1. 06 Sep, 2011 1 commit
    • batterseapower's avatar
      Implement -XConstraintKind · 9729fe7c
      batterseapower authored
      Basically as documented in http://hackage.haskell.org/trac/ghc/wiki/KindFact,
      this patch adds a new kind Constraint such that:
      
        Show :: * -> Constraint
        (?x::Int) :: Constraint
        (Int ~ a) :: Constraint
      
      And you can write *any* type with kind Constraint to the left of (=>):
      even if that type is a type synonym, type variable, indexed type or so on.
      
      The following (somewhat related) changes are also made:
       1. We now box equality evidence. This is required because we want
          to give (Int ~ a) the *lifted* kind Constraint
       2. For similar reasons, implicit parameters can now only be of
          a lifted kind. (?x::Int#) => ty is now ruled out
       3. Implicit parameter constraints are now allowed in superclasses
          and instance contexts (this just falls out as OK with the new
          constraint solver)
      
      Internally the following major changes were made:
       1. There is now no PredTy in the Type data type. Instead
          GHC checks the kind of a type to figure out if it is a predicate
       2. There is now no AClass TyThing: we represent classes as TyThings
          just as a ATyCon (classes had TyCons anyway)
       3. What used to be (~) is now pretty-printed as (~#). The box
          constructor EqBox :: (a ~# b) -> (a ~ b)
       4. The type LCoercion is used internally in the constraint solver
          and type checker to represent coercions with free variables
          of type (a ~ b) rather than (a ~# b)
      9729fe7c
  2. 23 Jul, 2011 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      A nice tidy-up for CvSubst and liftCoSubst · 525aca2c
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      A "lifting substitition" takes a *type* to a *coercion*, using a
      substitution that takes a *type variable* to a *coercion*.  We were
      using a CvSubst for this purpose, which was an awkward exception: in
      every other use of CvSubst, type variables map only to types.
      
      Turned out that Coercion.liftCoSubst is quite a small function, so I
      rewrote it with a special substitution type Coercion.LiftCoSubst, just
      for that purpose.  In doing so I found that the function itself was
      bizarrely over-complicated ... a direct result of mis-using CvSubst.
      
      So this patch makes it all simpler, faster, and easier to understand.
      No bugs fixed though!
      525aca2c
  3. 04 May, 2011 1 commit
  4. 24 Apr, 2011 1 commit
  5. 19 Apr, 2011 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      This BIG PATCH contains most of the work for the New Coercion Representation · fdf86568
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      See the paper "Practical aspects of evidence based compilation in System FC"
      
      * Coercion becomes a data type, distinct from Type
      
      * Coercions become value-level things, rather than type-level things,
        (although the value is zero bits wide, like the State token)
        A consequence is that a coerion abstraction increases the arity by 1
        (just like a dictionary abstraction)
      
      * There is a new constructor in CoreExpr, namely Coercion, to inject
        coercions into terms
      fdf86568
  6. 26 Jan, 2011 1 commit
  7. 12 Jan, 2011 1 commit
    • simonpj@microsoft.com's avatar
      Major refactoring of the type inference engine · 27310213
      simonpj@microsoft.com authored
      This patch embodies many, many changes to the contraint solver, which
      make it simpler, more robust, and more beautiful.  But it has taken
      me ages to get right. The forcing issue was some obscure programs
      involving recursive dictionaries, but these eventually led to a
      massive refactoring sweep.
      
      Main changes are:
       * No more "frozen errors" in the monad.  Instead "insoluble
         constraints" are now part of the WantedConstraints type.
      
       * The WantedConstraint type is a product of bags, instead of (as
         before) a bag of sums.  This eliminates a good deal of tagging and
         untagging.
      
       * This same WantedConstraints data type is used
           - As the way that constraints are gathered
           - As a field of an implication constraint
           - As both argument and result of solveWanted
           - As the argument to reportUnsolved
      
       * We do not generate any evidence for Derived constraints. They are
         purely there to allow "impovement" by unifying unification
         variables.
      
       * In consequence, nothing is ever *rewritten* by a Derived
         constraint.  This removes, by construction, all the horrible
         potential recursive-dictionary loops that were making us tear our
         hair out.  No more isGoodRecEv search either. Hurrah!
      
       * We add the superclass Derived constraints during canonicalisation,
         after checking for duplicates.  So fewer superclass constraints
         are generated than before.
      
       * Skolem tc-tyvars no longer carry SkolemInfo.  Instead, the
         SkolemInfo lives in the GivenLoc of the Implication, where it
         can be tidied, zonked, and substituted nicely.  This alone is
         a major improvement.
      
       * Tidying is improved, so that we tend to get t1, t2, t3, rather
         than t1, t11, t111, etc
      
         Moreover, unification variables are always printed with a digit
         (thus a0, a1, etc), so that plain 'a' is available for a skolem
         arising from a type signature etc. In this way,
           (a) We quietly say which variables are unification variables,
               for those who know and care
           (b) Types tend to get printed as the user expects.  If he writes
                   f :: a -> a
                   f = ...blah...
               then types involving 'a' get printed with 'a', rather than
               some tidied variant.
      
       * There are significant improvements in error messages, notably
         in the "Cannot deduce X from Y" messages.
      27310213
  8. 16 Sep, 2010 1 commit
  9. 13 Sep, 2010 1 commit
  10. 30 Mar, 2010 1 commit
  11. 10 Nov, 2009 1 commit
  12. 02 Apr, 2009 1 commit
    • simonpj@microsoft.com's avatar
      Better panic reporting · 193f0335
      simonpj@microsoft.com authored
      Make idDetails and idInfo into proper functions, rather than record
      fields, so that we can report more informatively if you use thenm on
      a non-Id.
      193f0335
  13. 02 Jan, 2009 1 commit
    • simonpj@microsoft.com's avatar
      Make record selectors into ordinary functions · 9ffadf21
      simonpj@microsoft.com authored
      This biggish patch addresses Trac #2670.  The main effect is to make
      record selectors into ordinary functions, whose unfoldings appear in
      interface files, in contrast to their previous existence as magic
      "implicit Ids".  This means that the usual machinery of optimisation,
      analysis, and inlining applies to them, which was failing before when
      the selector was somewhat complicated.  (Which it can be when
      strictness annotations, unboxing annotations, and GADTs are involved.)
      
      The change involves the following points
      
      * Changes in Var.lhs to the representation of Var.  Now a LocalId can
        have an IdDetails as well as a GlobalId.  In particular, the
        information that an Id is a record selector is kept in the
        IdDetails.  While compiling the current module, the record selector
        *must* be a LocalId, so that it participates properly in compilation
        (free variables etc).
      
        This led me to change the (hidden) representation of Var, so that there
        is now only one constructor for Id, not two.
      
      * The IdDetails is persisted into interface files, so that an
        importing module can see which Ids are records selectors.
      
      * In TcTyClDecls, we generate the record-selector bindings in renamed,
        but not typechecked form.  In this way, we can get the typechecker
        to add all the types and so on, which is jolly helpful especially
        when GADTs or type families are involved.  Just like derived
        instance declarations.
      
        This is the big new chunk of 180 lines of code (much of which is
        commentary).  A call to the same function, mkAuxBinds, is needed in
        TcInstDcls for associated types.
      
      * The typechecker therefore has to pin the correct IdDetails on to 
        the record selector, when it typechecks it.  There was a neat way
        to do this, by adding a new sort of signature to HsBinds.Sig, namely
        IdSig.  This contains an Id (with the correct Name, Type, and IdDetails);
        the type checker uses it as the binder for the final binding.  This
        worked out rather easily.
      
      * Record selectors are no longer "implicit ids", which entails changes to
           IfaceSyn.ifaceDeclSubBndrs
           HscTypes.implicitTyThings
           TidyPgm.getImplicitBinds
        (These three functions must agree.)
      
      * MkId.mkRecordSelectorId is deleted entirely, some 300+ lines (incl
        comments) of very error prone code.  Happy days.
      
      * A TyCon no longer contains the list of record selectors: 
        algTcSelIds is gone
      
      The renamer is unaffected, including the way that import and export of
      record selectors is handled.
      
      Other small things
      
      * IfaceSyn.ifaceDeclSubBndrs had a fragile test for whether a data
        constructor had a wrapper.  I've replaced that with an explicit flag
        in the interface file. More robust I hope.
      
      * I renamed isIdVar to isId, which touched a few otherwise-unrelated files.
      
      9ffadf21
  14. 20 Sep, 2008 1 commit
  15. 01 Oct, 2008 1 commit
  16. 16 Sep, 2008 1 commit
  17. 28 Aug, 2008 1 commit
  18. 31 Jul, 2008 1 commit
  19. 12 Apr, 2008 1 commit
  20. 26 Jan, 2008 1 commit
  21. 17 Jan, 2008 1 commit
    • Isaac Dupree's avatar
      lots of portability changes (#1405) · 206b4dec
      Isaac Dupree authored
      re-recording to avoid new conflicts was too hard, so I just put it
      all in one big patch :-(  (besides, some of the changes depended on
      each other.)  Here are what the component patches were:
      
      Fri Dec 28 11:02:55 EST 2007  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * document BreakArray better
      
      Fri Dec 28 11:39:22 EST 2007  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * properly ifdef BreakArray for GHCI
      
      Fri Jan  4 13:50:41 EST 2008  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * change ifs on __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ to account for... (#1405)
        for it not being defined. I assume it being undefined implies
        a compiler with relatively modern libraries but without most
        unportable glasgow extensions.
      
      Fri Jan  4 14:21:21 EST 2008  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * MyEither-->EitherString to allow Haskell98 instance
      
      Fri Jan  4 16:13:29 EST 2008  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * re-portabilize Pretty, and corresponding changes
      
      Fri Jan  4 17:19:55 EST 2008  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * Augment FastTypes to be much more complete
      
      Fri Jan  4 20:14:19 EST 2008  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * use FastFunctions, cleanup FastString slightly
      
      Fri Jan  4 21:00:22 EST 2008  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * Massive de-"#", mostly Int# --> FastInt (#1405)
      
      Fri Jan  4 21:02:49 EST 2008  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * miscellaneous unnecessary-extension-removal
      
      Sat Jan  5 19:30:13 EST 2008  Isaac Dupree <id@isaac.cedarswampstudios.org>
        * add FastFunctions
      206b4dec
  22. 27 Oct, 2007 1 commit
  23. 08 Sep, 2007 1 commit
  24. 04 Sep, 2007 1 commit
  25. 03 Sep, 2007 1 commit
  26. 01 Sep, 2007 1 commit
  27. 28 Aug, 2007 1 commit
    • chak@cse.unsw.edu.au.'s avatar
      Type checking for type synonym families · 5822cb8d
      chak@cse.unsw.edu.au. authored
      This patch introduces type checking for type families of which associated
      type synonyms are a special case. E.g.
      
              type family Sum n m
      
              type instance Sum Zero n = n
              type instance Sum (Succ n) m = Succ (Sum n m)
      
      where
      
              data Zero       -- empty type
              data Succ n     -- empty type
      
      In addition we support equational constraints of the form:
      
              ty1 ~ ty2
      
      (where ty1 and ty2 are arbitrary tau types) in any context where
      type class constraints are already allowed, e.g.
      
              data Equals a b where
                      Equals :: a ~ b => Equals a b
      
      The above two syntactical extensions are disabled by default. Enable
      with the -XTypeFamilies flag.
      
      For further documentation about the patch, see:
      
              * the master plan
                http://hackage.haskell.org/trac/ghc/wiki/TypeFunctions
      
              * the user-level documentation
                http://haskell.org/haskellwiki/GHC/Indexed_types
      
      The patch is mostly backwards compatible, except for:
      
              * Some error messages have been changed slightly.
      
              * Type checking of GADTs now requires a bit more type declarations:
                not only should the type of a GADT case scrutinee be given, but also
                that of any identifiers used in the branches and the return type.
      
      Please report any unexpected behavior and incomprehensible error message 
      for existing code.
      
      Contributors (code and/or ideas):
              Tom Schrijvers
              Manuel Chakravarty
              Simon Peyton-Jones
              Martin Sulzmann 
      with special thanks to Roman Leshchinskiy
      5822cb8d
  28. 03 Jan, 2007 1 commit
    • simonpj@microsoft.com's avatar
      Fix several bugs related to finding free variables · 8ffdb8ee
      simonpj@microsoft.com authored
      Now that coercion variables mention types, a type-lambda binder can
      have free variables.  This patch adjusts the free-variable finder
      to take account of this, by treating Ids and TyVars more uniformly.
      
      In addition, I fixed a bug in the specialiser that was missing a 
      free type variable in a binder.  And a bug in tyVarsOfInst that
      was missing the type variables in the kinds of the quantified tyvars.
      8ffdb8ee
  29. 01 Nov, 2006 1 commit
  30. 13 Oct, 2006 1 commit
    • simonpj@microsoft.com's avatar
      Add assertion checks for mkCoVar/mkTyVar · ac704fca
      simonpj@microsoft.com authored
      A type variable has a flag saying whether it is a *type* variable or
      a *coercion* variable.  This patch adds assertions to check the flag.
      
      And it adds fixes to places which were Wrong (and hence fired the
      assertion)! 
      
      Also removed isCoVar from Coercion, since it's done by Var.isCoVar.
      
      
      ac704fca
  31. 11 Oct, 2006 1 commit
    • Simon Marlow's avatar
      Module header tidyup, phase 1 · 49c98d14
      Simon Marlow authored
      This patch is a start on removing import lists and generally tidying
      up the top of each module.  In addition to removing import lists:
      
         - Change DATA.IOREF -> Data.IORef etc.
         - Change List -> Data.List etc.
         - Remove $Id$
         - Update copyrights
         - Re-order imports to put non-GHC imports last
         - Remove some unused and duplicate imports
      49c98d14
  32. 06 Oct, 2006 1 commit
  33. 20 Sep, 2006 4 commits
    • chak@cse.unsw.edu.au.'s avatar
      fixing record selectors · ef47b5c2
      chak@cse.unsw.edu.au. authored
      Mon Sep 18 16:50:18 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
        * fixing record selectors
        Sun Aug  6 19:56:29 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
          * fixing record selectors
          Fri Jul 28 10:24:28 EDT 2006  kevind@bu.edu
          - Bad conflict in tcIfaceDataAlt, at a place where the monster patch had a 
            conflict, too.  I have no idea what the right code is.  -=chak
        NB (at time of 2nd merge): previous conflict resolution was fine
      ef47b5c2
    • chak@cse.unsw.edu.au.'s avatar
      Comments only · bda859ad
      chak@cse.unsw.edu.au. authored
      Mon Sep 18 16:43:36 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
        * Comments only
        Sun Aug  6 17:18:44 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
          * Comments only
          Tue Jul 25 12:06:00 EDT 2006  simonpj@microsoft.com
      bda859ad
    • chak@cse.unsw.edu.au.'s avatar
      fix bugs, add boolean flag to identify coercion variables · 0b86bc9b
      chak@cse.unsw.edu.au. authored
      Mon Sep 18 16:41:32 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
        * fix bugs, add boolean flag to identify coercion variables
        Sun Aug  6 17:04:02 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
          * fix bugs, add boolean flag to identify coercion variables
          Tue Jul 25 06:20:05 EDT 2006  kevind@bu.edu
      0b86bc9b
    • chak@cse.unsw.edu.au.'s avatar
      fix some coercion kind representation things, extend exprIsConApp_maybe to non-vanilla · 6fcf9006
      chak@cse.unsw.edu.au. authored
      Mon Sep 18 14:51:33 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
        * fix some coercion kind representation things, extend exprIsConApp_maybe to non-vanilla
        Sat Aug  5 21:48:21 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
          * fix some coercion kind representation things, extend exprIsConApp_maybe to non-vanilla
          Wed Jul 19 08:06:28 EDT 2006  kevind@bu.edu
      6fcf9006
  34. 18 Sep, 2006 1 commit
    • chak@cse.unsw.edu.au.'s avatar
      Massive patch for the first months work adding System FC to GHC #1 · d5bba9ee
      chak@cse.unsw.edu.au. authored
      Fri Aug  4 15:11:01 EDT 2006  Manuel M T Chakravarty <chak@cse.unsw.edu.au>
        * Massive patch for the first months work adding System FC to GHC #1
        Broken up massive patch -=chak
        Original log message:  
        This is (sadly) all done in one patch to avoid Darcs bugs.
        It's not complete work... more FC stuff to come.  A compiler
        using just this patch will fail dismally.
      d5bba9ee
  35. 11 Sep, 2006 1 commit
  36. 07 Apr, 2006 1 commit
    • Simon Marlow's avatar
      Reorganisation of the source tree · 0065d5ab
      Simon Marlow authored
      Most of the other users of the fptools build system have migrated to
      Cabal, and with the move to darcs we can now flatten the source tree
      without losing history, so here goes.
      
      The main change is that the ghc/ subdir is gone, and most of what it
      contained is now at the top level.  The build system now makes no
      pretense at being multi-project, it is just the GHC build system.
      
      No doubt this will break many things, and there will be a period of
      instability while we fix the dependencies.  A straightforward build
      should work, but I haven't yet fixed binary/source distributions.
      Changes to the Building Guide will follow, too.
      0065d5ab
  37. 25 Jan, 2006 1 commit
    • simonpj@microsoft.com's avatar
      Simon's big boxy-type commit · ac10f840
      simonpj@microsoft.com authored
      This very large commit adds impredicativity to GHC, plus
      numerous other small things.
        
      *** WARNING: I have compiled all the libraries, and
      ***	     a stage-2 compiler, and everything seems
      ***	     fine.  But don't grab this patch if you 
      ***	     can't tolerate a hiccup if something is
      ***	     broken.
        
      The big picture is this:
      
      a) GHC handles impredicative polymorphism, as described in the
         "Boxy types: type inference for higher-rank types and
         impredicativity" paper
      
      b) GHC handles GADTs in the new simplified (and very sligtly less
         epxrssive) way described in the
         "Simple unification-based type inference for GADTs" paper
      
        
      But there are lots of smaller changes, and since it was pre-Darcs
      they are not individually recorded.
        
      Some things to watch out for:
        
      c)   The story on lexically-scoped type variables has changed, as per
           my email.  I append the story below for completeness, but I 
           am still not happy with it, and it may change again.  In particular,
           the new story does not allow a pattern-bound scoped type variable
           to be wobbly, so (\(x::[a]) -> ...) is usually rejected.  This is
           more restrictive than before, and we might loosen up again.
        
      d)   A consequence of adding impredicativity is that GHC is a bit less
           gung ho about converting automatically between
        	(ty1 -> forall a. ty2)    and    (forall a. ty1 -> ty2)
           In particular, you may need to eta-expand some functions to make
           typechecking work again.
         
           Furthermore, functions are now invariant in their argument types,
           rather than being contravariant.  Again, the main consequence is
           that you may occasionally need to eta-expand function arguments when
           using higher-rank polymorphism.
        
      
      Please test, and let me know of any hiccups
      
      
      Scoped type variables in GHC
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      	January 2006
      
      0) Terminology.
         
         A *pattern binding* is of the form
      	pat = rhs
      
         A *function binding* is of the form
      	f pat1 .. patn = rhs
      
         A binding of the formm
      	var = rhs
         is treated as a (degenerate) *function binding*.
      
      
         A *declaration type signature* is a separate type signature for a
         let-bound or where-bound variable:
      	f :: Int -> Int
      
         A *pattern type signature* is a signature in a pattern: 
      	\(x::a) -> x
      	f (x::a) = x
      
         A *result type signature* is a signature on the result of a
         function definition:
      	f :: forall a. [a] -> a
      	head (x:xs) :: a = x
      
         The form
      	x :: a = rhs
         is treated as a (degnerate) function binding with a result
         type signature, not as a pattern binding.
      
      1) The main invariants:
      
           A) A lexically-scoped type variable always names a (rigid)
       	type variable (not an arbitrary type).  THIS IS A CHANGE.
              Previously, a scoped type variable named an arbitrary *type*.
      
           B) A type signature always describes a rigid type (since
      	its free (scoped) type variables name rigid type variables).
      	This is also a change, a consequence of (A).
      
           C) Distinct lexically-scoped type variables name distinct
      	rigid type variables.  This choice is open; 
      
      2) Scoping
      
      2(a) If a declaration type signature has an explicit forall, those type
         variables are brought into scope in the right hand side of the 
         corresponding binding (plus, for function bindings, the patterns on
         the LHS).  
      	f :: forall a. a -> [a]
      	f (x::a) = [x :: a, x]
         Both occurences of 'a' in the second line are bound by 
         the 'forall a' in the first line
      
         A declaration type signature *without* an explicit top-level forall
         is implicitly quantified over all the type variables that are
         mentioned in the type but not already in scope.  GHC's current
         rule is that this implicit quantification does *not* bring into scope
         any new scoped type variables.
      	f :: a -> a
      	f x = ...('a' is not in scope here)...
         This gives compatibility with Haskell 98
      
      2(b) A pattern type signature implicitly brings into scope any type
         variables mentioned in the type that are not already into scope.
         These are called *pattern-bound type variables*.
      	g :: a -> a -> [a]
      	g (x::a) (y::a) = [y :: a, x]
         The pattern type signature (x::a) brings 'a' into scope.
         The 'a' in the pattern (y::a) is bound, as is the occurrence on 
         the RHS.  
      
         A pattern type siganture is the only way you can bring existentials 
         into scope.
      	data T where
      	  MkT :: forall a. a -> (a->Int) -> T
      
      	f x = case x of
      		MkT (x::a) f -> f (x::a)
      
      2a) QUESTION
      	class C a where
      	  op :: forall b. b->a->a
      
      	instance C (T p q) where
      	  op = <rhs>
          Clearly p,q are in scope in <rhs>, but is 'b'?  Not at the moment.
          Nor can you add a type signature for op in the instance decl.
          You'd have to say this:
      	instance C (T p q) where
      	  op = let op' :: forall b. ...
      	           op' = <rhs>
      	       in op'
      
      3) A pattern-bound type variable is allowed only if the pattern's
         expected type is rigid.  Otherwise we don't know exactly *which*
         skolem the scoped type variable should be bound to, and that means
         we can't do GADT refinement.  This is invariant (A), and it is a 
         big change from the current situation.
      
      	f (x::a) = x	-- NO; pattern type is wobbly
      	
      	g1 :: b -> b
      	g1 (x::b) = x	-- YES, because the pattern type is rigid
      
      	g2 :: b -> b
      	g2 (x::c) = x	-- YES, same reason
      
      	h :: forall b. b -> b
      	h (x::b) = x	-- YES, but the inner b is bound
      
      	k :: forall b. b -> b
      	k (x::c) = x	-- NO, it can't be both b and c
      
      3a) You cannot give different names for the same type variable in the same scope
          (Invariant (C)):
      
      	f1 :: p -> p -> p		-- NO; because 'a' and 'b' would be
      	f1 (x::a) (y::b) = (x::a)	--     bound to the same type variable
      
      	f2 :: p -> p -> p		-- OK; 'a' is bound to the type variable
      	f2 (x::a) (y::a) = (x::a)	--     over which f2 is quantified
      					-- NB: 'p' is not lexically scoped
      
      	f3 :: forall p. p -> p -> p	-- NO: 'p' is now scoped, and is bound to
      	f3 (x::a) (y::a) = (x::a)	--     to the same type varialble as 'a'
      
      	f4 :: forall p. p -> p -> p	-- OK: 'p' is now scoped, and its occurences
      	f4 (x::p) (y::p) = (x::p)	--     in the patterns are bound by the forall
      
      
      3b) You can give a different name to the same type variable in different
          disjoint scopes, just as you can (if you want) give diferent names to 
          the same value parameter
      
      	g :: a -> Bool -> Maybe a
      	g (x::p) True  = Just x  :: Maybe p
      	g (y::q) False = Nothing :: Maybe q
      
      3c) Scoped type variables respect alpha renaming. For example, 
          function f2 from (3a) above could also be written:
      	f2' :: p -> p -> p
      	f2' (x::b) (y::b) = x::b
         where the scoped type variable is called 'b' instead of 'a'.
      
      
      4) Result type signatures obey the same rules as pattern types signatures.
         In particular, they can bind a type variable only if the result type is rigid
      
      	f x :: a = x	-- NO
      
      	g :: b -> b
      	g x :: b = x	-- YES; binds b in rhs
      
      5) A *pattern type signature* in a *pattern binding* cannot bind a 
         scoped type variable
      
      	(x::a, y) = ...		-- Legal only if 'a' is already in scope
      
         Reason: in type checking, the "expected type" of the LHS pattern is
         always wobbly, so we can't bind a rigid type variable.  (The exception
         would be for an existential type variable, but existentials are not
         allowed in pattern bindings either.)
       
         Even this is illegal
      	f :: forall a. a -> a
      	f x = let ((y::b)::a, z) = ... 
      	      in 
         Here it looks as if 'b' might get a rigid binding; but you can't bind
         it to the same skolem as a.
      
      6) Explicitly-forall'd type variables in the *declaration type signature(s)*
         for a *pattern binding* do not scope AT ALL.
      
      	x :: forall a. a->a	  -- NO; the forall a does 
      	Just (x::a->a) = Just id  --     not scope at all
      
      	y :: forall a. a->a
      	Just y = Just (id :: a->a)  -- NO; same reason
      
         THIS IS A CHANGE, but one I bet that very few people will notice.
         Here's why:
      
      	strange :: forall b. (b->b,b->b)
      	strange = (id,id)
      
      	x1 :: forall a. a->a
      	y1 :: forall b. b->b
      	(x1,y1) = strange
      
          This is legal Haskell 98 (modulo the forall). If both 'a' and 'b'
          both scoped over the RHS, they'd get unified and so cannot stand
          for distinct type variables. One could *imagine* allowing this:
         
      	x2 :: forall a. a->a
      	y2 :: forall a. a->a
      	(x2,y2) = strange
      
          using the very same type variable 'a' in both signatures, so that
          a single 'a' scopes over the RHS.  That seems defensible, but odd,
          because though there are two type signatures, they introduce just
          *one* scoped type variable, a.
      
      7) Possible extension.  We might consider allowing
      	\(x :: [ _ ]) -> <expr>
          where "_" is a wild card, to mean "x has type list of something", without
          naming the something.
      ac10f840