%
% (c) The GRASP/AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 1992-1998
%
\section[TcSimplify]{TcSimplify}
\begin{code}
module TcSimplify (
tcSimplifyInfer, tcSimplifyInferCheck,
tcSimplifyCheck, tcSimplifyRestricted,
tcSimplifyToDicts, tcSimplifyIPs, tcSimplifyTop,
tcSimplifyDeriv, tcSimplifyDefault,
bindInstsOfLocalFuns
) where
#include "HsVersions.h"
import {-# SOURCE #-} TcUnify( unifyTauTy )
import HsSyn ( MonoBinds(..), HsExpr(..), andMonoBinds, andMonoBindList )
import TcHsSyn ( TcExpr, TcId,
TcMonoBinds, TcDictBinds
)
import TcMonad
import Inst ( lookupInst, LookupInstResult(..),
tyVarsOfInst, predsOfInsts, predsOfInst, newDicts,
isDict, isClassDict, isLinearInst, linearInstType,
isStdClassTyVarDict, isMethodFor, isMethod,
instToId, tyVarsOfInsts, cloneDict,
ipNamesOfInsts, ipNamesOfInst, dictPred,
instBindingRequired, instCanBeGeneralised,
newDictsFromOld, newMethodAtLoc,
getDictClassTys, isTyVarDict,
instLoc, pprInst, zonkInst, tidyInsts, tidyMoreInsts,
Inst, LIE, pprInsts, pprInstsInFull,
mkLIE, lieToList
)
import TcEnv ( tcGetGlobalTyVars, tcGetInstEnv, tcLookupGlobalId )
import InstEnv ( lookupInstEnv, classInstEnv, InstLookupResult(..) )
import TcMType ( zonkTcTyVarsAndFV, tcInstTyVars, checkAmbiguity )
import TcType ( TcTyVar, TcTyVarSet, ThetaType,
mkClassPred, isOverloadedTy, mkTyConApp,
mkTyVarTy, tcGetTyVar, isTyVarClassPred, mkTyVarTys,
tyVarsOfPred, isIPPred, isInheritablePred, predHasFDs )
import Id ( idType, mkUserLocal )
import Var ( TyVar )
import Name ( getOccName, getSrcLoc )
import NameSet ( NameSet, mkNameSet, elemNameSet )
import Class ( classBigSig )
import FunDeps ( oclose, grow, improve, pprEquationDoc )
import PrelInfo ( isNumericClass, isCreturnableClass, isCcallishClass,
splitName, fstName, sndName )
import Subst ( mkTopTyVarSubst, substTheta, substTy )
import TysWiredIn ( unitTy, pairTyCon )
import VarSet
import FiniteMap
import Outputable
import ListSetOps ( equivClasses )
import Util ( zipEqual )
import List ( partition )
import CmdLineOpts
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection{NOTES}
%* *
%************************************************************************
--------------------------------------
Notes on quantification
--------------------------------------
Suppose we are about to do a generalisation step.
We have in our hand
G the environment
T the type of the RHS
C the constraints from that RHS
The game is to figure out
Q the set of type variables over which to quantify
Ct the constraints we will *not* quantify over
Cq the constraints we will quantify over
So we're going to infer the type
forall Q. Cq => T
and float the constraints Ct further outwards.
Here are the things that *must* be true:
(A) Q intersect fv(G) = EMPTY limits how big Q can be
(B) Q superset fv(Cq union T) \ oclose(fv(G),C) limits how small Q can be
(A) says we can't quantify over a variable that's free in the
environment. (B) says we must quantify over all the truly free
variables in T, else we won't get a sufficiently general type. We do
not *need* to quantify over any variable that is fixed by the free
vars of the environment G.
BETWEEN THESE TWO BOUNDS, ANY Q WILL DO!
Example: class H x y | x->y where ...
fv(G) = {a} C = {H a b, H c d}
T = c -> b
(A) Q intersect {a} is empty
(B) Q superset {a,b,c,d} \ oclose({a}, C) = {a,b,c,d} \ {a,b} = {c,d}
So Q can be {c,d}, {b,c,d}
Other things being equal, however, we'd like to quantify over as few
variables as possible: smaller types, fewer type applications, more
constraints can get into Ct instead of Cq.
-----------------------------------------
We will make use of
fv(T) the free type vars of T
oclose(vs,C) The result of extending the set of tyvars vs
using the functional dependencies from C
grow(vs,C) The result of extend the set of tyvars vs
using all conceivable links from C.
E.g. vs = {a}, C = {H [a] b, K (b,Int) c, Eq e}
Then grow(vs,C) = {a,b,c}
Note that grow(vs,C) `superset` grow(vs,simplify(C))
That is, simplfication can only shrink the result of grow.
Notice that
oclose is conservative one way: v `elem` oclose(vs,C) => v is definitely fixed by vs
grow is conservative the other way: if v might be fixed by vs => v `elem` grow(vs,C)
-----------------------------------------
Choosing Q
~~~~~~~~~~
Here's a good way to choose Q:
Q = grow( fv(T), C ) \ oclose( fv(G), C )
That is, quantify over all variable that that MIGHT be fixed by the
call site (which influences T), but which aren't DEFINITELY fixed by
G. This choice definitely quantifies over enough type variables,
albeit perhaps too many.
Why grow( fv(T), C ) rather than fv(T)? Consider
class H x y | x->y where ...
T = c->c
C = (H c d)
If we used fv(T) = {c} we'd get the type
forall c. H c d => c -> b
And then if the fn was called at several different c's, each of
which fixed d differently, we'd get a unification error, because
d isn't quantified. Solution: quantify d. So we must quantify
everything that might be influenced by c.
Why not oclose( fv(T), C )? Because we might not be able to see
all the functional dependencies yet:
class H x y | x->y where ...
instance H x y => Eq (T x y) where ...
T = c->c
C = (Eq (T c d))
Now oclose(fv(T),C) = {c}, because the functional dependency isn't
apparent yet, and that's wrong. We must really quantify over d too.
There really isn't any point in quantifying over any more than
grow( fv(T), C ), because the call sites can't possibly influence
any other type variables.
--------------------------------------
Notes on ambiguity
--------------------------------------
It's very hard to be certain when a type is ambiguous. Consider
class K x
class H x y | x -> y
instance H x y => K (x,y)
Is this type ambiguous?
forall a b. (K (a,b), Eq b) => a -> a
Looks like it! But if we simplify (K (a,b)) we get (H a b) and
now we see that a fixes b. So we can't tell about ambiguity for sure
without doing a full simplification. And even that isn't possible if
the context has some free vars that may get unified. Urgle!
Here's another example: is this ambiguous?
forall a b. Eq (T b) => a -> a
Not if there's an insance decl (with no context)
instance Eq (T b) where ...
You may say of this example that we should use the instance decl right
away, but you can't always do that:
class J a b where ...
instance J Int b where ...
f :: forall a b. J a b => a -> a
(Notice: no functional dependency in J's class decl.)
Here f's type is perfectly fine, provided f is only called at Int.
It's premature to complain when meeting f's signature, or even
when inferring a type for f.
However, we don't *need* to report ambiguity right away. It'll always
show up at the call site.... and eventually at main, which needs special
treatment. Nevertheless, reporting ambiguity promptly is an excellent thing.
So here's the plan. We WARN about probable ambiguity if
fv(Cq) is not a subset of oclose(fv(T) union fv(G), C)
(all tested before quantification).
That is, all the type variables in Cq must be fixed by the the variables
in the environment, or by the variables in the type.
Notice that we union before calling oclose. Here's an example:
class J a b c | a b -> c
fv(G) = {a}
Is this ambiguous?
forall b c. (J a b c) => b -> b
Only if we union {a} from G with {b} from T before using oclose,
do we see that c is fixed.
It's a bit vague exactly which C we should use for this oclose call. If we
don't fix enough variables we might complain when we shouldn't (see
the above nasty example). Nothing will be perfect. That's why we can
only issue a warning.
Can we ever be *certain* about ambiguity? Yes: if there's a constraint
c in C such that fv(c) intersect (fv(G) union fv(T)) = EMPTY
then c is a "bubble"; there's no way it can ever improve, and it's
certainly ambiguous. UNLESS it is a constant (sigh). And what about
the nasty example?
class K x
class H x y | x -> y
instance H x y => K (x,y)
Is this type ambiguous?
forall a b. (K (a,b), Eq b) => a -> a
Urk. The (Eq b) looks "definitely ambiguous" but it isn't. What we are after
is a "bubble" that's a set of constraints
Cq = Ca union Cq' st fv(Ca) intersect (fv(Cq') union fv(T) union fv(G)) = EMPTY
Hence another idea. To decide Q start with fv(T) and grow it
by transitive closure in Cq (no functional dependencies involved).
Now partition Cq using Q, leaving the definitely-ambiguous and probably-ok.
The definitely-ambiguous can then float out, and get smashed at top level
(which squashes out the constants, like Eq (T a) above)
--------------------------------------
Notes on principal types
--------------------------------------
class C a where
op :: a -> a
f x = let g y = op (y::Int) in True
Here the principal type of f is (forall a. a->a)
but we'll produce the non-principal type
f :: forall a. C Int => a -> a
--------------------------------------
Notes on implicit parameters
--------------------------------------
Question 1: can we "inherit" implicit parameters
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider this:
f x = (x::Int) + ?y
where f is *not* a top-level binding.
From the RHS of f we'll get the constraint (?y::Int).
There are two types we might infer for f:
f :: Int -> Int
(so we get ?y from the context of f's definition), or
f :: (?y::Int) => Int -> Int
At first you might think the first was better, becuase then
?y behaves like a free variable of the definition, rather than
having to be passed at each call site. But of course, the WHOLE
IDEA is that ?y should be passed at each call site (that's what
dynamic binding means) so we'd better infer the second.
BOTTOM LINE: when *inferring types* you *must* quantify
over implicit parameters. See the predicate isFreeWhenInferring.
Question 2: type signatures
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
BUT WATCH OUT: When you supply a type signature, we can't force you
to quantify over implicit parameters. For example:
(?x + 1) :: Int
This is perfectly reasonable. We do not want to insist on
(?x + 1) :: (?x::Int => Int)
That would be silly. Here, the definition site *is* the occurrence site,
so the above strictures don't apply. Hence the difference between
tcSimplifyCheck (which *does* allow implicit paramters to be inherited)
and tcSimplifyCheckBind (which does not).
What about when you supply a type signature for a binding?
Is it legal to give the following explicit, user type
signature to f, thus:
f :: Int -> Int
f x = (x::Int) + ?y
At first sight this seems reasonable, but it has the nasty property
that adding a type signature changes the dynamic semantics.
Consider this:
(let f x = (x::Int) + ?y
in (f 3, f 3 with ?y=5)) with ?y = 6
returns (3+6, 3+5)
vs
(let f :: Int -> Int
f x = x + ?y
in (f 3, f 3 with ?y=5)) with ?y = 6
returns (3+6, 3+6)
Indeed, simply inlining f (at the Haskell source level) would change the
dynamic semantics.
Nevertheless, as Launchbury says (email Oct 01) we can't really give the
semantics for a Haskell program without knowing its typing, so if you
change the typing you may change the semantics.
To make things consistent in all cases where we are *checking* against
a supplied signature (as opposed to inferring a type), we adopt the
rule:
a signature does not need to quantify over implicit params.
[This represents a (rather marginal) change of policy since GHC 5.02,
which *required* an explicit signature to quantify over all implicit
params for the reasons mentioned above.]
But that raises a new question. Consider
Given (signature) ?x::Int
Wanted (inferred) ?x::Int, ?y::Bool
Clearly we want to discharge the ?x and float the ?y out. But
what is the criterion that distinguishes them? Clearly it isn't
what free type variables they have. The Right Thing seems to be
to float a constraint that
neither mentions any of the quantified type variables
nor any of the quantified implicit parameters
See the predicate isFreeWhenChecking.
Question 3: monomorphism
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
There's a nasty corner case when the monomorphism restriction bites:
z = (x::Int) + ?y
The argument above suggests that we *must* generalise
over the ?y parameter, to get
z :: (?y::Int) => Int,
but the monomorphism restriction says that we *must not*, giving
z :: Int.
Why does the momomorphism restriction say this? Because if you have
let z = x + ?y in z+z
you might not expect the addition to be done twice --- but it will if
we follow the argument of Question 2 and generalise over ?y.
Possible choices
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(A) Always generalise over implicit parameters
Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
be generalised
Consequences:
* Inlining remains valid
* No unexpected loss of sharing
* But simple bindings like
z = ?y + 1
will be rejected, unless you add an explicit type signature
(to avoid the monomorphism restriction)
z :: (?y::Int) => Int
z = ?y + 1
This seems unacceptable
(B) Monomorphism restriction "wins"
Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
be generalised
Always generalise over implicit parameters *except* for bindings
that fall under the monomorphism restriction
Consequences
* Inlining isn't valid in general
* No unexpected loss of sharing
* Simple bindings like
z = ?y + 1
accepted (get value of ?y from binding site)
(C) Always generalise over implicit parameters
Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
be generalised, EXCEPT for implicit parameters
Consequences
* Inlining remains valid
* Unexpected loss of sharing (from the extra generalisation)
* Simple bindings like
z = ?y + 1
accepted (get value of ?y from occurrence sites)
Discussion
~~~~~~~~~~
None of these choices seems very satisfactory. But at least we should
decide which we want to do.
It's really not clear what is the Right Thing To Do. If you see
z = (x::Int) + ?y
would you expect the value of ?y to be got from the *occurrence sites*
of 'z', or from the valuue of ?y at the *definition* of 'z'? In the
case of function definitions, the answer is clearly the former, but
less so in the case of non-fucntion definitions. On the other hand,
if we say that we get the value of ?y from the definition site of 'z',
then inlining 'z' might change the semantics of the program.
Choice (C) really says "the monomorphism restriction doesn't apply
to implicit parameters". Which is fine, but remember that every
innocent binding 'x = ...' that mentions an implicit parameter in
the RHS becomes a *function* of that parameter, called at each
use of 'x'. Now, the chances are that there are no intervening 'with'
clauses that bind ?y, so a decent compiler should common up all
those function calls. So I think I strongly favour (C). Indeed,
one could make a similar argument for abolishing the monomorphism
restriction altogether.
BOTTOM LINE: we choose (B) at present. See tcSimplifyRestricted
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection{tcSimplifyInfer}
%* *
%************************************************************************
tcSimplify is called when we *inferring* a type. Here's the overall game plan:
1. Compute Q = grow( fvs(T), C )
2. Partition C based on Q into Ct and Cq. Notice that ambiguous
predicates will end up in Ct; we deal with them at the top level
3. Try improvement, using functional dependencies
4. If Step 3 did any unification, repeat from step 1
(Unification can change the result of 'grow'.)
Note: we don't reduce dictionaries in step 2. For example, if we have
Eq (a,b), we don't simplify to (Eq a, Eq b). So Q won't be different
after step 2. However note that we may therefore quantify over more
type variables than we absolutely have to.
For the guts, we need a loop, that alternates context reduction and
improvement with unification. E.g. Suppose we have
class C x y | x->y where ...
and tcSimplify is called with:
(C Int a, C Int b)
Then improvement unifies a with b, giving
(C Int a, C Int a)
If we need to unify anything, we rattle round the whole thing all over
again.
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyInfer
:: SDoc
-> TcTyVarSet -- fv(T); type vars
-> LIE -- Wanted
-> TcM ([TcTyVar], -- Tyvars to quantify (zonked)
LIE, -- Free
TcDictBinds, -- Bindings
[TcId]) -- Dict Ids that must be bound here (zonked)
\end{code}
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyInfer doc tau_tvs wanted_lie
= inferLoop doc (varSetElems tau_tvs)
(lieToList wanted_lie) `thenTc` \ (qtvs, frees, binds, irreds) ->
-- Check for non-generalisable insts
mapTc_ addCantGenErr (filter (not . instCanBeGeneralised) irreds) `thenTc_`
returnTc (qtvs, mkLIE frees, binds, map instToId irreds)
inferLoop doc tau_tvs wanteds
= -- Step 1
zonkTcTyVarsAndFV tau_tvs `thenNF_Tc` \ tau_tvs' ->
mapNF_Tc zonkInst wanteds `thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
tcGetGlobalTyVars `thenNF_Tc` \ gbl_tvs ->
let
preds = predsOfInsts wanteds'
qtvs = grow preds tau_tvs' `minusVarSet` oclose preds gbl_tvs
try_me inst
| isFreeWhenInferring qtvs inst = Free
| isClassDict inst = DontReduceUnlessConstant -- Dicts
| otherwise = ReduceMe -- Lits and Methods
in
-- Step 2
reduceContext doc try_me [] wanteds' `thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
-- Step 3
if no_improvement then
returnTc (varSetElems qtvs, frees, binds, irreds)
else
-- If improvement did some unification, we go round again. There
-- are two subtleties:
-- a) We start again with irreds, not wanteds
-- Using an instance decl might have introduced a fresh type variable
-- which might have been unified, so we'd get an infinite loop
-- if we started again with wanteds! See example [LOOP]
--
-- b) It's also essential to re-process frees, because unification
-- might mean that a type variable that looked free isn't now.
--
-- Hence the (irreds ++ frees)
-- However, NOTICE that when we are done, we might have some bindings, but
-- the final qtvs might be empty. See [NO TYVARS] below.
inferLoop doc tau_tvs (irreds ++ frees) `thenTc` \ (qtvs1, frees1, binds1, irreds1) ->
returnTc (qtvs1, frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1, irreds1)
\end{code}
Example [LOOP]
class If b t e r | b t e -> r
instance If T t e t
instance If F t e e
class Lte a b c | a b -> c where lte :: a -> b -> c
instance Lte Z b T
instance (Lte a b l,If l b a c) => Max a b c
Wanted: Max Z (S x) y
Then we'll reduce using the Max instance to:
(Lte Z (S x) l, If l (S x) Z y)
and improve by binding l->T, after which we can do some reduction
on both the Lte and If constraints. What we *can't* do is start again
with (Max Z (S x) y)!
[NO TYVARS]
class Y a b | a -> b where
y :: a -> X b
instance Y [[a]] a where
y ((x:_):_) = X x
k :: X a -> X a -> X a
g :: Num a => [X a] -> [X a]
g xs = h xs
where
h ys = ys ++ map (k (y [[0]])) xs
The excitement comes when simplifying the bindings for h. Initially
try to simplify {y @ [[t1]] t2, 0 @ t1}, with initial qtvs = {t2}.
From this we get t1:=:t2, but also various bindings. We can't forget
the bindings (because of [LOOP]), but in fact t1 is what g is
polymorphic in.
The net effect of [NO TYVARS]
\begin{code}
isFreeWhenInferring :: TyVarSet -> Inst -> Bool
isFreeWhenInferring qtvs inst
= isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst -- Constrains no quantified vars
&& all isInheritablePred (predsOfInst inst) -- And no implicit parameter involved
-- (see "Notes on implicit parameters")
isFreeWhenChecking :: TyVarSet -- Quantified tyvars
-> NameSet -- Quantified implicit parameters
-> Inst -> Bool
isFreeWhenChecking qtvs ips inst
= isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst
&& isFreeWrtIPs ips inst
isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst = not (tyVarsOfInst inst `intersectsVarSet` qtvs)
isFreeWrtIPs ips inst = not (any (`elemNameSet` ips) (ipNamesOfInst inst))
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection{tcSimplifyCheck}
%* *
%************************************************************************
@tcSimplifyCheck@ is used when we know exactly the set of variables
we are going to quantify over. For example, a class or instance declaration.
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyCheck
:: SDoc
-> [TcTyVar] -- Quantify over these
-> [Inst] -- Given
-> LIE -- Wanted
-> TcM (LIE, -- Free
TcDictBinds) -- Bindings
-- tcSimplifyCheck is used when checking expression type signatures,
-- class decls, instance decls etc.
-- Note that we psss isFree (not isFreeAndInheritable) to tcSimplCheck
-- It's important that we can float out non-inheritable predicates
-- Example: (?x :: Int) is ok!
tcSimplifyCheck doc qtvs givens wanted_lie
= tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs
givens wanted_lie `thenTc` \ (qtvs', frees, binds) ->
returnTc (frees, binds)
where
get_qtvs = zonkTcTyVarsAndFV qtvs
-- tcSimplifyInferCheck is used when we know the constraints we are to simplify
-- against, but we don't know the type variables over which we are going to quantify.
-- This happens when we have a type signature for a mutually recursive group
tcSimplifyInferCheck
:: SDoc
-> TcTyVarSet -- fv(T)
-> [Inst] -- Given
-> LIE -- Wanted
-> TcM ([TcTyVar], -- Variables over which to quantify
LIE, -- Free
TcDictBinds) -- Bindings
tcSimplifyInferCheck doc tau_tvs givens wanted_lie
= tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs givens wanted_lie
where
-- Figure out which type variables to quantify over
-- You might think it should just be the signature tyvars,
-- but in bizarre cases you can get extra ones
-- f :: forall a. Num a => a -> a
-- f x = fst (g (x, head [])) + 1
-- g a b = (b,a)
-- Here we infer g :: forall a b. a -> b -> (b,a)
-- We don't want g to be monomorphic in b just because
-- f isn't quantified over b.
all_tvs = varSetElems (tau_tvs `unionVarSet` tyVarsOfInsts givens)
get_qtvs = zonkTcTyVarsAndFV all_tvs `thenNF_Tc` \ all_tvs' ->
tcGetGlobalTyVars `thenNF_Tc` \ gbl_tvs ->
let
qtvs = all_tvs' `minusVarSet` gbl_tvs
-- We could close gbl_tvs, but its not necessary for
-- soundness, and it'll only affect which tyvars, not which
-- dictionaries, we quantify over
in
returnNF_Tc qtvs
\end{code}
Here is the workhorse function for all three wrappers.
\begin{code}
tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs givens wanted_lie
= check_loop givens (lieToList wanted_lie) `thenTc` \ (qtvs, frees, binds, irreds) ->
-- Complain about any irreducible ones
complainCheck doc givens irreds `thenNF_Tc_`
-- Done
returnTc (qtvs, mkLIE frees, binds)
where
ip_set = mkNameSet (ipNamesOfInsts givens)
check_loop givens wanteds
= -- Step 1
mapNF_Tc zonkInst givens `thenNF_Tc` \ givens' ->
mapNF_Tc zonkInst wanteds `thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
get_qtvs `thenNF_Tc` \ qtvs' ->
-- Step 2
let
-- When checking against a given signature we always reduce
-- until we find a match against something given, or can't reduce
try_me inst | isFreeWhenChecking qtvs' ip_set inst = Free
| otherwise = ReduceMe
in
reduceContext doc try_me givens' wanteds' `thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
-- Step 3
if no_improvement then
returnTc (varSetElems qtvs', frees, binds, irreds)
else
check_loop givens' (irreds ++ frees) `thenTc` \ (qtvs', frees1, binds1, irreds1) ->
returnTc (qtvs', frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1, irreds1)
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection{tcSimplifyRestricted}
%* *
%************************************************************************
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyRestricted -- Used for restricted binding groups
-- i.e. ones subject to the monomorphism restriction
:: SDoc
-> TcTyVarSet -- Free in the type of the RHSs
-> LIE -- Free in the RHSs
-> TcM ([TcTyVar], -- Tyvars to quantify (zonked)
LIE, -- Free
TcDictBinds) -- Bindings
tcSimplifyRestricted doc tau_tvs wanted_lie
= -- First squash out all methods, to find the constrained tyvars
-- We can't just take the free vars of wanted_lie because that'll
-- have methods that may incidentally mention entirely unconstrained variables
-- e.g. a call to f :: Eq a => a -> b -> b
-- Here, b is unconstrained. A good example would be
-- foo = f (3::Int)
-- We want to infer the polymorphic type
-- foo :: forall b. b -> b
let
wanteds = lieToList wanted_lie
try_me inst = ReduceMe -- Reduce as far as we can. Don't stop at
-- dicts; the idea is to get rid of as many type
-- variables as possible, and we don't want to stop
-- at (say) Monad (ST s), because that reduces
-- immediately, with no constraint on s.
in
simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds `thenTc` \ (_, _, constrained_dicts) ->
-- Next, figure out the tyvars we will quantify over
zonkTcTyVarsAndFV (varSetElems tau_tvs) `thenNF_Tc` \ tau_tvs' ->
tcGetGlobalTyVars `thenNF_Tc` \ gbl_tvs ->
let
constrained_tvs = tyVarsOfInsts constrained_dicts
qtvs = (tau_tvs' `minusVarSet` oclose (predsOfInsts constrained_dicts) gbl_tvs)
`minusVarSet` constrained_tvs
in
-- The first step may have squashed more methods than
-- necessary, so try again, this time knowing the exact
-- set of type variables to quantify over.
--
-- We quantify only over constraints that are captured by qtvs;
-- these will just be a subset of non-dicts. This in contrast
-- to normal inference (using isFreeWhenInferring) in which we quantify over
-- all *non-inheritable* constraints too. This implements choice
-- (B) under "implicit parameter and monomorphism" above.
--
-- Remember that we may need to do *some* simplification, to
-- (for example) squash {Monad (ST s)} into {}. It's not enough
-- just to float all constraints
mapNF_Tc zonkInst (lieToList wanted_lie) `thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
let
try_me inst | isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst = Free
| otherwise = ReduceMe
in
reduceContext doc try_me [] wanteds' `thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
ASSERT( no_improvement )
ASSERT( null irreds )
-- No need to loop because simpleReduceLoop will have
-- already done any improvement necessary
returnTc (varSetElems qtvs, mkLIE frees, binds)
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection{tcSimplifyToDicts}
%* *
%************************************************************************
On the LHS of transformation rules we only simplify methods and constants,
getting dictionaries. We want to keep all of them unsimplified, to serve
as the available stuff for the RHS of the rule.
The same thing is used for specialise pragmas. Consider
f :: Num a => a -> a
{-# SPECIALISE f :: Int -> Int #-}
f = ...
The type checker generates a binding like:
f_spec = (f :: Int -> Int)
and we want to end up with
f_spec = _inline_me_ (f Int dNumInt)
But that means that we must simplify the Method for f to (f Int dNumInt)!
So tcSimplifyToDicts squeezes out all Methods.
IMPORTANT NOTE: we *don't* want to do superclass commoning up. Consider
fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b
{-# RULES "foo" fromIntegral = id :: Int -> Int #-}
Here, a=b=Int, and Num Int is a superclass of Integral Int. But we *dont*
want to get
forall dIntegralInt.
fromIntegral Int Int dIntegralInt (scsel dIntegralInt) = id Int
because the scsel will mess up matching. Instead we want
forall dIntegralInt, dNumInt.
fromIntegral Int Int dIntegralInt dNumInt = id Int
Hence "DontReduce NoSCs"
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyToDicts :: LIE -> TcM ([Inst], TcDictBinds)
tcSimplifyToDicts wanted_lie
= simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds `thenTc` \ (frees, binds, irreds) ->
-- Since try_me doesn't look at types, we don't need to
-- do any zonking, so it's safe to call reduceContext directly
ASSERT( null frees )
returnTc (irreds, binds)
where
doc = text "tcSimplifyToDicts"
wanteds = lieToList wanted_lie
-- Reduce methods and lits only; stop as soon as we get a dictionary
try_me inst | isDict inst = DontReduce NoSCs
| otherwise = ReduceMe
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection{Filtering at a dynamic binding}
%* *
%************************************************************************
When we have
let ?x = R in B
we must discharge all the ?x constraints from B. We also do an improvement
step; if we have ?x::t1 and ?x::t2 we must unify t1, t2.
Actually, the constraints from B might improve the types in ?x. For example
f :: (?x::Int) => Char -> Char
let ?x = 3 in f 'c'
then the constraint (?x::Int) arising from the call to f will
force the binding for ?x to be of type Int.
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyIPs :: [Inst] -- The implicit parameters bound here
-> LIE
-> TcM (LIE, TcDictBinds)
tcSimplifyIPs given_ips wanted_lie
= simpl_loop given_ips wanteds `thenTc` \ (frees, binds) ->
returnTc (mkLIE frees, binds)
where
doc = text "tcSimplifyIPs" <+> ppr given_ips
wanteds = lieToList wanted_lie
ip_set = mkNameSet (ipNamesOfInsts given_ips)
-- Simplify any methods that mention the implicit parameter
try_me inst | isFreeWrtIPs ip_set inst = Free
| otherwise = ReduceMe
simpl_loop givens wanteds
= mapNF_Tc zonkInst givens `thenNF_Tc` \ givens' ->
mapNF_Tc zonkInst wanteds `thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
reduceContext doc try_me givens' wanteds' `thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
if no_improvement then
ASSERT( null irreds )
returnTc (frees, binds)
else
simpl_loop givens' (irreds ++ frees) `thenTc` \ (frees1, binds1) ->
returnTc (frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1)
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection[binds-for-local-funs]{@bindInstsOfLocalFuns@}
%* *
%************************************************************************
When doing a binding group, we may have @Insts@ of local functions.
For example, we might have...
\begin{verbatim}
let f x = x + 1 -- orig local function (overloaded)
f.1 = f Int -- two instances of f
f.2 = f Float
in
(f.1 5, f.2 6.7)
\end{verbatim}
The point is: we must drop the bindings for @f.1@ and @f.2@ here,
where @f@ is in scope; those @Insts@ must certainly not be passed
upwards towards the top-level. If the @Insts@ were binding-ified up
there, they would have unresolvable references to @f@.
We pass in an @init_lie@ of @Insts@ and a list of locally-bound @Ids@.
For each method @Inst@ in the @init_lie@ that mentions one of the
@Ids@, we create a binding. We return the remaining @Insts@ (in an
@LIE@), as well as the @HsBinds@ generated.
\begin{code}
bindInstsOfLocalFuns :: LIE -> [TcId] -> TcM (LIE, TcMonoBinds)
bindInstsOfLocalFuns init_lie local_ids
| null overloaded_ids
-- Common case
= returnTc (init_lie, EmptyMonoBinds)
| otherwise
= simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds `thenTc` \ (frees, binds, irreds) ->
ASSERT( null irreds )
returnTc (mkLIE frees, binds)
where
doc = text "bindInsts" <+> ppr local_ids
wanteds = lieToList init_lie
overloaded_ids = filter is_overloaded local_ids
is_overloaded id = isOverloadedTy (idType id)
overloaded_set = mkVarSet overloaded_ids -- There can occasionally be a lot of them
-- so it's worth building a set, so that
-- lookup (in isMethodFor) is faster
try_me inst | isMethodFor overloaded_set inst = ReduceMe
| otherwise = Free
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection{Data types for the reduction mechanism}
%* *
%************************************************************************
The main control over context reduction is here
\begin{code}
data WhatToDo
= ReduceMe -- Try to reduce this
-- If there's no instance, behave exactly like
-- DontReduce: add the inst to
-- the irreductible ones, but don't
-- produce an error message of any kind.
-- It might be quite legitimate such as (Eq a)!
| DontReduce WantSCs -- Return as irreducible
| DontReduceUnlessConstant -- Return as irreducible unless it can
-- be reduced to a constant in one step
| Free -- Return as free
reduceMe :: Inst -> WhatToDo
reduceMe inst = ReduceMe
data WantSCs = NoSCs | AddSCs -- Tells whether we should add the superclasses
-- of a predicate when adding it to the avails
\end{code}
\begin{code}
type Avails = FiniteMap Inst Avail
data Avail
= IsFree -- Used for free Insts
| Irred -- Used for irreducible dictionaries,
-- which are going to be lambda bound
| Given TcId -- Used for dictionaries for which we have a binding
-- e.g. those "given" in a signature
Bool -- True <=> actually consumed (splittable IPs only)
| NoRhs -- Used for Insts like (CCallable f)
-- where no witness is required.
| Rhs -- Used when there is a RHS
TcExpr -- The RHS
[Inst] -- Insts free in the RHS; we need these too
| Linear -- Splittable Insts only.
Int -- The Int is always 2 or more; indicates how
-- many copies are required
Inst -- The splitter
Avail -- Where the "master copy" is
| LinRhss -- Splittable Insts only; this is used only internally
-- by extractResults, where a Linear
-- is turned into an LinRhss
[TcExpr] -- A supply of suitable RHSs
pprAvails avails = vcat [sep [ppr inst, nest 2 (equals <+> pprAvail avail)]
| (inst,avail) <- fmToList avails ]
instance Outputable Avail where
ppr = pprAvail
pprAvail NoRhs = text ""
pprAvail IsFree = text "Free"
pprAvail Irred = text "Irred"
pprAvail (Given x b) = text "Given" <+> ppr x <+>
if b then text "(used)" else empty
pprAvail (Rhs rhs bs) = text "Rhs" <+> ppr rhs <+> braces (ppr bs)
pprAvail (Linear n i a) = text "Linear" <+> ppr n <+> braces (ppr i) <+> ppr a
pprAvail (LinRhss rhss) = text "LinRhss" <+> ppr rhss
\end{code}
Extracting the bindings from a bunch of Avails.
The bindings do *not* come back sorted in dependency order.
We assume that they'll be wrapped in a big Rec, so that the
dependency analyser can sort them out later
The loop startes
\begin{code}
extractResults :: Avails
-> [Inst] -- Wanted
-> NF_TcM (TcDictBinds, -- Bindings
[Inst], -- Irreducible ones
[Inst]) -- Free ones
extractResults avails wanteds
= go avails EmptyMonoBinds [] [] wanteds
where
go avails binds irreds frees []
= returnNF_Tc (binds, irreds, frees)
go avails binds irreds frees (w:ws)
= case lookupFM avails w of
Nothing -> pprTrace "Urk: extractResults" (ppr w) $
go avails binds irreds frees ws
Just NoRhs -> go avails binds irreds frees ws
Just IsFree -> go (add_free avails w) binds irreds (w:frees) ws
Just Irred -> go (add_given avails w) binds (w:irreds) frees ws
Just (Given id _) -> go avails new_binds irreds frees ws
where
new_binds | id == instToId w = binds
| otherwise = addBind binds w (HsVar id)
-- The sought Id can be one of the givens, via a superclass chain
-- and then we definitely don't want to generate an x=x binding!
Just (Rhs rhs ws') -> go (add_given avails w) new_binds irreds frees (ws' ++ ws)
where
new_binds = addBind binds w rhs
Just (LinRhss (rhs:rhss)) -- Consume one of the Rhss
-> go new_avails new_binds irreds frees ws
where
new_binds = addBind binds w rhs
new_avails = addToFM avails w (LinRhss rhss)
Just (Linear n split_inst avail)
-> split n (instToId split_inst) avail w `thenNF_Tc` \ (binds', (rhs:rhss), irreds') ->
go (addToFM avails w (LinRhss rhss))
(binds `AndMonoBinds` addBind binds' w rhs)
(irreds' ++ irreds) frees (split_inst:ws)
add_given avails w
| instBindingRequired w = addToFM avails w (Given (instToId w) True)
| otherwise = addToFM avails w NoRhs
-- NB: make sure that CCallable/CReturnable use NoRhs rather
-- than Given, else we end up with bogus bindings.
add_free avails w | isMethod w = avails
| otherwise = add_given avails w
-- NB: Hack alert!
-- Do *not* replace Free by Given if it's a method.
-- The following situation shows why this is bad:
-- truncate :: forall a. RealFrac a => forall b. Integral b => a -> b
-- From an application (truncate f i) we get
-- t1 = truncate at f
-- t2 = t1 at i
-- If we have also have a second occurrence of truncate, we get
-- t3 = truncate at f
-- t4 = t3 at i
-- When simplifying with i,f free, we might still notice that
-- t1=t3; but alas, the binding for t2 (which mentions t1)
-- will continue to float out!
-- (split n i a) returns: n rhss
-- auxiliary bindings
-- 1 or 0 insts to add to irreds
split :: Int -> TcId -> Avail -> Inst
-> NF_TcM (TcDictBinds, [TcExpr], [Inst])
-- (split n split_id avail wanted) returns
-- * a list of 'n' expressions, all of which witness 'avail'
-- * a bunch of auxiliary bindings to support these expressions
-- * one or zero insts needed to witness the whole lot
-- (maybe be zero if the initial Inst is a Given)
split n split_id avail wanted
= go n
where
ty = linearInstType wanted
pair_ty = mkTyConApp pairTyCon [ty,ty]
id = instToId wanted
occ = getOccName id
loc = getSrcLoc id
go 1 = case avail of
Given id _ -> returnNF_Tc (EmptyMonoBinds, [HsVar id], [])
Irred -> cloneDict wanted `thenNF_Tc` \ w' ->
returnNF_Tc (EmptyMonoBinds, [HsVar (instToId w')], [w'])
go n = go ((n+1) `div` 2) `thenNF_Tc` \ (binds1, rhss, irred) ->
expand n rhss `thenNF_Tc` \ (binds2, rhss') ->
returnNF_Tc (binds1 `AndMonoBinds` binds2, rhss', irred)
-- (expand n rhss)
-- Given ((n+1)/2) rhss, make n rhss, using auxiliary bindings
-- e.g. expand 3 [rhs1, rhs2]
-- = ( { x = split rhs1 },
-- [fst x, snd x, rhs2] )
expand n rhss
| n `rem` 2 == 0 = go rhss -- n is even
| otherwise = go (tail rhss) `thenNF_Tc` \ (binds', rhss') ->
returnNF_Tc (binds', head rhss : rhss')
where
go rhss = mapAndUnzipNF_Tc do_one rhss `thenNF_Tc` \ (binds', rhss') ->
returnNF_Tc (andMonoBindList binds', concat rhss')
do_one rhs = tcGetUnique `thenNF_Tc` \ uniq ->
tcLookupGlobalId fstName `thenNF_Tc` \ fst_id ->
tcLookupGlobalId sndName `thenNF_Tc` \ snd_id ->
let
x = mkUserLocal occ uniq pair_ty loc
in
returnNF_Tc (VarMonoBind x (mk_app split_id rhs),
[mk_fs_app fst_id ty x, mk_fs_app snd_id ty x])
mk_fs_app id ty var = HsVar id `TyApp` [ty,ty] `HsApp` HsVar var
mk_app id rhs = HsApp (HsVar id) rhs
addBind binds inst rhs = binds `AndMonoBinds` VarMonoBind (instToId inst) rhs
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection[reduce]{@reduce@}
%* *
%************************************************************************
When the "what to do" predicate doesn't depend on the quantified type variables,
matters are easier. We don't need to do any zonking, unless the improvement step
does something, in which case we zonk before iterating.
The "given" set is always empty.
\begin{code}
simpleReduceLoop :: SDoc
-> (Inst -> WhatToDo) -- What to do, *not* based on the quantified type variables
-> [Inst] -- Wanted
-> TcM ([Inst], -- Free
TcDictBinds,
[Inst]) -- Irreducible
simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds
= mapNF_Tc zonkInst wanteds `thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
reduceContext doc try_me [] wanteds' `thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
if no_improvement then
returnTc (frees, binds, irreds)
else
simpleReduceLoop doc try_me (irreds ++ frees) `thenTc` \ (frees1, binds1, irreds1) ->
returnTc (frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1, irreds1)
\end{code}
\begin{code}
reduceContext :: SDoc
-> (Inst -> WhatToDo)
-> [Inst] -- Given
-> [Inst] -- Wanted
-> NF_TcM (Bool, -- True <=> improve step did no unification
[Inst], -- Free
TcDictBinds, -- Dictionary bindings
[Inst]) -- Irreducible
reduceContext doc try_me givens wanteds
=
traceTc (text "reduceContext" <+> (vcat [
text "----------------------",
doc,
text "given" <+> ppr givens,
text "wanted" <+> ppr wanteds,
text "----------------------"
])) `thenNF_Tc_`
-- Build the Avail mapping from "givens"
foldlNF_Tc addGiven emptyFM givens `thenNF_Tc` \ init_state ->
-- Do the real work
reduceList (0,[]) try_me wanteds init_state `thenNF_Tc` \ avails ->
-- Do improvement, using everything in avails
-- In particular, avails includes all superclasses of everything
tcImprove avails `thenTc` \ no_improvement ->
extractResults avails wanteds `thenNF_Tc` \ (binds, irreds, frees) ->
traceTc (text "reduceContext end" <+> (vcat [
text "----------------------",
doc,
text "given" <+> ppr givens,
text "wanted" <+> ppr wanteds,
text "----",
text "avails" <+> pprAvails avails,
text "frees" <+> ppr frees,
text "no_improvement =" <+> ppr no_improvement,
text "----------------------"
])) `thenNF_Tc_`
returnTc (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds)
tcImprove avails
= tcGetInstEnv `thenTc` \ inst_env ->
let
preds = [ (pred, pp_loc)
| inst <- keysFM avails,
let pp_loc = pprInstLoc (instLoc inst),
pred <- predsOfInst inst,
predHasFDs pred
]
-- Avails has all the superclasses etc (good)
-- It also has all the intermediates of the deduction (good)
-- It does not have duplicates (good)
-- NB that (?x::t1) and (?x::t2) will be held separately in avails
-- so that improve will see them separate
eqns = improve (classInstEnv inst_env) preds
in
if null eqns then
returnTc True
else
traceTc (ptext SLIT("Improve:") <+> vcat (map pprEquationDoc eqns)) `thenNF_Tc_`
mapTc_ unify eqns `thenTc_`
returnTc False
where
unify ((qtvs, t1, t2), doc)
= tcAddErrCtxt doc $
tcInstTyVars (varSetElems qtvs) `thenNF_Tc` \ (_, _, tenv) ->
unifyTauTy (substTy tenv t1) (substTy tenv t2)
\end{code}
The main context-reduction function is @reduce@. Here's its game plan.
\begin{code}
reduceList :: (Int,[Inst]) -- Stack (for err msgs)
-- along with its depth
-> (Inst -> WhatToDo)
-> [Inst]
-> Avails
-> TcM Avails
\end{code}
@reduce@ is passed
try_me: given an inst, this function returns
Reduce reduce this
DontReduce return this in "irreds"
Free return this in "frees"
wanteds: The list of insts to reduce
state: An accumulating parameter of type Avails
that contains the state of the algorithm
It returns a Avails.
The (n,stack) pair is just used for error reporting.
n is always the depth of the stack.
The stack is the stack of Insts being reduced: to produce X
I had to produce Y, to produce Y I had to produce Z, and so on.
\begin{code}
reduceList (n,stack) try_me wanteds state
| n > opt_MaxContextReductionDepth
= failWithTc (reduceDepthErr n stack)
| otherwise
=
#ifdef DEBUG
(if n > 8 then
pprTrace "Jeepers! ReduceContext:" (reduceDepthMsg n stack)
else (\x->x))
#endif
go wanteds state
where
go [] state = returnTc state
go (w:ws) state = reduce (n+1, w:stack) try_me w state `thenTc` \ state' ->
go ws state'
-- Base case: we're done!
reduce stack try_me wanted state
-- It's the same as an existing inst, or a superclass thereof
| Just avail <- isAvailable state wanted
= if isLinearInst wanted then
addLinearAvailable state avail wanted `thenNF_Tc` \ (state', wanteds') ->
reduceList stack try_me wanteds' state'
else
returnTc state -- No op for non-linear things
| otherwise
= case try_me wanted of {
DontReduce want_scs -> addIrred want_scs state wanted
; DontReduceUnlessConstant -> -- It's irreducible (or at least should not be reduced)
-- First, see if the inst can be reduced to a constant in one step
try_simple (addIrred AddSCs) -- Assume want superclasses
; Free -> -- It's free so just chuck it upstairs
-- First, see if the inst can be reduced to a constant in one step
try_simple addFree
; ReduceMe -> -- It should be reduced
lookupInst wanted `thenNF_Tc` \ lookup_result ->
case lookup_result of
GenInst wanteds' rhs -> reduceList stack try_me wanteds' state `thenTc` \ state' ->
addWanted state' wanted rhs wanteds'
SimpleInst rhs -> addWanted state wanted rhs []
NoInstance -> -- No such instance!
-- Add it and its superclasses
addIrred AddSCs state wanted
}
where
try_simple do_this_otherwise
= lookupInst wanted `thenNF_Tc` \ lookup_result ->
case lookup_result of
SimpleInst rhs -> addWanted state wanted rhs []
other -> do_this_otherwise state wanted
\end{code}
\begin{code}
-------------------------
isAvailable :: Avails -> Inst -> Maybe Avail
isAvailable avails wanted = lookupFM avails wanted
-- NB 1: the Ord instance of Inst compares by the class/type info
-- *not* by unique. So
-- d1::C Int == d2::C Int
addLinearAvailable :: Avails -> Avail -> Inst -> NF_TcM (Avails, [Inst])
addLinearAvailable avails avail wanted
| need_split avail
= tcLookupGlobalId splitName `thenNF_Tc` \ split_id ->
newMethodAtLoc (instLoc wanted) split_id
[linearInstType wanted] `thenNF_Tc` \ (split_inst,_) ->
returnNF_Tc (addToFM avails wanted (Linear 2 split_inst avail), [split_inst])
| otherwise
= returnNF_Tc (addToFM avails wanted avail', [])
where
avail' = case avail of
Given id _ -> Given id True
Linear n i a -> Linear (n+1) i a
need_split Irred = True
need_split (Given _ used) = used
need_split (Linear _ _ _) = False
-------------------------
addFree :: Avails -> Inst -> NF_TcM Avails
-- When an Inst is tossed upstairs as 'free' we nevertheless add it
-- to avails, so that any other equal Insts will be commoned up right
-- here rather than also being tossed upstairs. This is really just
-- an optimisation, and perhaps it is more trouble that it is worth,
-- as the following comments show!
--
-- NB1: do *not* add superclasses. If we have
-- df::Floating a
-- dn::Num a
-- but a is not bound here, then we *don't* want to derive
-- dn from df here lest we lose sharing.
--
addFree avails free = returnNF_Tc (addToFM avails free IsFree)
addWanted :: Avails -> Inst -> TcExpr -> [Inst] -> NF_TcM Avails
addWanted avails wanted rhs_expr wanteds
-- Do *not* add superclasses as well. Here's an example of why not
-- class Eq a => Foo a b
-- instance Eq a => Foo [a] a
-- If we are reducing
-- (Foo [t] t)
-- we'll first deduce that it holds (via the instance decl). We
-- must not then overwrite the Eq t constraint with a superclass selection!
-- ToDo: this isn't entirely unsatisfactory, because
-- we may also lose some entirely-legitimate sharing this way
= ASSERT( not (wanted `elemFM` avails) )
returnNF_Tc (addToFM avails wanted avail)
where
avail | instBindingRequired wanted = Rhs rhs_expr wanteds
| otherwise = ASSERT( null wanteds ) NoRhs
addGiven :: Avails -> Inst -> NF_TcM Avails
addGiven state given = addAvailAndSCs state given (Given (instToId given) False)
addIrred :: WantSCs -> Avails -> Inst -> NF_TcM Avails
addIrred NoSCs state irred = returnNF_Tc (addToFM state irred Irred)
addIrred AddSCs state irred = addAvailAndSCs state irred Irred
addAvailAndSCs :: Avails -> Inst -> Avail -> NF_TcM Avails
addAvailAndSCs avails wanted avail
= add_scs (addToFM avails wanted avail) wanted
add_scs :: Avails -> Inst -> NF_TcM Avails
-- Add all the superclasses of the Inst to Avails
-- Invariant: the Inst is already in Avails.
add_scs avails dict
| not (isClassDict dict)
= returnNF_Tc avails
| otherwise -- It is a dictionary
= newDictsFromOld dict sc_theta' `thenNF_Tc` \ sc_dicts ->
foldlNF_Tc add_sc avails (zipEqual "add_scs" sc_dicts sc_sels)
where
(clas, tys) = getDictClassTys dict
(tyvars, sc_theta, sc_sels, _) = classBigSig clas
sc_theta' = substTheta (mkTopTyVarSubst tyvars tys) sc_theta
add_sc avails (sc_dict, sc_sel) -- Add it, and its superclasses
= case lookupFM avails sc_dict of
Just (Given _ _) -> returnNF_Tc avails -- See Note [SUPER] below
other -> addAvailAndSCs avails sc_dict avail
where
sc_sel_rhs = DictApp (TyApp (HsVar sc_sel) tys) [instToId dict]
avail = Rhs sc_sel_rhs [dict]
\end{code}
Note [SUPER]. We have to be careful here. If we are *given* d1:Ord a,
and want to deduce (d2:C [a]) where
class Ord a => C a where
instance Ord a => C [a] where ...
Then we'll use the instance decl to deduce C [a] and then add the
superclasses of C [a] to avails. But we must not overwrite the binding
for d1:Ord a (which is given) with a superclass selection or we'll just
build a loop! Hence looking for Given. Crudely, Given is cheaper
than a selection.
%************************************************************************
%* *
\section{tcSimplifyTop: defaulting}
%* *
%************************************************************************
@tcSimplifyTop@ is called once per module to simplify all the constant
and ambiguous Insts.
We need to be careful of one case. Suppose we have
instance Num a => Num (Foo a b) where ...
and @tcSimplifyTop@ is given a constraint (Num (Foo x y)). Then it'll simplify
to (Num x), and default x to Int. But what about y??
It's OK: the final zonking stage should zap y to (), which is fine.
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyTop :: LIE -> TcM TcDictBinds
tcSimplifyTop wanted_lie
= simpleReduceLoop (text "tcSimplTop") reduceMe wanteds `thenTc` \ (frees, binds, irreds) ->
ASSERT( null frees )
let
-- All the non-std ones are definite errors
(stds, non_stds) = partition isStdClassTyVarDict irreds
-- Group by type variable
std_groups = equivClasses cmp_by_tyvar stds
-- Pick the ones which its worth trying to disambiguate
(std_oks, std_bads) = partition worth_a_try std_groups
-- Have a try at disambiguation
-- if the type variable isn't bound
-- up with one of the non-standard classes
worth_a_try group@(d:_) = not (non_std_tyvars `intersectsVarSet` tyVarsOfInst d)
non_std_tyvars = unionVarSets (map tyVarsOfInst non_stds)
-- Collect together all the bad guys
bad_guys = non_stds ++ concat std_bads
in
-- Disambiguate the ones that look feasible
mapTc disambigGroup std_oks `thenTc` \ binds_ambig ->
-- And complain about the ones that don't
-- This group includes both non-existent instances
-- e.g. Num (IO a) and Eq (Int -> Int)
-- and ambiguous dictionaries
-- e.g. Num a
addTopAmbigErrs bad_guys `thenNF_Tc_`
returnTc (binds `andMonoBinds` andMonoBindList binds_ambig)
where
wanteds = lieToList wanted_lie
d1 `cmp_by_tyvar` d2 = get_tv d1 `compare` get_tv d2
get_tv d = case getDictClassTys d of
(clas, [ty]) -> tcGetTyVar "tcSimplify" ty
get_clas d = case getDictClassTys d of
(clas, [ty]) -> clas
\end{code}
If a dictionary constrains a type variable which is
* not mentioned in the environment
* and not mentioned in the type of the expression
then it is ambiguous. No further information will arise to instantiate
the type variable; nor will it be generalised and turned into an extra
parameter to a function.
It is an error for this to occur, except that Haskell provided for
certain rules to be applied in the special case of numeric types.
Specifically, if
* at least one of its classes is a numeric class, and
* all of its classes are numeric or standard
then the type variable can be defaulted to the first type in the
default-type list which is an instance of all the offending classes.
So here is the function which does the work. It takes the ambiguous
dictionaries and either resolves them (producing bindings) or
complains. It works by splitting the dictionary list by type
variable, and using @disambigOne@ to do the real business.
@disambigOne@ assumes that its arguments dictionaries constrain all
the same type variable.
ADR Comment 20/6/94: I've changed the @CReturnable@ case to default to
@()@ instead of @Int@. I reckon this is the Right Thing to do since
the most common use of defaulting is code like:
\begin{verbatim}
_ccall_ foo `seqPrimIO` bar
\end{verbatim}
Since we're not using the result of @foo@, the result if (presumably)
@void@.
\begin{code}
disambigGroup :: [Inst] -- All standard classes of form (C a)
-> TcM TcDictBinds
disambigGroup dicts
| any isNumericClass classes -- Guaranteed all standard classes
-- see comment at the end of function for reasons as to
-- why the defaulting mechanism doesn't apply to groups that
-- include CCallable or CReturnable dicts.
&& not (any isCcallishClass classes)
= -- THE DICTS OBEY THE DEFAULTABLE CONSTRAINT
-- SO, TRY DEFAULT TYPES IN ORDER
-- Failure here is caused by there being no type in the
-- default list which can satisfy all the ambiguous classes.
-- For example, if Real a is reqd, but the only type in the
-- default list is Int.
tcGetDefaultTys `thenNF_Tc` \ default_tys ->
let
try_default [] -- No defaults work, so fail
= failTc
try_default (default_ty : default_tys)
= tryTc_ (try_default default_tys) $ -- If default_ty fails, we try
-- default_tys instead
tcSimplifyDefault theta `thenTc` \ _ ->
returnTc default_ty
where
theta = [mkClassPred clas [default_ty] | clas <- classes]
in
-- See if any default works, and if so bind the type variable to it
-- If not, add an AmbigErr
recoverTc (addAmbigErrs dicts `thenNF_Tc_`
returnTc EmptyMonoBinds) $
try_default default_tys `thenTc` \ chosen_default_ty ->
-- Bind the type variable and reduce the context, for real this time
unifyTauTy chosen_default_ty (mkTyVarTy tyvar) `thenTc_`
simpleReduceLoop (text "disambig" <+> ppr dicts)
reduceMe dicts `thenTc` \ (frees, binds, ambigs) ->
WARN( not (null frees && null ambigs), ppr frees $$ ppr ambigs )
warnDefault dicts chosen_default_ty `thenTc_`
returnTc binds
| all isCreturnableClass classes
= -- Default CCall stuff to (); we don't even both to check that () is an
-- instance of CReturnable, because we know it is.
unifyTauTy (mkTyVarTy tyvar) unitTy `thenTc_`
returnTc EmptyMonoBinds
| otherwise -- No defaults
= addAmbigErrs dicts `thenNF_Tc_`
returnTc EmptyMonoBinds
where
tyvar = get_tv (head dicts) -- Should be non-empty
classes = map get_clas dicts
\end{code}
[Aside - why the defaulting mechanism is turned off when
dealing with arguments and results to ccalls.
When typechecking _ccall_s, TcExpr ensures that the external
function is only passed arguments (and in the other direction,
results) of a restricted set of 'native' types. This is
implemented via the help of the pseudo-type classes,
@CReturnable@ (CR) and @CCallable@ (CC.)
The interaction between the defaulting mechanism for numeric
values and CC & CR can be a bit puzzling to the user at times.
For example,
x <- _ccall_ f
if (x /= 0) then
_ccall_ g x
else
return ()
What type has 'x' got here? That depends on the default list
in operation, if it is equal to Haskell 98's default-default
of (Integer, Double), 'x' has type Double, since Integer
is not an instance of CR. If the default list is equal to
Haskell 1.4's default-default of (Int, Double), 'x' has type
Int.
To try to minimise the potential for surprises here, the
defaulting mechanism is turned off in the presence of
CCallable and CReturnable.
End of aside]
%************************************************************************
%* *
\subsection[simple]{@Simple@ versions}
%* *
%************************************************************************
Much simpler versions when there are no bindings to make!
@tcSimplifyThetas@ simplifies class-type constraints formed by
@deriving@ declarations and when specialising instances. We are
only interested in the simplified bunch of class/type constraints.
It simplifies to constraints of the form (C a b c) where
a,b,c are type variables. This is required for the context of
instance declarations.
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyDeriv :: [TyVar]
-> ThetaType -- Wanted
-> TcM ThetaType -- Needed
tcSimplifyDeriv tyvars theta
= tcInstTyVars tyvars `thenNF_Tc` \ (tvs, _, tenv) ->
-- The main loop may do unification, and that may crash if
-- it doesn't see a TcTyVar, so we have to instantiate. Sigh
-- ToDo: what if two of them do get unified?
newDicts DataDeclOrigin (substTheta tenv theta) `thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds ->
simpleReduceLoop doc reduceMe wanteds `thenTc` \ (frees, _, irreds) ->
ASSERT( null frees ) -- reduceMe never returns Free
doptsTc Opt_AllowUndecidableInstances `thenNF_Tc` \ undecidable_ok ->
let
tv_set = mkVarSet tvs
simpl_theta = map dictPred irreds -- reduceMe squashes all non-dicts
check_pred pred
| isEmptyVarSet pred_tyvars -- Things like (Eq T) should be rejected
= addErrTc (noInstErr pred)
| not undecidable_ok && not (isTyVarClassPred pred)
-- Check that the returned dictionaries are all of form (C a b)
-- (where a, b are type variables).
-- We allow this if we had -fallow-undecidable-instances,
-- but note that risks non-termination in the 'deriving' context-inference
-- fixpoint loop. It is useful for situations like
-- data Min h a = E | M a (h a)
-- which gives the instance decl
-- instance (Eq a, Eq (h a)) => Eq (Min h a)
= addErrTc (noInstErr pred)
| not (pred_tyvars `subVarSet` tv_set)
-- Check for a bizarre corner case, when the derived instance decl should
-- have form instance C a b => D (T a) where ...
-- Note that 'b' isn't a parameter of T. This gives rise to all sorts
-- of problems; in particular, it's hard to compare solutions for
-- equality when finding the fixpoint. So I just rule it out for now.
= addErrTc (badDerivedPred pred)
| otherwise
= returnNF_Tc ()
where
pred_tyvars = tyVarsOfPred pred
rev_env = mkTopTyVarSubst tvs (mkTyVarTys tyvars)
-- This reverse-mapping is a Royal Pain,
-- but the result should mention TyVars not TcTyVars
in
mapNF_Tc check_pred simpl_theta `thenNF_Tc_`
checkAmbiguity tvs simpl_theta tv_set `thenTc_`
returnTc (substTheta rev_env simpl_theta)
where
doc = ptext SLIT("deriving classes for a data type")
\end{code}
@tcSimplifyDefault@ just checks class-type constraints, essentially;
used with \tr{default} declarations. We are only interested in
whether it worked or not.
\begin{code}
tcSimplifyDefault :: ThetaType -- Wanted; has no type variables in it
-> TcM ()
tcSimplifyDefault theta
= newDicts DataDeclOrigin theta `thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds ->
simpleReduceLoop doc reduceMe wanteds `thenTc` \ (frees, _, irreds) ->
ASSERT( null frees ) -- try_me never returns Free
mapNF_Tc (addErrTc . noInstErr) irreds `thenNF_Tc_`
if null irreds then
returnTc ()
else
failTc
where
doc = ptext SLIT("default declaration")
\end{code}
%************************************************************************
%* *
\section{Errors and contexts}
%* *
%************************************************************************
ToDo: for these error messages, should we note the location as coming
from the insts, or just whatever seems to be around in the monad just
now?
\begin{code}
groupInsts :: [Inst] -> [[Inst]]
-- Group together insts with the same origin
-- We want to report them together in error messages
groupInsts [] = []
groupInsts (inst:insts) = (inst:friends) : groupInsts others
where
-- (It may seem a bit crude to compare the error messages,
-- but it makes sure that we combine just what the user sees,
-- and it avoids need equality on InstLocs.)
(friends, others) = partition is_friend insts
loc_msg = showSDoc (pprInstLoc (instLoc inst))
is_friend friend = showSDoc (pprInstLoc (instLoc friend)) == loc_msg
addTopAmbigErrs dicts
= mapNF_Tc (addTopInstanceErrs tidy_env) (groupInsts no_insts) `thenNF_Tc_`
mapNF_Tc (addTopIPErrs tidy_env) (groupInsts bad_ips) `thenNF_Tc_`
mapNF_Tc (addAmbigErr tidy_env) ambigs `thenNF_Tc_`
returnNF_Tc ()
where
fixed_tvs = oclose (predsOfInsts tidy_dicts) emptyVarSet
(tidy_env, tidy_dicts) = tidyInsts dicts
(bad_ips, non_ips) = partition is_ip tidy_dicts
(no_insts, ambigs) = partition no_inst non_ips
is_ip d = any isIPPred (predsOfInst d)
no_inst d = not (isTyVarDict d) || tyVarsOfInst d `subVarSet` fixed_tvs
plural [x] = empty
plural xs = char 's'
addTopIPErrs tidy_env tidy_dicts
= addInstErrTcM (instLoc (head tidy_dicts))
(tidy_env,
ptext SLIT("Unbound implicit parameter") <> plural tidy_dicts <+> pprInsts tidy_dicts)
-- Used for top-level irreducibles
addTopInstanceErrs tidy_env tidy_dicts
= addInstErrTcM (instLoc (head tidy_dicts))
(tidy_env,
ptext SLIT("No instance") <> plural tidy_dicts <+>
ptext SLIT("for") <+> pprInsts tidy_dicts)
addAmbigErrs dicts
= mapNF_Tc (addAmbigErr tidy_env) tidy_dicts
where
(tidy_env, tidy_dicts) = tidyInsts dicts
addAmbigErr tidy_env tidy_dict
= addInstErrTcM (instLoc tidy_dict)
(tidy_env,
sep [text "Ambiguous type variable(s)" <+> pprQuotedList ambig_tvs,
nest 4 (text "in the constraint" <+> quotes (pprInst tidy_dict))])
where
ambig_tvs = varSetElems (tyVarsOfInst tidy_dict)
warnDefault dicts default_ty
= doptsTc Opt_WarnTypeDefaults `thenTc` \ warn_flag ->
tcAddSrcLoc (get_loc (head dicts)) (warnTc warn_flag warn_msg)
where
-- Tidy them first
(_, tidy_dicts) = tidyInsts dicts
get_loc i = case instLoc i of { (_,loc,_) -> loc }
warn_msg = vcat [ptext SLIT("Defaulting the following constraint(s) to type") <+>
quotes (ppr default_ty),
pprInstsInFull tidy_dicts]
complainCheck doc givens irreds
= mapNF_Tc zonkInst given_dicts_and_ips `thenNF_Tc` \ givens' ->
mapNF_Tc (addNoInstanceErrs doc givens') (groupInsts irreds) `thenNF_Tc_`
returnNF_Tc ()
where
given_dicts_and_ips = filter (not . isMethod) givens
-- Filter out methods, which are only added to
-- the given set as an optimisation
addNoInstanceErrs what_doc givens dicts
= getDOptsTc `thenNF_Tc` \ dflags ->
tcGetInstEnv `thenNF_Tc` \ inst_env ->
let
(tidy_env1, tidy_givens) = tidyInsts givens
(tidy_env2, tidy_dicts) = tidyMoreInsts tidy_env1 dicts
doc = vcat [sep [herald <+> pprInsts tidy_dicts,
nest 4 $ ptext SLIT("from the context") <+> pprInsts tidy_givens],
ambig_doc,
ptext SLIT("Probable fix:"),
nest 4 fix1,
nest 4 fix2]
herald = ptext SLIT("Could not") <+> unambig_doc <+> ptext SLIT("deduce")
unambig_doc | ambig_overlap = ptext SLIT("unambiguously")
| otherwise = empty
-- The error message when we don't find a suitable instance
-- is complicated by the fact that sometimes this is because
-- there is no instance, and sometimes it's because there are
-- too many instances (overlap). See the comments in TcEnv.lhs
-- with the InstEnv stuff.
ambig_doc
| not ambig_overlap = empty
| otherwise
= vcat [ptext SLIT("The choice of (overlapping) instance declaration"),
nest 4 (ptext SLIT("depends on the instantiation of") <+>
quotes (pprWithCommas ppr (varSetElems (tyVarsOfInsts tidy_dicts))))]
fix1 = sep [ptext SLIT("Add") <+> pprInsts tidy_dicts,
ptext SLIT("to the") <+> what_doc]
fix2 | null instance_dicts
= empty
| otherwise
= ptext SLIT("Or add an instance declaration for") <+> pprInsts instance_dicts
instance_dicts = [d | d <- tidy_dicts, isClassDict d, not (isTyVarDict d)]
-- Insts for which it is worth suggesting an adding an instance declaration
-- Exclude implicit parameters, and tyvar dicts
-- Checks for the ambiguous case when we have overlapping instances
ambig_overlap = any ambig_overlap1 dicts
ambig_overlap1 dict
| isClassDict dict
= case lookupInstEnv dflags inst_env clas tys of
NoMatch ambig -> ambig
other -> False
| otherwise = False
where
(clas,tys) = getDictClassTys dict
in
addInstErrTcM (instLoc (head dicts)) (tidy_env2, doc)
-- Used for the ...Thetas variants; all top level
noInstErr pred = ptext SLIT("No instance for") <+> quotes (ppr pred)
badDerivedPred pred
= vcat [ptext SLIT("Can't derive instances where the instance context mentions"),
ptext SLIT("type variables that are not data type parameters"),
nest 2 (ptext SLIT("Offending constraint:") <+> ppr pred)]
reduceDepthErr n stack
= vcat [ptext SLIT("Context reduction stack overflow; size =") <+> int n,
ptext SLIT("Use -fcontext-stack20 to increase stack size to (e.g.) 20"),
nest 4 (pprInstsInFull stack)]
reduceDepthMsg n stack = nest 4 (pprInstsInFull stack)
-----------------------------------------------
addCantGenErr inst
= addErrTc (sep [ptext SLIT("Cannot generalise these overloadings (in a _ccall_):"),
nest 4 (ppr inst <+> pprInstLoc (instLoc inst))])
\end{code}