Notes on the FCbased intermediate language
These notes describe the new intermediate language for GHC. The intermediate language is based on System F with algebraic datatypes and explicit type coercions (hereafter FC) (see the paper). This note mostly focuses on the type system and also discuss how some sourcelevel features are represented in the intermediate language.
Most of the system is fairly standard, with the exception of
coercions. A coercion c
, is a typelevel term, with a kind of the
form T1 :=: T2
. (c :: T1 :=: T2
) is a proof that a term of type T1
can be coerced to type T2
. It is used as argument of a cast
expression; if t :: T1
then (t
cast c) :: T2
.
What's New?
If you are already familiar with the intermediate language and its type system as it existed in 6.4.2 (and probably before) then the key aspects that have changed are (and are further described in several sections below):

Coercions have been added  The syntax of types now includes coercions which are evidence for type equalities. There are distinguished coercion variables and a new variant of
TyCon
, with constructorCoercionTyCon
. There is also a newExpr
variant, with constructorCast
, which performs a cast given an expression and evidence of the safety of the cast. 
Kinds are now Types  The type
Kind
is just a synonym forType
. There are special PrimitiveTyCons that represent kinds. 
Newtypes are implemented with coercions  The previous adhoc mechanism has been replaced with one that uses coercions.

GADTs are implemented with coercions  The complex typing rules for case expressions on GADTs have been removed and instead the data constructors of GADTs carry coercions inside them. Consequently, typechecking Core is simpler (though type inference is just as hard as ever).
For anyone not familiar with the system as it existed previously, the rest of this note attempts to describe most of the type system of the intermediate language.
Types
The representation of types is defined (as the datatype Type
) in
TypeRep, and most of the useful functions on types are defined in
Type. TypeRep exports the representation concretely, and should
probably not be used outside the few places it is already used. Type
reexports everything useful from TypeRep, but exports the
representation abstractly. The datatype Type
really represents a
single syntactic category that includes types, coercions, kinds, and
superkinds.
Type Variables
Type variables, of type Var
, and associated construction and
manipulation functions are defined in the Var module. There are two
data constructors that make type variables, TyVar
and TcTyVar
.
TcTyVar
s can be mutable tyvars that are instantiated during type
checking. After typechecking, all TcTyVar
s are turned to TyVar
s.
TyVar
s carry a Bool
field, isCoercionVar
, which is True
if the type
variable is a coercion variable and False
otherwise. The function
isCoVar
should be used to test if a type variable is a coercion
variable.
Type Constructors
Type constructors, of datatype TyCon
, are defined in the TyCon module
and exported abstractly. There are several different sorts of type
constructors; the most important for understanding the overall
intermediate language type system are:

AlgTyCon
, which are for tycons for datatypes and newtypes and have a field of typeAlgTyConRhs
which specified whether it is a datatype or newtype and contains further information for each; 
PrimTyCon
, which are for builtin primitive tycons, and are also used to represent base kinds; 
CoercionTyCon
, which are for special tycons which are meant to represent syntactic forms (and not really type constructors), so they must be saturated to have a kind; 
SuperKindTyCon
, which are tycons that are used to represent superkinds, also called sorts (which classify kinds as either coercion kinds, CO, or type kinds, TY),SuperKindTyCon
s are unique in never having a kind.
All TyCon
s but SuperKindTyCon
and CoercionKindTyCon
carry their kind
in a field called tyConKind
, and CoercionKindTyCons
carry their
kinding rule (a function with type [Type] > Kind
) in a field called
coKindFun
.
Kinds are Types
We have (as of August 2006) unified types and kinds as members of the
datatype Type
. Kind
is just a synonym for Type
. Basic kinds are now
represented using type constructors, e.g. the kind *
is represented as
star = TyConApp liftedTypeKindTyCon []
where liftedTypeKindTyCon
is a builtin PrimTyCon
. The arrow type
constructor is used as the arrow kind constructor, e.g. the kind `* >
*` is represented internally as
FunTy star star
Kinds and types may be distinguished by looking at their "Kind" using
the typeKind function. The "Kind" of a kind is always one of the
sorts TY (for kinds that classify normal types) or CO (for kinds that
classify coercion evidence). The coercion kind, T1 :=: T2
, is
represented by PredTy (EqPred T1 T2)
.
GHC has a relatively complicated kind structure...
There's a little subtyping at the kind level. Here is the picture for typekinds (kinds of sort TY).
?
/ \
/ \
?? (#)
/ \
* #
where * [LiftedTypeKind] means boxed type
# [UnliftedTypeKind] means unboxed type
(#) [UbxTupleKind] means unboxed tuple
?? [ArgTypeKind] is the lub of *,#
? [OpenTypeKind] means any type at all
In particular:
error :: forall a:?. String > a
(>) :: ?? > ? > *
(\(x::t) > ...) Here t::?? (i.e. not unboxed tuple)
Coercions and Coercion Kinds
Coercions are typelevel terms which act as evidence for type
equalities and are classified by a new sort of kind (with the form
T1 :=: T2
). Most of the coercion construction and manipulation functions
are found in the Coercion module.
The syntax of coercions extends the syntax of types (and the type
Coercion
is just a synonym for Type
). By representing coercion
evidence on the type level, we can take advantage of the existing
erasure mechanism and keep nontermination out of coercion proofs
(which is necessary to keep the system sound). The syntax of
coercions and types also overlaps a lot. A normal type is evidence
for the reflexive coercion, i.e.,
Int :: Int :=: Int
Coercion variables are used to abstract over evidence of type equality, as in
(/\c::(a :=: Bool). \x::a. if (x `cast` c) then 0 else 1) :: (a :=: Bool) => a > Int
There are also coercion constants that are introduced by the compiler
to implement some source language features (newtypes for now,
associated types soon and probably more in the future). Coercion
constants are represented as TyCon
s made with the constructor
CoercionTyCon
.
Coercions are type level terms and can have normal type constructors applied
to them. The action of type constructors on coercions is much like in
a logical relation. So if c1 :: T1 :=: T2
then
[c1] :: [T1] :=: [T2]
and if c2 :: S1 :=: S2
then
c1 > c2 :: (T1 > S1 :=: T2 > S2)
The sharing of syntax means that a normal type can be looked at as
either a type or as coercion evidence, so we use two different kinding
relations, one to find typekinds (implemented in Type as `typeKind ::
Type > Kind`) and one to find coercionkinds (implemented in Coercion as
coercionKind :: Coercion > Kind
).
Coercion variables are distinguished from type variables, and noncoercion type variables (just like any normal type) can be used as the reflexive coercion, while coercion variables have a particular coercion kind which need not be reflexive.
GADTs
The internal representation of GADTs is as regular algebraic datatypes that carry coercion evidence as arguments. A declaration like
data T a b where
T1 :: a > b > T [a] (a,b)
would result in a data constructor with type
T1 :: forall a b. forall a1 b1. (a :=: [a1], b :=: (a1, b1)) => a1 > b1 > T a b
This means that (unlike in the previous intermediate language) all data constructor return types have the form T a1 ... an
where
a1
through an
are the parameters of the datatype.
However, we also generate wrappers for GADT data constructors which have the expected userdefined type, in this case
$wT1 = /\a b. \x y. T1 [a] (a,b) a b [a] (a,b) x y
Where the 4th and 5th arguments given to T1
are the reflexive coercions
[a] :: [a] :=: [a]
(a,b) :: (a,b) :=: (a,b)
Representation of coercion assumptions
In most of the compiler, as in the FC paper, coercions are abstracted
using ForAllTy cv ty
where cv
is a coercion variable, with a kind of
the form PredTy (EqPred T1 T2)
. However, during type inference it is
convenient to treat such coercion qualifiers in the same way other
class membership or implicit parameter qualifiers are treated. So
functions like tcSplitForAllTy
and tcSplitPhiTy
and tcSplitSigmaTy
,
treat ForAllTy cv ty
as if it were FunTy (PredTy (EqPred T1 T2)) ty
(where PredTy (EqPred T1 T2)
is the kind of cv
). Also, several of the dataCon
XXX functions treat coercion members of the data constructor
as if they were dictionary predicates (i.e. they return the PredTy (EqPred T1 T2)
with the theta).
Newtypes are coerced types
The implementation of newtypes has changed to include explicit type coercions in the place of the previously used adhoc mechanism.
For a newtype declared by
newtype T a = MkT (a > a)
the NewTyCon
for T
will contain nt_co = CoT
where `CoT t : T t :=: t >
t. This
TyConis a
CoercionTyCon`, so it does not have a kind on its
own; it basically has its own typing rule for the fullyapplied
version. If the newtype T
has k type variables hen CoT
has arity at
most k. In the case that the right hand side is a type application
ending with the same type variables as the left hand side, we
"etacontract" the coercion. So if we had
newtype S a = MkT [a]
then we would generate the arity 0 coercion CoS : S :=: []
. The
primary reason we do this is to make newtype deriving cleaner. If the coercion
cannot be reduced in this fashion, then it has the same arity as the tycon.
In the paper we'd write
axiom CoT : (forall t. T t) :=: (forall t. [t])
and then when we used CoT
at a particular type, s
, we'd say
CoT @ s
which encodes as (TyConApp instCoercionTyCon [TyConApp CoT [], s])
But in GHC we instead make CoT
into a new piece of type syntax
(like instCoercionTyCon
, symCoercionTyCon
etc), which must always
be saturated, but which encodes as
TyConApp CoT [s]
In the vocabulary of the paper it's as if we had axiom declarations like
axiom CoT t : T t :=: [t]
The newtype coercion is used to wrap and unwrap newtypes whenever the constructor or case is used in the Haskell source code.
Such coercions are always used when the newtype is recursive and are optional for nonrecursive newtypes. Whether or not they are used can be easily changed by altering the function mkNewTyConRhs in iface/BuildTyCl.lhs.
Core (the intermediate language)

Exprs

Casts

Typechecking

Environments and substitution
Simplification

exprIsConApp_maybe

simplExpr
Loose Ends
Some loose ends that came up during implementation of FC:

there is a strange unsafeCoerce that we could not figure out the purpose of in the FFI, a warning is currently emitted when it is used

removed the DBREAKPOINT definition in the Makefile because it induced a module loop, we should probably fix this