Commit 2601a436 authored by Edward Z. Yang's avatar Edward Z. Yang

Backpack docs: AvailInfo plan, and why selectors are hard.

Signed-off-by: default avatarEdward Z. Yang <>
parent 71361267
......@@ -458,7 +458,7 @@ proceeds as follows:
if there is a duplicate that doesn't have the same identity.
To merge two sets of names, take each pair of names with matching \verb|OccName|s $n$ and $m$.
To merge two sets of names, union the two sets, handling each pair of names with matching \verb|OccName|s $n$ and $m$ as follows:
\item If both are from holes, pick a canonical representative $m$ and substitute $n$ with $m$.
......@@ -750,9 +750,35 @@ key from the identifiers.
Previously, we stated that we simply merged $Name$s based on their
$OccName$s. We now must consider what it means to merge $AvailInfo$s.
\Red{to write up}
Our merging algorithm takes two sets of $AvailInfo$s and merges them
into one set. In the degenerate case where every $AvailInfo$ is a
$Name$, this algorithm operates the same as the original algorithm.
Merging proceeds in two steps: unification and then simple union.
Unification proceeds as follows: for each pair of $Name$s with
matching $OccName$s, unify the names. For each pair of $Name\, \verb|{|\,
Name_0\verb|,|\, \ldots\verb|,|\, Name_n\, \verb|}|$, where there
exists some pair of child names with matching $OccName$s, unify the
parent $Name$s. (A single $AvailInfo$ may participate in multiple such
pairs.) A simple identifier and a type constructor $AvailInfo$ with
overlapping in-scope names fails to unify. After unification,
the simple union combines entries with matching \verb|availName|s (parent
name in the case of a type constructor), recursively unioning the child
names of type constructor $AvailInfo$s.
Unification of $Name$s results in a substitution, and a $Name$ substitution
on $AvailInfo$ is a little unconventional. Specifically, substitution on $Name\, \verb|{|\,
Name_0\verb|,|\, \ldots\verb|,|\, Name_n\, \verb|}|$ proceeds specially:
a substitution from $Name$ to $Name'$ induces a substitution from
$Module$ to $Module'$ (as the $OccName$s of the $Name$s are guaranteed
to be equal), so for each child $Name_i$, perform the $Module$
substitution. So for example, the substitution \verb|HOLE:A.T| to \verb|THIS:A.T|
takes the $AvailInfo$ \verb|HOLE:A.T { HOLE:A.B, }| to
\verb|THIS:A.T { THIS:A.B, }|. In particular, substitution
on children $Name$s is \emph{only} carried out by substituting on the outer name;
we will never directly substitute children.
......@@ -786,7 +812,9 @@ The answer is no! Consider these implementations:
Here, \verb|module A1| implements \verb|signature A1|, \verb|module A2| implements \verb|signature A2|,
and \verb|module A| implements \verb|signature A1| and \verb|signature A2| individually
and should certainly implement their merge.
and should certainly implement their merge. This is why we cannot simply
merge type constructors based on the $OccName$ of their top-level type;
merging only occurs between in-scope identifiers.
\paragraph{Does merging a selector merge the type constructor?}
......@@ -803,9 +831,8 @@ and should certainly implement their merge.
Does the last signature, which is written in the style of a sharing constraint on \verb|foo|,
also cause \verb|bar| and the type and constructor \verb|A| to be unified?
It doesn't seem to be too harmful if we don't unify the rest, and arranging
for the other children to be unified introduces a bit of complexity, so
for now we say no.
Because a merge of a child name results in a substitution on the parent name,
the answer is yes.
\paragraph{Incomplete data declarations}
......@@ -834,7 +861,7 @@ equivalent to the shapes for these which should merge:
data A = A { foo :: Int, bar :: Bool }
\paragraph{Record selectors and functions}
\subsection{Subtyping record selectors as functions}
signature H(foo) where
......@@ -848,22 +875,90 @@ equivalent to the shapes for these which should merge:
Does \verb|M| successfully fill \verb|H|? If so, it means that anywhere
a signature requests a function \verb|foo|, we can instead validly
provide a record selector. This capability seems quite attractive
but actually it is quite complicated! We'll discuss this in the next
but actually it is quite complicated, because we can no longer assume
that every child name is associated with a parent name.
As a workaround, \verb|H| can equivalently be written as:
module H(foo) where
signature H(foo) where
data A = A { foo :: Int, bar :: Bool }
This is suboptimal, however, as the otherwise irrelevant \verb|bar| must be mentioned
in the definition.
\subsection{Subtyping record selectors as functions}
So what if we actually want to write the original signature \verb|H|?
The technical difficulty is that we now need to unify a plain identifier
$AvailInfo$ (from the signature) with a type constructor $AvailInfo$
(from a module.) It is not clear what this should mean.
Consider this situation:
package p where
signature H(A, foo, bar) where
data A
foo :: A -> Int
bar :: A -> Bool
module X(A, foo) where
import H
package q where
include p
signature H(bar) where
data A = A { foo :: Int, bar :: Bool }
module Y where
import X(A(..)) -- ???
Should the wildcard import on \verb|X| be allowed? Probably not?
How about this situation:
package p where
-- define without record selectors
signature X1(A, foo) where
data A
foo :: A -> Int
module M1(A, foo) where
import X1
package q where
-- define with record selectors (X1s unify)
signature X1(A(..)) where
data A = A { foo :: Int, bar :: Bool }
signature X2(A(..)) where
data A = A { foo :: Int, bar :: Bool }
-- export some record selectors
signature Y1(bar) where
import X1
signature Y2(bar) where
import X2
package r where
include p
include q
-- sharing constraint
signature Y2(bar) where
import Y1(bar)
-- the payload
module Test where
import M1(foo)
import X2(foo)
... foo ... -- conflict?
\Red{to write}
Without the sharing constraint, the \verb|foo|s from \verb|M1| and \verb|X2|
should conflict. With it, however, we should conclude that the \verb|foo|s
are the same, even though the \verb|foo| from \verb|M1| is \emph{not}
considered a child of \verb|A|, and even though in the sharing constraint
we \emph{only} unified \verb|bar| (and its parent \verb|A|). To know that
\verb|foo| from \verb|M1| should also be unified, we have to know a bit
more about \verb|A| when the sharing constraint performs unification;
however, the $AvailInfo$ will only tell us about what is in-scope, which
is \emph{not} enough information.
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