This page describes a new API for type indexed type representations, basic Dynamic functionality, static pointers and distributed closures.
It is a specific realisation of the ideas in DistributedHaskell.
Data.Typeable: type-indexed type representation. This replaces the existing Typeable class, and the kind of TypeRep changes to TypeRep :: k -> *.
Data.Dynamic: dynamically-typed values; replaces the existing Data.Dynamic. The API is almost unchanged.
Data.StaticPtr: static pointers. The idea is that this will ultimately by the foundation for the Cloud Haskell package.
Control.DistributedClosure: serialisable closures. The idea is that this will ultimately by the foundation for the Cloud Haskell distributed-static package.
Each is described in more detail below.
We propose to
Outright replace the existing Typeable class with the new one; ditto the TypeRep type.
This will change the API.
This seems better than inventing new names for everything (e.g. class TypeableT, data type TypeRepT).
Not many packages use TypeRep explicitly, we want to encourage those that do to switch over.
GHC magic for the Typeable class will apply to the new class.
To ease the transition we will provide both
The old API via a (deprecated) new module Data.Typeable710.
The old API via the exiting module Data.Typeable but with new names for (deprecated) old types and functions.
Update the existing Dynamic type to be based on the new Typeable class.
This will keep the same API, except we have to drop the function dynTypeRep :: Dynamic -> TypeRep ?, as we cannot return an indexed TypeRep.
We allow pattern matching on the Dynamic type as an alternative.
The static pointer and closure modules are new.
(Code will be forthcoming: it implements the library side of Data.Typeable and Data.StaticPtr and all of Data.Dynamic and Control.DistributedClosure.
The GHC support for deriving Typeable and the static keyword (and thus building the static pointer table) is not done, but there is a mock-up in library code.
We provide the new Typeable and Dynamic in Data.TypeableT and Data.DynamicT to avoid name clashes for now.)
See also the individual questions sections below.
Now is the easiest time to rename things - do you have suggestions for better naming schemes?
It remains to be seen if this implementation is suitable as a foundation for the Cloud Haskell packages.
The polymorphic static pointer support is different, and I'm not entirely certain that CH doesn't need full rank-1 polymorphism support (but I am fairly confident).
At the very least, there is more overhead (on the wire), and some performance tests should be done before committing to anything.
For Data.Typeable we ultimately need Richard Eisenberg's kind equalities.
But until GHC gets kind equalities we offer a variant ("homogeneous case") that doesn't need them, but has an extra unsafeCoerce or two, and returns Bool rather than a type equality on kind-heterogeneous comparisons.
Without kind equalities
data TypeRep (a :: k) -- abstracttypeRepFingerprint :: TypeRep a -> FingerprintappR :: TypeRep (a :: k -> k') -> TypeRep (b :: k) -> TypeRep (a b)class Typeable (a :: k) where typeRep :: TypeRep a-- GHC has magic built-in support for Typeable instances-- but the effect is similar to declarations like these:instance (Typeable c, Typeable a) => Typeable (c a)instance Typeable Boolinstance Typeable (->)withTypeRep :: TypeRep a -> (Typeable a => b) -> b-- c.f. Trac #2439eqRR :: TypeRep (a :: k1) -> TypeRep (b :: k2) -> BooleqRRHom :: TypeRep (a :: k) -> TypeRep (b :: k) -> Maybe (a :~: b)data GetApp (a :: k) where GA :: TypeRep (a :: k1 -> k2) -> TypeRep (b :: k1) -> GetApp (a b)getAppR :: TypeRep (a :: k) -> Maybe (GetApp a)data G1 c a where G1 :: TypeRep (a :: k) -> G1 (c :: k -> k') (c a)getR1 :: TypeRep (ct :: k1 -> k) -> TypeRep (c'at :: k) -> Maybe (G1 ct c'at)-- Implementation uses an unsafeCoercedata G2 c a where G2 :: TypeRep (a :: k1) -> TypeRep (b :: k2) -> G2 (c :: k1 -> k2 -> k3) (c a b)getR2 :: TypeRep (c :: k2 -> k1 -> k) -> TypeRep (a :: k) -> Maybe (G2 c a)-- Implementation uses an unsafeCoerce-- rest are for conveniencetypeOf :: Typeable a => (a :: *) -> TypeRep agetFnR :: TypeRep (a :: *) -> Maybe (G2 (->) a)castR :: TypeRep (a :: *) -> TypeRep (b :: *) -> a -> Maybe bcast :: (Typeable (a :: *), Typeable (b :: *)) => a -> Maybe bgcastR :: TypeRep (a :: k) -> TypeRep (b :: k) -> c a -> Maybe (c b)gcast :: (Typeable (a :: k), Typeable (b :: k)) => c a -> Maybe (c b)gcastR1 :: TypeRep (t :: k1 -> k2) -> TypeRep (t' :: k1 -> k2) -> c (t a) -> Maybe (c (t' a))gcast1 :: (Typeable (t :: k1 -> k2), Typeable (t' :: k1 -> k2)) => c (t a) -> Maybe (c (t' a))gcastR2 :: TypeRep (t :: k1 -> k2 -> k3) -> TypeRep (t' :: k1 -> k2 -> k3) -> c (t a b) -> Maybe (c (t' a b))gcast2 :: (Typeable (t :: k1 -> k2 -> k3), Typeable (t' :: k1 -> k2 -> k3)) => c (t a b) -> Maybe (c (t' a b))
Many of these functions come in two variants:
one which takes an explicit TypeRep argument, and
one that take an implicit TypeRep argument via a Typeable a constraint.
We use a consistent naming scheme: put an R suffix on variants that take an explicit TypeRep parameter, no suffix for Typeable constraint versions.
Note that the type (:~:) comes from Data.Type.Equality.
And Fingerprint is from GHC.Fingerprint.
typeRepFingerprint is not used internally (although it could be for eqRR), but is provided for users.
e.g. to add consistency checks when using Control.DistributedClosure that two nodes agree on their static pointer table (or at least the types agree, if not the values).
Note also eqRR is not hugely useful as (if it returns True) we know that types and kinds are the same, but GHC doesn't, so unsafeCoerce is often needed.
The withTypeRep function is potentially useful, and illustrates a generally useful pattern: see Typeable/WithTypeable.
Key differences from GHC 7.10
The key difference is that TypeRep becomes type-indexed, so that if x :: TypeRep [Int] then x is a runtime-inspectable type representation for [Int].
It is poly-kinded, of course, so that TypeRep Maybe is fine.
In class Typeable, the typeRep method therefore no longer needs a proxy argument.
Indeed the class dictionary precisely is a single type representation.
Functions for constructing and destructing TypeReps differ, in particular destructing needs a GADT return type to deal with existentially hidden TypeRep indices.
The new API does not expose TyCon, and is therefore a much smaller API; see questions below.
With kind equalities
Once we have kind equalities, we have a kind-heterogeneous (:~~:) :: k1 -> k2 -> *.
Now we do not unsafeCoerce in getR1 and the like, so we can now just export getAppR and leave the rest to the users.
The changes are that now:
eqRR :: TypeRep (a :: k1) -> TypeRep (b :: k2) -> a :~~: b (i.e. now returns a:~~:b rather than Bool), and is more useful (doesn't force us to use unsafeCoerce)
getR1 and getR2 don't need unsafeCoerce, and we can generalise G1, getR1 etc. to be poly-kinded i.e. getR1 :: TypeRep (a :: k1 -> k) -> TypeRep (b :: k2) -> Maybe (G1 a b) where k /= k2
We obviously may want to provide (and deprecate) getR1, eqRRHom etc. for compatibility, but they now can be written entirely safely in user-code.
(I am not yet sure whether it would be useful to keep the homogeneous equality functions around --- potentially enforcing kind homogeneity could be useful)
Trusted code base
The TCB consists of (in the homogeneous case), the implementation of data TypeRep, class Typeable and its implementations, eqRR and eqRRHom (comparison of TypeReps), getR1 and getR2 (decomposing TypeReps).
As is currently done for Typeable, the instances for Typeable should be "magically" provided by GHC.
In the kind-heterogeneous case, getR1 and getR2 come out of the TCB.
How many getR1, getR2 etc should we provide?
Currently, equality checks for TypeReps are done recursively rather than using fingerprints, and once no-kinds is merged, it will actually build equality evidence out of smaller equality evidince.
However, using fingerprints and one unsafeCoerce may be more efficient (especially if fingerprints are cached in the datatype), but is argueably less principled, and certainly brings more code into the TCB.
Which method do we want to use?
Or perhaps provide both eqRR with fingerprints and eqRRParanoid recursively?
Do we want explicit names for some type representations?
Perhaps typeRepBool etc., just for Prelude defined types.
(It is nice to avoid writing typeRep :: TypeRep Bool)
TyCon is used internally but is now entirely hidden from the user.
Is there a use-case where this is not desirable? By way of background, the internal representatation looks like this
data TypeRep (a :: k) where TRCon :: TyCon a -> TypeRep a TRApp :: TypeRep a -> TypeRep b -> TypeRep (a b)
where the TyCon a is a now-internal data type describing a type constructor.
For compatability, the old API is exported from Data.Typeable with 710 as a suffix on everything, and under the old names from Data.Typeable.Typeable710.
Comments on naming scheme are welcome!
Currently, all fingerprints match between the old, base, TypeRep, the new TypeRep and the compatability TypeRep710.
Is this the correct route, or should we force them to be different, or perhaps different in a predictable way (xor with "new_____", "old_____" and "compat__" or some-such)?
A related ticket: 7897 (MakeTypeRep fingerprints be proper, robust fingerprints) describes a situation where the data type can change, but the fingerprint remains the same (as it is a hash of "<package-key> <module> <type name>"), but it only really affects the main package.
The conclusion appears to be to keep the status quo.
Naming question: is withTypeRep or withTypeable preferred?
withTypeRep is not actually needed in the current code base, as most functions have a variant which takes a plain TypeRep.
(However, we do use Dict (Typeable a) in the Static Pointer Table code, which we could potentially do without if we use withTypeRep.)
Do we want to provide it?
(Note that one cannot write it safely in source Haskell, but it is trivial in Core, as (Typeable is a one-method class, implemented basically as a newtype, and is a singleton, so there are no incoherence issues)).
Relatedly, withTypeRep is currently in its own module, as I am not particularly comfortable with the contortions one needs in source Haskell to write it.
Should it be made an first-class member of the API and exported from Data.Typeable?
This should be a fairly seamless changeover, since Dynamic is abstract currently (although we cannot provide a dynTypeRep :: Dynamic -> TypeRep ? function - this does not seem oft-used & can be avoided by pattern matching as our Dynamic is not abstract).
The API follows the current API, except missing dynTypeRep, as detailed above.
We provide variants of functions that take explicit TypeRep arguments.
data Dynamic where Dynamic :: TypeRep a -> a -> DynamictoDynR :: TypeRep a -> a -> DynamictoDyn :: Typeable a => a -> DynamicfromDynamicR :: TypeRep a -> Dynamic -> Maybe afromDynamic :: Typeable a => Dynamic -> Maybe afromDynR :: TypeRep a -> Dynamic -> a -> afromDyn :: Typeable a => Dynamic -> a -> adynApp :: Dynamic -> Dynamic -> Dynamic -- Existing function; calls error on failuredynApply :: Dynamic -> Dynamic -> Maybe Dynamicdata SDynamic s where SDynamic :: TypeRep a -> s a -> SDynamic stoSDynR :: TypeRep a -> s a -> SDynamic stoSDyn :: Typeable a => s a -> SDynamic sfromSDynamicR :: TypeRep a -> SDynamic s -> Maybe (s a)fromSDynamic :: Typeable a => SDynamic s -> Maybe (s a)fromSDynR :: TypeRep a -> SDynamic s -> s a -> s afromSDyn :: Typeable a => SDynamic s -> s a -> s a
These is no trusted code here; i.e. no unsafeCoreces in the implementation.
Dynamic is not abstract, so you can pattern match on it. If it were abstract we'd need to add
unpackDynamic :: Dynamic -> (forall a. TypeRep a -> a -> r) -> r
SDynamic is a mid-point between fully dynamic & fully static types.
We statically know some "Shape" information, but not all info about type.
e.g., SDynamic Maybe contains a value that is definitely a Maybe ty for some type ty, but the type ty can vary between values of type SDynamic Maybe.
One use-case is in the implementation of StaticPtr.
Do we want to provide dynApp which calls error instead of returning Nothing?
It seems to be much less used than dynApply, and personally I dislike that style.
Since we are modifying things, perhaps we should think about a more invasive change (or alternatively an extension to the API!)
Maybe is not very informative, perhaps we should change to Either String or Either FromError and Either ApplyError.
Note in dynApply two errors are currently conflated:
"first arg is not a function",
"function expects different type to arg given".
Also, it is not particularly easy to print out what the type mis-match was in fromDynamic.
Note that the static pointer support requires a static pointer table in a different form to what GHC already supports, and an extension to the static keyword (or a new polystatic keyword).
static is a language construct, and static <expr>, has type StaticPtr t if <expr> has type t.
In static <expr>, the free variables (and type variables) of <expr> must all be bound at top level.
The implementation could work by giving <expr> a top-level definition with a new name, static34 = <expr>, then adding a row in the static pointer table recording that the StaticPtr of name "<expr>-key" points to static34, of type t, and a reflection: TypeRep t.
This TypeRep t enables us to do a dynamic typecheck when deserialising a StaticPtr, which is serialised as just its key in the static pointer table.
See below for a description of polystatic.
data Dict c where Dict :: forall c . c => Dict c-- A StaticPtr is just a /code/ pointer to a monomorphic valuedata StaticPtr (a :: *) -- abstractdeRefStaticPtr :: StaticPtr a -> aputSDynStaticPtr :: SDynamic StaticPtr -> PutgetSDynStaticPtr :: Get (SDynamic StaticPtr)instance Binary (SDynamic StaticPtr)putStaticPtr :: StaticPtr a -> PutgetStaticPtr :: TypeRep a -> Get (StaticPtr a)instance Typeable a => Binary (StaticPtr a)-- A Static is either a StaticPtr, a "polymorphic code pointer", or a syntax tree of applications of such.data Static (a :: *) -- abstractdeRefStatic :: Static a -> astaticMono :: StaticPtr a -> Static astaticApp :: Static (a -> b) -> Static a -> Static bputSDynStatic :: SDynamic Static -> PutgetSDynStatic :: Get (SDynamic Static)instance Binary (SDynamic Static)putStatic :: Static a -> PutgetStatic :: TypeRep a -> Get (Static a)instance Typeable a => Binary (Static a)
To serialise a static pointer, we just serialise its name
What a name actually comprises is fairly flexible:
If all binaries have the same SPT, we could just have an numeric index into the SPT
If we want to support overlapping SPTs, we could do a (package,module,name) triple
Since we have a safe lookup function, this choice cannot impact type-safety
We don't actually expore a lookupSPT function, but that is the content of getStaticPtr.
It would be nice to have a different keyword and type (as currently: StaticPre vs Static) for polymorphic support, as the serialization of a StaticPtr is small, but for a polymorphic Static, may be suprisingly large.
We may wish to be able to have staticReverse = static reverse :: StaticPtr (forall a. [a] -> [a]), but this is not possible.
If we attempted it, we would need to put a row in the static pointer table along the lines of ("staticReverse-key", reverse :: forall a. [a] -> [a], TypeRep (forall a. [a] -> [a])), but the type representation runs into impredicativity issues.
Warning: polymorphism seems to be a tricky issue: it certianly took up the vast majority of my time and thinking!
We may wish to not support it at all - see "Possible approaches to avoid polymorphism".
Our approach for closures, however, needs polymorphism support: we wish for some class Serializable (a :: *) and a function closurePure :: Serializable a => a -> Closure a, which lets us take any Int or Bool or [Maybe (Int, Bool)] etc and create a closure.
Our approach is that, roughly Serializable has a method binDict :: Static (Dict (Binary a)), and a closurePure x is serialised as this static dictionary and encode x :: Bytestring.
To write instance Serializable a => Serializable (Maybe a) we need a static function sMaybeDB :: Static (Dict (Binary a) -> Dict (Binary (Maybe a))), which is polymorphic.
Then the instance can be written:
instance Serializable b => Serializable (Maybe b) where binDict = sMaybeDB `staticApp` binDict
The problem now is that we don't know how to put sMaybeDB into the SPT, as it has a polymorphic type.
Thankfully, we actually turn out to need just "the polymorphic function f with its one free type variable instantiated at a", where a is given by a staticTypeable dictionary, and we need this instantiated "f @ a" to be serialisable.
(Note that we may use multiple types a at different places, or polymorphism wouldn't be necessary!)
As on StaticPointers, we propose to only deal with parametric polymorphism, and not type-class polymorphism, which users can reduce to the former using the Dict Trick (see [DistributedHaskell].
We limit ourselves to one free type variable of kind * and rank 1 polymorphism.
(Our approach could be extended with a 2-polymorphic flavour of Static easily (or 3- etc), but it is not clear how to do one flavour which is polymorphic of arbitrary arity.)
So we want:
if <expr> :: forall a . Typeable a => t (a occurs in t), then polystatic <expr> has type forall a . Static (Dict (Typeable (a :: *))) -> Static t, where a can occur in t, but all other (value and type) variables are bound at top level.
This is put into a "polymorphic pointer table" (PPT) as a row ("<expr>-key", expr' :: forall (a :: *) . Dict (Typeable a) -> (t, TypeRep t))
So sMaybeDB is not Static, so we never try to serialise it, just things of the form sMaybeDB (staticTypeDictMaybeInt :: Static (Dict (Typeable (Maybe Int)))).
This we can serialise as
a tag to show this is a polymorphic thing (as opposed to a staticApp or a plain StaticPtr)
finally the serialization of staticTypeDictMaybeInt (which will itself probably be sMaybeDB staticTypeDictInt, where staticTypeDictInt is finally a plain StaticPtr, which is serialized as "staticTypeDictInt-key").
We can then decode in the obvious way, making dynamic typechecks where necessary.
The implementation could work by giving <expr> a top-level definition with a new name, polystatic34 = \(Dict :: Dict(Typeable a)) -> <expr>, then expr' in the PPT becomes the code pointer to polystatic34
Note the types won't line up nicely to naively have the PPT being a list, so we currently use type families to have a type-level function, PolyTag, so instead of t above, we have PolyTag MaybeDBTag a instead (where MaybeDBTag is a new data type whose only role is as an argument to PolyTag.
Then we can have the homgeneous rows (Key, tag , forall a . Dict (Typeable a) -> (PolyTag tag a, TypeRep (PolyTag tag a))).
Then our instance can be nicely written:
(note that we also need a Static (Dict (Typeable a)) in Serializable a, as we need to pass that to sMaybeDB, so we have to add a bit more code to build a Static (Dict (Typeable (Maybe a))) also.
--Our polymorphic "wrap a `Maybe` around this Typeable/Binary dictionary" functions:-- these just point to enteries in the Polymorphic Pointer TablesMaybeDB :: Static (Dict (Typeable (a :: *))) -> Static (Dict (Binary a) -> Dict (Binary (Maybe a)))sMaybeDB = polystatic (\(Dict :: Dict (Binary a)) -> Dict :: Dict (Binary (Maybe a)))sMaybeDT :: Static (Dict (Typeable (a :: *))) -> Static (Dict (Typeable (Maybe a)))sMaybeDT = polystatic (Dict :: Dict (Typeable (Maybe a)))class (Binary a, Typeable a) => Serializable a where binDict :: Static (Dict (Binary a)) typDict :: Static (Dict (Typeable a))instance Serializable b => Serializable (Maybe b) where binDict = sMaybeDB typDict `staticApp` binDict typDict = sMaybeDT typDict
Note that to serialise a polymorphic pointer, we send its name and a description of the (static) type at which the polymorphism is "applied", which may itself be a deeply nested combination of static applications and more polymorphism.
This is why it may be surprisingly large!
Thus it is more efficient to declare commonly used static values monomorphically if possible (see the Control.DistributedClosure notes for an example).
Possible alternate approaches to polymorphism
Other approaches we may take to Serializable and closurePure:
The rank1dynamic approach
We actually support more polymorphism, at the expense of lying to GHC!
The approach of rank1dynamic is basically casting everything to Any (or similar), and implementing our own typechecker.
This needs unsafeCoerce, whereas our approach doesn't, but has the advantage of not requiring Static-Typeable-ness, but requires a different, rank-1 Typeable.
It supports "proper" polymorphism: in rank1dynamic, you can create a dynamic reverse function which then can be extracted at any type, but with our approach the type is fixed on creation.
This also doesn't have the one-type-variable constraint.
Don't support nice Serializable instances
This is the "abandon ship" approach.
We don't support any polymorphism or any instance Serializable b => Serializable (Maybe b) instances.
This forces the user to write Serializable instances for each type they are interested in, not just each type former.
One benefit though, is the instances will be trivial, as there is no polymorphism going on, and the typDict member can be removed.
This will just add a row in the SPT for each static dictionary.
The GHC magic approach
Like the "abandon ship" approach, we don't support polymorphism, but we do support nice Serializable instances.
Again we add a row in the SPT for each dictionary at each type we are interested in, but this time, GHC gains magic to write the trivial instances automatically.
(Warning, this is the most speculative approach!)
We slightly generalise our goal, from Binary to arbitrary classes.
We define a new class (note SC :: Constraint -> Constraint), where SC stands for "Static Constraint"
class c => SC c where dict :: Static (Dict s)
These act as normal, except when GHC comes to solve one where c has no free type variables, it solves c, and takes a dictionary d :: Dict c of that and essentially splices in static d.
Thus the effect is to generate, on the fly,
data Closure a where ... ClosurePure :: SC (Binary a) => a -> Closure a ...f :: Serializable [a] => a -> Closure [a]f x = closurePure [x,x]g :: Serializable [Maybe b] => Closure [Maybe b]g y = f $ Just y
So far, this is all non-magical, but when the user finally says g True, we need to find a Serializable [Maybe Bool] instance.
But this is exactly a static Binary [Maybe Bool] instance, and a Binary [Maybe Bool] is trivially solveable, as (morally) a top level value with no free variables (or type variables).
So GHC can just stuff that into the SPT and be done!
Thus, the following works (without having to think about manually instanciating Serializable)
g True :: Closure [Maybe Bool]
One problem with magic "StaticConstraint" class is that you must declare the types you are interested in at compile time.
This is as opposed to the type formers that our polymorhism proposal requires.
i.e. you can only accept Int, [Int] and [[Int]], rather than the "closure under type application" of Int and  :: * -> * – i.e. Int, [Int], [[Int]], [[[Int]]], ad infinitum.
One benefit with all these alternatives is that they would all avoid the issue of non-obvious large serialisations (as they never build a large "polymorphic/static application" tree to describe a static dictionary.
A reason to support polymorphism
We may want a function purify :: SDynamic Closure -> SDynamic Closure which converts (some) arbitrary closures into closurePure format.
(Imagine asking a powerfull remote node to factorise large numbers for you, or some other hard problem).
By "some", we mean some types, i.e. for some as we make Closure as pure, and leave other Closure bs alone.
If the set of interesting as is finite, (just Int and Integer) in the example above, then we are easilly able to do this under all the above proposals.
However, if we want all combinations of, say, Int, Bool,  and Maybe, then we cannot do it under the non-polymorphic approaches, but we can under our proposal.
We must write something akin to
purify :: SDynamic Closure -> SDynamic Closurepurify (SDynamic (tr :: TypeRep a) (cval :: Closure a)) = let val :: a = unclosure cval in SDynamic tr (closurePure val) -- NOTE: this fails to typecheck, as we need `Serializable a`
Exersise: implement this!
(Hint: consider getSerializeable :: TypeRep a -> Maybe (Dict (Serializable a)) which recurses on the TypeRep, doing dynamic checks to see if it is Int or Bool or [_] or Maybe _ at each stage.)
Trusted Code Base
Just the RTS and GHC support for building the static pointer table.
(The "rank1dynamic" alternative approach obviously has a much larger TCB, and the "magic GHC" approach has the magic in the TCB, of course!).
Should StaticPtr be merged with Static?
For: Simplicity, smaller API.
Against: It is nice to syntactally know that a StaticPtr will have a small serialisation (as it is just a key into the SPT).
Recall a Static may be a big thing, built from lots of staticApps and polymorphism.
Naming of deRef*: for StaticPtr, this was chosen for consistency with current GHC.
Consistency between Static and StaticPtr is nice, but deRefStatic makes the operation sound trivial (follow a pointer?), but we may need to do arbitrary computations to evaluate applications.
Option 1: leave as is
Option 2: rename deRefStatic to unStatic (then consistent with Closures)
Option 3: rename both deRef* to un*
Dict should probably live somewhere else. Where?
Recall our comment above that closurePure x is serialised as a static Binary dictionary and encode x :: Bytestring.
This is slightly different to what we are doing at the moment, which is encoding it as a closureS (polystatic decode'staticAppbinDict)closureApp(encode x), where decode' :: Dict (Binary a) -> ByteString -> a.
I am starting to favour serialising the dictionary, does anyone else have a preference?
The static "polymorphism" support is a bit kludgy - any comments on this would be most helpful!
Closures are based on the fact that both Statics and ByteStrings are easilly serialisable.
The Serialisable class and closurePure use this by noting that if we have a 'static' decoding function sf for a, then we can serialise sf and encode a :: ByteString, and this is a serialisation of a itself.
(Note that the sole use of Serialisable is to implement closurePure.
Note however, that we require a fully-fledged 'static' Typeable and Binary dictionary, this enables us to be able to write instances like instance Serializable b => Serializable (Maybe b).
These instances are where we require our polymorphism support in Data.StaticPtr
data Closure (a :: *) -- abstractunclosure :: Closure a -> aclosureSP :: StaticPtr a -> Closure aclosureS :: Static a -> Closure aclosureEnc :: ByteString -> Closure ByteStringclosureApp :: Closure (a -> b) -> Closure a -> Closure b-- | A class for those types for which we have /static/ evidence of their 'Binary' and 'Typeable'-- nature, and so can serialise them (via 'closurePure')class (Binary a, Typeable a) => Serializable a where binDict :: Static (Dict (Binary a)) typDict :: Static (Dict (Typeable a))closurePure :: Serializable a => a -> Closure aputSDynClosure :: SDynamic Closure -> PutgetSDynClosure :: Get (SDynamic Closure)instance Binary (SDynamic Closure) whereputClosure :: Closure a -> PutgetClosure :: TypeRep a -> Get (Closure a)instance Typeable a => Binary (Closure a) where
Being based on our polymorphism support, closurePure can be inefficient, in the sense that it will expand in to a lot of data to send across the network.
This is because, it serialises a static decoder for the required type, as well as the value.
This static decoder is built automatically by the Serializable class, but this machinery heavily relies upon the polymorphism support of static pointers.
For example, at the time of writing, closurePure $ Just [Just False,Nothing] serialises as 162 bytes, of which only 12 are the data.
(These numbers may fluctuate slightly with implementation changes, but the general problem remains.)
However, it is possible to avoid using closurePure is some situations, for example, instead of
f x = (closureS $ static not)closureApp(closurePure x)
one could write
f x = (closureS $ static (not . (decode :: ByteString -> Bool)))closureApp(closureEnc $ encode x),
which "bakes in" the correct decoder to a static pointer.