for the better I think.
         - Previously, each family type/data instance declaration gave rise
           to a *TyCon*; typechecking a type/data instance decl produced
           that TyCon.  Now, each type/data instance gives rise to
           a *FamInst*, by direct analogy with each class instance
           declaration giving rise to a ClsInst.
         - Just as each ClsInst contains its evidence, a DFunId, so each FamInst
           contains its evidence, a CoAxiom.  See Note [FamInsts and CoAxioms]
           in FamInstEnv.  The CoAxiom is a System-FC thing, and can relate any
           two types, whereas the FamInst relates directly to the Haskell source
           language construct, and always has a function (F tys) on the LHS.
         - Just as a DFunId has its own declaration in an interface file, so now
           do CoAxioms (see IfaceSyn.IfaceAxiom).
         These changes give rise to almost all the refactoring.
       * We used to have a hack whereby a type family instance produced a dummy
         type synonym, thus
            type instance F Int = Bool -> Bool
         translated to
            axiom FInt :: F Int ~ R:FInt
            type R:FInt = Bool -> Bool
         This was always a hack, and now it's gone.  Instead the type instance
         declaration produces a FamInst, whose axiom has kind
            axiom FInt :: F Int ~ Bool -> Bool
         just as you'd expect.
       * Newtypes are done just as before; they generate a CoAxiom. These
         CoAxioms are "implicit" (do not generate an IfaceAxiom declaration),
         unlike the ones coming from family instance declarations.  See
         Note [Implicit axioms] in TyCon
      On the whole the code gets significantly nicer.  There were consequential
      tidy-ups in the vectoriser, but I think I got them right.
  34. 23 Dec, 2011 1 commit
  35. 12 Dec, 2011 1 commit
  36. 05 Dec, 2011 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Allow full constraint solving under a for-all (Trac #5595) · 2e6dcdf7
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      The main idea is that when we unify
          forall a. t1  ~  forall a. t2
      we get constraints from unifying t1~t2 that mention a.
      We are producing a coercion witnessing the equivalence of
      the for-alls, and inside *that* coercion we need bindings
      for the solved constraints arising from t1~t2.
      We didn't have way to do this before.  The big change is
      that here's a new type TcEvidence.TcCoercion, which is
      much like Coercion.Coercion except that there's a slot
      for TcEvBinds in it.
      This has a wave of follow-on changes. Not deep but broad.
      * New module TcEvidence, which now contains the HsWrapper
        TcEvBinds, EvTerm etc types that used to be in HsBinds
      * The typechecker works exclusively in terms of TcCoercion.
      * The desugarer converts TcCoercion to Coercion
      * The main payload is in TcUnify.unifySigmaTy. This is the
        function that had a gross hack before, but is now beautiful.
      * LCoercion is gone!  Hooray.
      Many many fiddly changes in conssequence.  But it's nice.