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{-# LANGUAGE CPP, DeriveDataTypeable, PolymorphicComponents,
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             DeriveGeneric, FlexibleInstances, DefaultSignatures,
             ScopedTypeVariables, Rank2Types #-}
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{-# LANGUAGE RoleAnnotations #-}
{-# OPTIONS_GHC -fno-warn-inline-rule-shadowing #-}
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#if MIN_VERSION_base(4,8,0)
#define HAS_NATURAL
#endif

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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- |
-- Module      :  Language.Haskell.Syntax
-- Copyright   :  (c) The University of Glasgow 2003
-- License     :  BSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE)
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--
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-- Maintainer  :  libraries@haskell.org
-- Stability   :  experimental
-- Portability :  portable
--
-- Abstract syntax definitions for Template Haskell.
--
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

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module Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax where
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import Data.Data hiding (Fixity(..))
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#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ < 709
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import Control.Applicative( Applicative(..) )
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#endif
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import Data.IORef
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import System.IO.Unsafe ( unsafePerformIO )
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import Control.Monad (liftM)
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import System.IO        ( hPutStrLn, stderr )
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import Data.Char        ( isAlpha, isAlphaNum, isUpper )
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import Data.Int
import Data.Word
import Data.Ratio
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import GHC.Generics     ( Generic )
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import GHC.Lexeme       ( startsVarSym, startsVarId )
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#ifdef HAS_NATURAL
import Numeric.Natural
#endif

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-----------------------------------------------------
--
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--              The Quasi class
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--
-----------------------------------------------------

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class (Applicative m, Monad m) => Quasi m where
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  qNewName :: String -> m Name
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        -- ^ Fresh names
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        -- Error reporting and recovery
  qReport  :: Bool -> String -> m ()    -- ^ Report an error (True) or warning (False)
                                        -- ...but carry on; use 'fail' to stop
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  qRecover :: m a -- ^ the error handler
           -> m a -- ^ action which may fail
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           -> m a               -- ^ Recover from the monadic 'fail'
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        -- Inspect the type-checker's environment
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  qLookupName :: Bool -> String -> m (Maybe Name)
       -- True <=> type namespace, False <=> value namespace
  qReify          :: Name -> m Info
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  qReifyFixity    :: Name -> m Fixity
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  qReifyInstances :: Name -> [Type] -> m [Dec]
       -- Is (n tys) an instance?
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       -- Returns list of matching instance Decs
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       --    (with empty sub-Decs)
       -- Works for classes and type functions
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  qReifyRoles       :: Name -> m [Role]
  qReifyAnnotations :: Data a => AnnLookup -> m [a]
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  qReifyModule      :: Module -> m ModuleInfo
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  qLocation :: m Loc
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  qRunIO :: IO a -> m a
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  -- ^ Input/output (dangerous)
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  qAddDependentFile :: FilePath -> m ()
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  qAddTopDecls :: [Dec] -> m ()

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  qAddModFinalizer :: Q () -> m ()

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  qGetQ :: Typeable a => m (Maybe a)

  qPutQ :: Typeable a => a -> m ()

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-----------------------------------------------------
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--      The IO instance of Quasi
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--
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--  This instance is used only when running a Q
--  computation in the IO monad, usually just to
--  print the result.  There is no interesting
--  type environment, so reification isn't going to
--  work.
--
-----------------------------------------------------

instance Quasi IO where
  qNewName s = do { n <- readIORef counter
                 ; writeIORef counter (n+1)
                 ; return (mkNameU s n) }

  qReport True  msg = hPutStrLn stderr ("Template Haskell error: " ++ msg)
  qReport False msg = hPutStrLn stderr ("Template Haskell error: " ++ msg)

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  qLookupName _ _     = badIO "lookupName"
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  qReify _            = badIO "reify"
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  qReifyFixity _      = badIO "reifyFixity"
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  qReifyInstances _ _ = badIO "reifyInstances"
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  qReifyRoles _       = badIO "reifyRoles"
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  qReifyAnnotations _ = badIO "reifyAnnotations"
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  qReifyModule _      = badIO "reifyModule"
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  qLocation           = badIO "currentLocation"
  qRecover _ _        = badIO "recover" -- Maybe we could fix this?
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  qAddDependentFile _ = badIO "addDependentFile"
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  qAddTopDecls _      = badIO "addTopDecls"
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  qAddModFinalizer _  = badIO "addModFinalizer"
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  qGetQ               = badIO "getQ"
  qPutQ _             = badIO "putQ"
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  qRunIO m = m
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badIO :: String -> IO a
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badIO op = do   { qReport True ("Can't do `" ++ op ++ "' in the IO monad")
                ; fail "Template Haskell failure" }
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-- Global variable to generate unique symbols
counter :: IORef Int
{-# NOINLINE counter #-}
counter = unsafePerformIO (newIORef 0)


-----------------------------------------------------
--
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--              The Q monad
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--
-----------------------------------------------------

newtype Q a = Q { unQ :: forall m. Quasi m => m a }

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-- \"Runs\" the 'Q' monad. Normal users of Template Haskell
-- should not need this function, as the splice brackets @$( ... )@
-- are the usual way of running a 'Q' computation.
--
-- This function is primarily used in GHC internals, and for debugging
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-- splices by running them in 'IO'.
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--
-- Note that many functions in 'Q', such as 'reify' and other compiler
-- queries, are not supported when running 'Q' in 'IO'; these operations
-- simply fail at runtime. Indeed, the only operations guaranteed to succeed
-- are 'newName', 'runIO', 'reportError' and 'reportWarning'.
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runQ :: Quasi m => Q a -> m a
runQ (Q m) = m

instance Monad Q where
  return x   = Q (return x)
  Q m >>= k  = Q (m >>= \x -> unQ (k x))
  Q m >> Q n = Q (m >> n)
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  fail s     = report True s >> Q (fail "Q monad failure")
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instance Functor Q where
  fmap f (Q x) = Q (fmap f x)

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instance Applicative Q where
  pure x = Q (pure x)
  Q f <*> Q x = Q (f <*> x)
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-----------------------------------------------------
--
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--              The TExp type
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--
-----------------------------------------------------

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type role TExp nominal   -- See Note [Role of TExp]
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newtype TExp a = TExp { unType :: Exp }

unTypeQ :: Q (TExp a) -> Q Exp
unTypeQ m = do { TExp e <- m
               ; return e }

unsafeTExpCoerce :: Q Exp -> Q (TExp a)
unsafeTExpCoerce m = do { e <- m
                        ; return (TExp e) }
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{- Note [Role of TExp]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
TExp's argument must have a nominal role, not phantom as would
be inferred (Trac #8459).  Consider

  e :: TExp Age
  e = MkAge 3

  foo = $(coerce e) + 4::Int

The splice will evaluate to (MkAge 3) and you can't add that to
4::Int. So you can't coerce a (TExp Age) to a (TExp Int). -}

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----------------------------------------------------
-- Packaged versions for the programmer, hiding the Quasi-ness
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{- |
Generate a fresh name, which cannot be captured.
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For example, this:

@f = $(do
  nm1 <- newName \"x\"
  let nm2 = 'mkName' \"x\"
  return ('LamE' ['VarP' nm1] (LamE [VarP nm2] ('VarE' nm1)))
 )@

will produce the splice

>f = \x0 -> \x -> x0

In particular, the occurrence @VarE nm1@ refers to the binding @VarP nm1@,
and is not captured by the binding @VarP nm2@.

Although names generated by @newName@ cannot /be captured/, they can
/capture/ other names. For example, this:

>g = $(do
>  nm1 <- newName "x"
>  let nm2 = mkName "x"
>  return (LamE [VarP nm2] (LamE [VarP nm1] (VarE nm2)))
> )

will produce the splice

>g = \x -> \x0 -> x0

since the occurrence @VarE nm2@ is captured by the innermost binding
of @x@, namely @VarP nm1@.
-}
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newName :: String -> Q Name
newName s = Q (qNewName s)

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-- | Report an error (True) or warning (False),
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-- but carry on; use 'fail' to stop.
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report  :: Bool -> String -> Q ()
report b s = Q (qReport b s)
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{-# DEPRECATED report "Use reportError or reportWarning instead" #-} -- deprecated in 7.6
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-- | Report an error to the user, but allow the current splice's computation to carry on. To abort the computation, use 'fail'.
reportError :: String -> Q ()
reportError = report True

-- | Report a warning to the user, and carry on.
reportWarning :: String -> Q ()
reportWarning = report False
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-- | Recover from errors raised by 'reportError' or 'fail'.
recover :: Q a -- ^ handler to invoke on failure
        -> Q a -- ^ computation to run
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        -> Q a
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recover (Q r) (Q m) = Q (qRecover r m)

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-- We don't export lookupName; the Bool isn't a great API
-- Instead we export lookupTypeName, lookupValueName
lookupName :: Bool -> String -> Q (Maybe Name)
lookupName ns s = Q (qLookupName ns s)

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-- | Look up the given name in the (type namespace of the) current splice's scope. See "Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax#namelookup" for more details.
lookupTypeName :: String -> Q (Maybe Name)
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lookupTypeName  s = Q (qLookupName True s)
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-- | Look up the given name in the (value namespace of the) current splice's scope. See "Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax#namelookup" for more details.
lookupValueName :: String -> Q (Maybe Name)
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lookupValueName s = Q (qLookupName False s)

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{-
Note [Name lookup]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-}
{- $namelookup #namelookup#
The functions 'lookupTypeName' and 'lookupValueName' provide
a way to query the current splice's context for what names
are in scope. The function 'lookupTypeName' queries the type
namespace, whereas 'lookupValueName' queries the value namespace,
but the functions are otherwise identical.

A call @lookupValueName s@ will check if there is a value
with name @s@ in scope at the current splice's location. If
there is, the @Name@ of this value is returned;
if not, then @Nothing@ is returned.

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The returned name cannot be \"captured\".
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For example:

> f = "global"
> g = $( do
>          Just nm <- lookupValueName "f"
>          [| let f = "local" in $( varE nm ) |]

In this case, @g = \"global\"@; the call to @lookupValueName@
returned the global @f@, and this name was /not/ captured by
the local definition of @f@.

The lookup is performed in the context of the /top-level/ splice
being run. For example:

> f = "global"
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> g = $( [| let f = "local" in
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>            $(do
>                Just nm <- lookupValueName "f"
>                varE nm
>             ) |] )

Again in this example, @g = \"global\"@, because the call to
@lookupValueName@ queries the context of the outer-most @$(...)@.

Operators should be queried without any surrounding parentheses, like so:

> lookupValueName "+"

Qualified names are also supported, like so:

> lookupValueName "Prelude.+"
> lookupValueName "Prelude.map"

-}


{- | 'reify' looks up information about the 'Name'.

It is sometimes useful to construct the argument name using 'lookupTypeName' or 'lookupValueName'
to ensure that we are reifying from the right namespace. For instance, in this context:

> data D = D

which @D@ does @reify (mkName \"D\")@ return information about? (Answer: @D@-the-type, but don't rely on it.)
To ensure we get information about @D@-the-value, use 'lookupValueName':

> do
>   Just nm <- lookupValueName "D"
>   reify nm

and to get information about @D@-the-type, use 'lookupTypeName'.
-}
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reify :: Name -> Q Info
reify v = Q (qReify v)

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{- | @reifyFixity nm@ returns the fixity of @nm@. If a fixity value cannot be
found, 'defaultFixity' is returned.
-}
reifyFixity :: Name -> Q Fixity
reifyFixity nm = Q (qReifyFixity nm)

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{- | @reifyInstances nm tys@ returns a list of visible instances of @nm tys@. That is,
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if @nm@ is the name of a type class, then all instances of this class at the types @tys@
are returned. Alternatively, if @nm@ is the name of a data family or type family,
all instances of this family at the types @tys@ are returned.
-}
reifyInstances :: Name -> [Type] -> Q [InstanceDec]
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reifyInstances cls tys = Q (qReifyInstances cls tys)
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{- | @reifyRoles nm@ returns the list of roles associated with the parameters of
the tycon @nm@. Fails if @nm@ cannot be found or is not a tycon.
The returned list should never contain 'InferR'.
-}
reifyRoles :: Name -> Q [Role]
reifyRoles nm = Q (qReifyRoles nm)

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-- | @reifyAnnotations target@ returns the list of annotations
-- associated with @target@.  Only the annotations that are
-- appropriately typed is returned.  So if you have @Int@ and @String@
-- annotations for the same target, you have to call this function twice.
reifyAnnotations :: Data a => AnnLookup -> Q [a]
reifyAnnotations an = Q (qReifyAnnotations an)

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-- | @reifyModule mod@ looks up information about module @mod@.  To
-- look up the current module, call this function with the return
-- value of @thisModule@.
reifyModule :: Module -> Q ModuleInfo
reifyModule m = Q (qReifyModule m)

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-- | Is the list of instances returned by 'reifyInstances' nonempty?
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isInstance :: Name -> [Type] -> Q Bool
isInstance nm tys = do { decs <- reifyInstances nm tys
                       ; return (not (null decs)) }
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-- | The location at which this computation is spliced.
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location :: Q Loc
location = Q qLocation
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-- |The 'runIO' function lets you run an I\/O computation in the 'Q' monad.
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-- Take care: you are guaranteed the ordering of calls to 'runIO' within
-- a single 'Q' computation, but not about the order in which splices are run.
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--
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-- Note: for various murky reasons, stdout and stderr handles are not
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-- necessarily flushed when the compiler finishes running, so you should
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-- flush them yourself.
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runIO :: IO a -> Q a
runIO m = Q (qRunIO m)

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-- | Record external files that runIO is using (dependent upon).
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-- The compiler can then recognize that it should re-compile the Haskell file
-- when an external file changes.
--
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-- Expects an absolute file path.
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--
-- Notes:
--
--   * ghc -M does not know about these dependencies - it does not execute TH.
--
--   * The dependency is based on file content, not a modification time
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addDependentFile :: FilePath -> Q ()
addDependentFile fp = Q (qAddDependentFile fp)

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-- | Add additional top-level declarations. The added declarations will be type
-- checked along with the current declaration group.
addTopDecls :: [Dec] -> Q ()
addTopDecls ds = Q (qAddTopDecls ds)

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-- | Add a finalizer that will run in the Q monad after the current module has
-- been type checked. This only makes sense when run within a top-level splice.
addModFinalizer :: Q () -> Q ()
addModFinalizer act = Q (qAddModFinalizer (unQ act))

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-- | Get state from the Q monad.
getQ :: Typeable a => Q (Maybe a)
getQ = Q qGetQ

-- | Replace the state in the Q monad.
putQ :: Typeable a => a -> Q ()
putQ x = Q (qPutQ x)

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instance Quasi Q where
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  qNewName          = newName
  qReport           = report
  qRecover          = recover
  qReify            = reify
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  qReifyFixity      = reifyFixity
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  qReifyInstances   = reifyInstances
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  qReifyRoles       = reifyRoles
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  qReifyAnnotations = reifyAnnotations
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  qReifyModule      = reifyModule
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  qLookupName       = lookupName
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  qLocation         = location
  qRunIO            = runIO
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  qAddDependentFile = addDependentFile
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  qAddTopDecls      = addTopDecls
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  qAddModFinalizer  = addModFinalizer
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  qGetQ             = getQ
  qPutQ             = putQ
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----------------------------------------------------
-- The following operations are used solely in DsMeta when desugaring brackets
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-- They are not necessary for the user, who can use ordinary return and (>>=) etc
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returnQ :: a -> Q a
returnQ = return

bindQ :: Q a -> (a -> Q b) -> Q b
bindQ = (>>=)

sequenceQ :: [Q a] -> Q [a]
sequenceQ = sequence


-----------------------------------------------------
--
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--              The Lift class
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--
-----------------------------------------------------

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-- | A 'Lift' instance can have any of its values turned into a Template
-- Haskell expression. This is needed when a value used within a Template
-- Haskell quotation is bound outside the Oxford brackets (@[| ... |]@) but not
-- at the top level. As an example:
--
-- > add1 :: Int -> Q Exp
-- > add1 x = [| x + 1 |]
--
-- Template Haskell has no way of knowing what value @x@ will take on at
-- splice-time, so it requires the type of @x@ to be an instance of 'Lift'.
--
-- 'Lift' instances can be derived automatically by use of the @-XDeriveLift@
-- GHC language extension:
--
-- > {-# LANGUAGE DeriveLift #-}
-- > module Foo where
-- >
-- > import Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax
-- >
-- > data Bar a = Bar1 a (Bar a) | Bar2 String
-- >   deriving Lift
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class Lift t where
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  -- | Turn a value into a Template Haskell expression, suitable for use in
  -- a splice.
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  lift :: t -> Q Exp
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  default lift :: Data t => t -> Q Exp
  lift = liftData
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-- If you add any instances here, consider updating test th/TH_Lift
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instance Lift Integer where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL x))

instance Lift Int where
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  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

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instance Lift Int8 where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

instance Lift Int16 where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

instance Lift Int32 where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

instance Lift Int64 where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

instance Lift Word where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

instance Lift Word8 where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

instance Lift Word16 where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

instance Lift Word32 where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))

instance Lift Word64 where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))
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#ifdef HAS_NATURAL
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instance Lift Natural where
  lift x = return (LitE (IntegerL (fromIntegral x)))
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#endif
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instance Integral a => Lift (Ratio a) where
  lift x = return (LitE (RationalL (toRational x)))

instance Lift Float where
  lift x = return (LitE (RationalL (toRational x)))

instance Lift Double where
  lift x = return (LitE (RationalL (toRational x)))
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instance Lift Char where
  lift x = return (LitE (CharL x))

instance Lift Bool where
  lift True  = return (ConE trueName)
  lift False = return (ConE falseName)

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instance Lift a => Lift (Maybe a) where
  lift Nothing  = return (ConE nothingName)
  lift (Just x) = liftM (ConE justName `AppE`) (lift x)

instance (Lift a, Lift b) => Lift (Either a b) where
  lift (Left x)  = liftM (ConE leftName  `AppE`) (lift x)
  lift (Right y) = liftM (ConE rightName `AppE`) (lift y)

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instance Lift a => Lift [a] where
  lift xs = do { xs' <- mapM lift xs; return (ListE xs') }

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liftString :: String -> Q Exp
-- Used in TcExpr to short-circuit the lifting for strings
liftString s = return (LitE (StringL s))

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instance Lift () where
  lift () = return (ConE (tupleDataName 0))

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instance (Lift a, Lift b) => Lift (a, b) where
  lift (a, b)
    = liftM TupE $ sequence [lift a, lift b]

instance (Lift a, Lift b, Lift c) => Lift (a, b, c) where
  lift (a, b, c)
    = liftM TupE $ sequence [lift a, lift b, lift c]

instance (Lift a, Lift b, Lift c, Lift d) => Lift (a, b, c, d) where
  lift (a, b, c, d)
    = liftM TupE $ sequence [lift a, lift b, lift c, lift d]

instance (Lift a, Lift b, Lift c, Lift d, Lift e)
      => Lift (a, b, c, d, e) where
  lift (a, b, c, d, e)
    = liftM TupE $ sequence [lift a, lift b, lift c, lift d, lift e]

instance (Lift a, Lift b, Lift c, Lift d, Lift e, Lift f)
      => Lift (a, b, c, d, e, f) where
  lift (a, b, c, d, e, f)
    = liftM TupE $ sequence [lift a, lift b, lift c, lift d, lift e, lift f]

instance (Lift a, Lift b, Lift c, Lift d, Lift e, Lift f, Lift g)
      => Lift (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) where
  lift (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)
    = liftM TupE $ sequence [lift a, lift b, lift c, lift d, lift e, lift f, lift g]

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-- TH has a special form for literal strings,
-- which we should take advantage of.
-- NB: the lhs of the rule has no args, so that
--     the rule will apply to a 'lift' all on its own
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--     which happens to be the way the type checker
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--     creates it.
{-# RULES "TH:liftString" lift = \s -> return (LitE (StringL s)) #-}


trueName, falseName :: Name
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trueName  = mkNameG DataName "ghc-prim" "GHC.Types" "True"
falseName = mkNameG DataName "ghc-prim" "GHC.Types" "False"
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nothingName, justName :: Name
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nothingName = mkNameG DataName "base" "GHC.Base" "Nothing"
justName    = mkNameG DataName "base" "GHC.Base" "Just"
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leftName, rightName :: Name
leftName  = mkNameG DataName "base" "Data.Either" "Left"
rightName = mkNameG DataName "base" "Data.Either" "Right"

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-----------------------------------------------------
--
--              Generic Lift implementations
--
-----------------------------------------------------

-- | 'dataToQa' is an internal utility function for constructing generic
-- conversion functions from types with 'Data' instances to various
-- quasi-quoting representations.  See the source of 'dataToExpQ' and
-- 'dataToPatQ' for two example usages: @mkCon@, @mkLit@
-- and @appQ@ are overloadable to account for different syntax for
-- expressions and patterns; @antiQ@ allows you to override type-specific
-- cases, a common usage is just @const Nothing@, which results in
-- no overloading.
dataToQa  ::  forall a k q. Data a
          =>  (Name -> k)
          ->  (Lit -> Q q)
          ->  (k -> [Q q] -> Q q)
          ->  (forall b . Data b => b -> Maybe (Q q))
          ->  a
          ->  Q q
dataToQa mkCon mkLit appCon antiQ t =
    case antiQ t of
      Nothing ->
          case constrRep constr of
            AlgConstr _ ->
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                appCon (mkCon funOrConName) conArgs
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              where
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                funOrConName :: Name
                funOrConName =
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                    case showConstr constr of
                      "(:)"       -> Name (mkOccName ":")
                                          (NameG DataName
                                                (mkPkgName "ghc-prim")
                                                (mkModName "GHC.Types"))
                      con@"[]"    -> Name (mkOccName con)
                                          (NameG DataName
                                                (mkPkgName "ghc-prim")
                                                (mkModName "GHC.Types"))
                      con@('(':_) -> Name (mkOccName con)
                                          (NameG DataName
                                                (mkPkgName "ghc-prim")
                                                (mkModName "GHC.Tuple"))
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                      -- It is possible for a Data instance to be defined such
                      -- that toConstr uses a Constr defined using a function,
                      -- not a data constructor. In such a case, we must take
                      -- care to build the Name using mkNameG_v (for values),
                      -- not mkNameG_d (for data constructors).
                      -- See Trac #10796.
                      fun@(x:_)   | startsVarSym x || startsVarId x
                                  -> mkNameG_v tyconPkg tyconMod fun
                      con         -> mkNameG_d tyconPkg tyconMod con
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                  where
                    tycon :: TyCon
                    tycon = (typeRepTyCon . typeOf) t

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                    tyconPkg, tyconMod :: String
                    tyconPkg = tyConPackage tycon
                    tyconMod = tyConModule  tycon

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                conArgs :: [Q q]
                conArgs = gmapQ (dataToQa mkCon mkLit appCon antiQ) t
            IntConstr n ->
                mkLit $ IntegerL n
            FloatConstr n ->
                mkLit $ RationalL n
            CharConstr c ->
                mkLit $ CharL c
        where
          constr :: Constr
          constr = toConstr t

      Just y -> y

-- | 'dataToExpQ' converts a value to a 'Q Exp' representation of the
-- same value, in the SYB style. It is generalized to take a function
-- override type-specific cases; see 'liftData' for a more commonly
-- used variant.
dataToExpQ  ::  Data a
            =>  (forall b . Data b => b -> Maybe (Q Exp))
            ->  a
            ->  Q Exp
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dataToExpQ = dataToQa varOrConE litE (foldl appE)
    where
          -- Make sure that VarE is used if the Constr value relies on a
          -- function underneath the surface (instead of a constructor).
          -- See Trac #10796.
          varOrConE s =
            case nameSpace s of
                 Just VarName  -> return (VarE s)
                 Just DataName -> return (ConE s)
                 _ -> fail $ "Can't construct an expression from name "
                          ++ showName s
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          appE x y = do { a <- x; b <- y; return (AppE a b)}
          litE c = return (LitE c)

-- | 'liftData' is a variant of 'lift' in the 'Lift' type class which
-- works for any type with a 'Data' instance.
liftData :: Data a => a -> Q Exp
liftData = dataToExpQ (const Nothing)

-- | 'dataToPatQ' converts a value to a 'Q Pat' representation of the same
-- value, in the SYB style. It takes a function to handle type-specific cases,
-- alternatively, pass @const Nothing@ to get default behavior.
dataToPatQ  ::  Data a
            =>  (forall b . Data b => b -> Maybe (Q Pat))
            ->  a
            ->  Q Pat
dataToPatQ = dataToQa id litP conP
    where litP l = return (LitP l)
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          conP n ps =
            case nameSpace n of
                Just DataName -> do
                    ps' <- sequence ps
                    return (ConP n ps')
                _ -> fail $ "Can't construct a pattern from name "
                         ++ showName n
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-----------------------------------------------------
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--              Names and uniques
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-----------------------------------------------------

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newtype ModName = ModName String        -- Module name
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 deriving (Show,Eq,Ord,Typeable,Data,Generic)
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newtype PkgName = PkgName String        -- package name
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 deriving (Show,Eq,Ord,Typeable,Data,Generic)
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-- | Obtained from 'reifyModule' and 'thisModule'.
data Module = Module PkgName ModName -- package qualified module name
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 deriving (Show,Eq,Ord,Typeable,Data,Generic)
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newtype OccName = OccName String
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 deriving (Show,Eq,Ord,Typeable,Data,Generic)
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mkModName :: String -> ModName
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mkModName s = ModName s
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modString :: ModName -> String
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modString (ModName m) = m
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mkPkgName :: String -> PkgName
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mkPkgName s = PkgName s
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pkgString :: PkgName -> String
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pkgString (PkgName m) = m
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-----------------------------------------------------
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--              OccName
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-----------------------------------------------------

mkOccName :: String -> OccName
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mkOccName s = OccName s
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occString :: OccName -> String
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occString (OccName occ) = occ
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-----------------------------------------------------
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--               Names
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-----------------------------------------------------
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--
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-- For "global" names ('NameG') we need a totally unique name,
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-- so we must include the name-space of the thing
--
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-- For unique-numbered things ('NameU'), we've got a unique reference
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-- anyway, so no need for name space
--
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-- For dynamically bound thing ('NameS') we probably want them to
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-- in a context-dependent way, so again we don't want the name
-- space.  For example:
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--
-- > let v = mkName "T" in [| data $v = $v |]
--
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-- Here we use the same Name for both type constructor and data constructor
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--
--
-- NameL and NameG are bound *outside* the TH syntax tree
-- either globally (NameG) or locally (NameL). Ex:
--
-- > f x = $(h [| (map, x) |])
--
-- The 'map' will be a NameG, and 'x' wil be a NameL
--
-- These Names should never appear in a binding position in a TH syntax tree
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{- $namecapture #namecapture#
Much of 'Name' API is concerned with the problem of /name capture/, which
can be seen in the following example.

> f expr = [| let x = 0 in $expr |]
> ...
> g x = $( f [| x |] )
> h y = $( f [| y |] )

A naive desugaring of this would yield:

> g x = let x = 0 in x
> h y = let x = 0 in y

All of a sudden, @g@ and @h@ have different meanings! In this case,
we say that the @x@ in the RHS of @g@ has been /captured/
by the binding of @x@ in @f@.

What we actually want is for the @x@ in @f@ to be distinct from the
@x@ in @g@, so we get the following desugaring:

> g x = let x' = 0 in x
> h y = let x' = 0 in y

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which avoids name capture as desired.
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In the general case, we say that a @Name@ can be captured if
the thing it refers to can be changed by adding new declarations.
-}

{- |
An abstract type representing names in the syntax tree.

'Name's can be constructed in several ways, which come with different
name-capture guarantees (see "Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax#namecapture" for
an explanation of name capture):

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  * the built-in syntax @'f@ and @''T@ can be used to construct names,
    The expression @'f@ gives a @Name@ which refers to the value @f@
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    currently in scope, and @''T@ gives a @Name@ which refers to the
    type @T@ currently in scope. These names can never be captured.
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  * 'lookupValueName' and 'lookupTypeName' are similar to @'f@ and
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     @''T@ respectively, but the @Name@s are looked up at the point
     where the current splice is being run. These names can never be
     captured.

  * 'newName' monadically generates a new name, which can never
     be captured.
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  * 'mkName' generates a capturable name.

Names constructed using @newName@ and @mkName@ may be used in bindings
(such as @let x = ...@ or @\x -> ...@), but names constructed using
@lookupValueName@, @lookupTypeName@, @'f@, @''T@ may not.
-}
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data Name = Name OccName NameFlavour deriving (Typeable, Data, Eq, Generic)
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instance Ord Name where
    -- check if unique is different before looking at strings
  (Name o1 f1) `compare` (Name o2 f2) = (f1 `compare` f2)   `thenCmp`
                                        (o1 `compare` o2)
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data NameFlavour
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  = NameS           -- ^ An unqualified name; dynamically bound
  | NameQ ModName   -- ^ A qualified name; dynamically bound
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  | NameU !Int      -- ^ A unique local name
  | NameL !Int      -- ^ Local name bound outside of the TH AST
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  | NameG NameSpace PkgName ModName -- ^ Global name bound outside of the TH AST:
                -- An original name (occurrences only, not binders)
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                -- Need the namespace too to be sure which
                -- thing we are naming
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  deriving ( Typeable, Data, Eq, Ord, Show, Generic )
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data NameSpace = VarName        -- ^ Variables
               | DataName       -- ^ Data constructors
               | TcClsName      -- ^ Type constructors and classes; Haskell has them
                                -- in the same name space for now.
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               deriving( Eq, Ord, Show, Data, Typeable, Generic )
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type Uniq = Int

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-- | The name without its module prefix.
--
-- ==== __Examples__
--
-- >>> nameBase ''Data.Either.Either
-- "Either"
-- >>> nameBase (mkName "foo")
-- "foo"
-- >>> nameBase (mkName "Module.foo")
-- "foo"
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nameBase :: Name -> String
nameBase (Name occ _) = occString occ

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-- | Module prefix of a name, if it exists.
--
-- ==== __Examples__
--
-- >>> nameModule ''Data.Either.Either"
-- Just "Data.Either"
-- >>> nameModule (mkName "foo")
-- Nothing
-- >>> nameModule (mkName "Module.foo")
-- Just "Module"
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nameModule :: Name -> Maybe String
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nameModule (Name _ (NameQ m))     = Just (modString m)
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nameModule (Name _ (NameG _ _ m)) = Just (modString m)
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nameModule _                      = Nothing
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-- | A name's package, if it exists.
--
-- ==== __Examples__
--
-- >>> namePackage ''Data.Either.Either"
-- Just "base"
-- >>> namePackage (mkName "foo")
-- Nothing
-- >>> namePackage (mkName "Module.foo")
-- Nothing
namePackage :: Name -> Maybe String
namePackage (Name _ (NameG _ p _)) = Just (pkgString p)
namePackage _                      = Nothing

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-- | Returns whether a name represents an occurrence of a top-level variable
-- ('VarName'), data constructor ('DataName'), type constructor, or type class
-- ('TcClsName'). If we can't be sure, it returns 'Nothing'.
--
-- ==== __Examples__
--
-- >>> nameSpace 'Prelude.id
-- Just VarName
-- >>> nameSpace (mkName "id")
-- Nothing -- only works for top-level variable names
-- >>> nameSpace 'Data.Maybe.Just
-- Just DataName
-- >>> nameSpace ''Data.Maybe.Maybe
-- Just TcClsName
-- >>> nameSpace ''Data.Ord.Ord
-- Just TcClsName
nameSpace :: Name -> Maybe NameSpace
nameSpace (Name _ (NameG ns _ _)) = Just ns
nameSpace _                       = Nothing

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{- |
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Generate a capturable name. Occurrences of such names will be
resolved according to the Haskell scoping rules at the occurrence
site.

For example:

> f = [| pi + $(varE (mkName "pi")) |]
> ...
> g = let pi = 3 in $f

In this case, @g@ is desugared to

> g = Prelude.pi + 3

Note that @mkName@ may be used with qualified names:

> mkName "Prelude.pi"

See also 'Language.Haskell.TH.Lib.dyn' for a useful combinator. The above example could
be rewritten using 'dyn' as

> f = [| pi + $(dyn "pi") |]
-}
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mkName :: String -> Name
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-- The string can have a '.', thus "Foo.baz",
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-- giving a dynamically-bound qualified name,
-- in which case we want to generate a NameQ
--
-- Parse the string to see if it has a "." in it
-- so we know whether to generate a qualified or unqualified name
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-- It's a bit tricky because we need to parse
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--
-- > Foo.Baz.x   as    Qual Foo.Baz x
--
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-- So we parse it from back to front
mkName str
  = split [] (reverse str)
  where
    split occ []        = Name (mkOccName occ) NameS
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    split occ ('.':rev) | not (null occ)
                        , is_rev_mod_name rev
                        = Name (mkOccName occ) (NameQ (mkModName (reverse rev)))
        -- The 'not (null occ)' guard ensures that
        --      mkName "&." = Name "&." NameS
        -- The 'is_rev_mod' guards ensure that
        --      mkName ".&" = Name ".&" NameS
        --      mkName "^.." = Name "^.." NameS      -- Trac #8633
        --      mkName "Data.Bits..&" = Name ".&" (NameQ "Data.Bits")
        -- This rather bizarre case actually happened; (.&.) is in Data.Bits
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    split occ (c:rev)   = split (c:occ) rev
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    -- Recognises a reversed module name xA.yB.C,
    -- with at least one component,
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    -- and each component looks like a module name
    --   (i.e. non-empty, starts with capital, all alpha)
    is_rev_mod_name rev_mod_str
      | (compt, rest) <- break (== '.') rev_mod_str
      , not (null compt), isUpper (last compt), all is_mod_char compt
      = case rest of
          []             -> True
          (_dot : rest') -> is_rev_mod_name rest'
      | otherwise
      = False

    is_mod_char c = isAlphaNum c || c == '_' || c == '\''

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-- | Only used internally
mkNameU :: String -> Uniq -> Name
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mkNameU s u = Name (mkOccName s) (NameU u)
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-- | Only used internally
mkNameL :: String -> Uniq -> Name
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mkNameL s u = Name (mkOccName s) (NameL u)
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-- | Used for 'x etc, but not available to the programmer
mkNameG :: NameSpace -> String -> String -> String -> Name
mkNameG ns pkg modu occ
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  = Name (mkOccName occ) (NameG ns (mkPkgName pkg) (mkModName modu))
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mkNameG_v, mkNameG_tc, mkNameG_d :: String -> String -> String -> Name
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mkNameG_v  = mkNameG VarName
mkNameG_tc = mkNameG TcClsName
mkNameG_d  = mkNameG DataName

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data NameIs = Alone | Applied | Infix

showName :: Name -> String
showName = showName' Alone

showName' :: NameIs -> Name -> String
showName' ni nm
 = case ni of
       Alone        -> nms
       Applied
        | pnam      -> nms
        | otherwise -> "(" ++ nms ++ ")"
       Infix
        | pnam      -> "`" ++ nms ++ "`"
        | otherwise -> nms
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    where
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        -- For now, we make the NameQ and NameG print the same, even though
        -- NameQ is a qualified name (so what it means depends on what the
        -- current scope is), and NameG is an original name (so its meaning
        -- should be independent of what's in scope.
        -- We may well want to distinguish them in the end.
        -- Ditto NameU and NameL
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        nms = case nm of
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                    Name occ NameS         -> occString occ
                    Name occ (NameQ m)     -> modString m ++ "." ++ occString occ
                    Name occ (NameG _ _ m) -> modString m ++ "." ++ occString occ
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                    Name occ (NameU u)     -> occString occ ++ "_" ++ show u
                    Name occ (NameL u)     -> occString occ ++ "_" ++ show u
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        pnam = classify nms

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        -- True if we are function style, e.g. f, [], (,)
        -- False if we are operator style, e.g. +, :+
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        classify "" = False -- shouldn't happen; . operator is handled below
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        classify (x:xs) | isAlpha x || (x `elem` "_[]()") =
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                            case dropWhile (/='.') xs of
                                  (_:xs') -> classify xs'
                                  []      -> True
                        | otherwise = False
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instance Show Name where
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  show = showName
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-- Tuple data and type constructors
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-- | Tuple data constructor
tupleDataName :: Int -> Name
-- | Tuple type constructor
tupleTypeName :: Int -> Name
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tupleDataName 0 = mk_tup_name 0 DataName
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tupleDataName 1 = error "tupleDataName 1"
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tupleDataName n = mk_tup_name (n-1) DataName
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tupleTypeName 0 = mk_tup_name 0 TcClsName
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tupleTypeName 1 = error "tupleTypeName 1"
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tupleTypeName n = mk_tup_name (n-1) TcClsName
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mk_tup_name :: Int -> NameSpace -> Name
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mk_tup_name n_commas space
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  = Name occ (NameG space (mkPkgName "ghc-prim") tup_mod)
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  where
    occ = mkOccName ('(' : replicate n_commas ',' ++ ")")
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    tup_mod = mkModName "GHC.Tuple"
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-- Unboxed tuple data and type constructors
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