We use a family of singleton types to relate type-level naturals to runtime values.

In our design, we chose to provide as primitive an overloaded "smart" constructor and a polymorphic elimination construct:

newtype Sing n = Sing (SingRep n)class SingI n where sing :: Sing ninstance SingI 0 where sing = Sing 0instance SingI 1 where sing = Sing 1...fromSing :: Sing n -> SingRep nfromSing (Sing n) = n

It is also possible to make the dual choice, where we provide a polymorphic constructor and an overloaded elimination construct:

data Sing n = Singclass SingE n where fromSing :: Sing n -> SingRep ninstance NatE 0 where fromSing Sing = 0instance NatE 1 where fromSing Sing = 1...

We made this choice, at least in part, because it made the implementation simpler: with our choice the evidence for class SingI is just an integer or a string. Note that our choice does not loose any generality because we can define the alternative design in terms of it:

data Sing1 = Sing1fromSing1 :: SingI n => Sing1 n -> SingRep nfromSing1 = fromSing . cast where cast :: SingI n => Sing1 n -> Sing n cast Sing1 = sing