Commit 825c108b authored by Ryan Scott's avatar Ryan Scott Committed by Marge Bot

Only flatten up to type family arity in coreFlattenTyFamApp (#16995)

Among other uses, `coreFlattenTyFamApp` is used by Core Lint as a
part of its check to ensure that each type family axiom reduces
according to the way it is defined in the source code. Unfortunately,
the logic that `coreFlattenTyFamApp` uses to flatten type family
applications disagreed with the logic in `TcFlatten`, which caused
it to spuriously complain this program:

type family Param :: Type -> Type

type family LookupParam (a :: Type) :: Type where
  LookupParam (f Char) = Bool
  LookupParam x        = Int

foo :: LookupParam (Param ())
foo = 42

This is because `coreFlattenTyFamApp` tries to flatten the `Param ()`
in `LookupParam (Param ())` to `alpha` (where `alpha` is a flattening
skolem), and GHC is unable to conclude that `alpha` is apart from
`f Char`. This patch spruces up `coreFlattenTyFamApp` so that it
instead flattens `Param ()` to `alpha ()`, which GHC _can_ know for
sure is apart from `f Char`. See
`Note [Flatten], wrinkle 3` in `FamInstEnv`.
parent 241921a0
......@@ -1574,43 +1574,155 @@ can see that (F x x) can reduce to Double. So, it had better be the
case that (F blah blah) can reduce to Double, no matter what (blah)
is! Flattening as done below ensures this.
The algorithm works by building up a TypeMap TyVar, mapping
type family applications to fresh variables. This mapping must
be threaded through all the function calls, as any entry in
the mapping must be propagated to all future nodes in the tree.
The algorithm also must track the set of in-scope variables, in
order to make fresh variables as it flattens. (We are far from a
source of fresh Uniques.) See Wrinkle 2, below.
There are wrinkles, of course:
1. The flattening algorithm must account for the possibility
of inner `forall`s. (A `forall` seen here can happen only
because of impredicativity. However, the flattening operation
is an algorithm in Core, which is impredicative.)
Suppose we have (forall b. F b) -> (forall b. F b). Of course,
those two bs are entirely unrelated, and so we should certainly
not flatten the two calls F b to the same variable. Instead, they
must be treated separately. We thus carry a substitution that
freshens variables; we must apply this substitution (in
`coreFlattenTyFamApp`) before looking up an application in the environment.
Note that the range of the substitution contains only TyVars, never anything
For the sake of efficiency, we only apply this substitution when absolutely
necessary. Namely:
* We do not perform the substitution at all if it is empty.
* We only need to worry about the arguments of a type family that are within
the arity of said type family, so we can get away with not applying the
substitution to any oversaturated type family arguments.
* Importantly, we do /not/ achieve this substitution by recursively
flattening the arguments, as this would be wrong. Consider `F (G a)`,
where F and G are type families. We might decide that `F (G a)` flattens
to `beta`. Later, the substitution is non-empty (but does not map `a`) and
so we flatten `G a` to `gamma` and try to flatten `F gamma`. Of course,
`F gamma` is unknown, and so we flatten it to `delta`, but it really
should have been `beta`! Argh!
Moral of the story: instead of flattening the arguments, just substitute
them directly.
2. There are two different reasons we might add a variable
to the in-scope set as we work:
A. We have just invented a new flattening variable.
B. We have entered a `forall`.
Annoying here is that in-scope variable source (A) must be
threaded through the calls. For example, consider (F b -> forall c. F c).
Suppose that, when flattening F b, we invent a fresh variable c.
Now, when we encounter (forall c. F c), we need to know c is already in
scope so that we locally rename c to c'. However, if we don't thread through
the in-scope set from one argument of (->) to the other, we won't know this
and might get very confused.
In contrast, source (B) increases only as we go deeper, as in-scope sets
normally do. However, even here we must be careful. The TypeMap TyVar that
contains mappings from type family applications to freshened variables will
be threaded through both sides of (forall b. F b) -> (forall b. F b). We
thus must make sure that the two `b`s don't get renamed to the same b1. (If
they did, then looking up `F b1` would yield the same flatten var for
each.) So, even though `forall`-bound variables should really be in the
in-scope set only when they are in scope, we retain these variables even
outside of their scope. This ensures that, if we enounter a fresh
`forall`-bound b, we will rename it to b2, not b1. Note that keeping a
larger in-scope set than strictly necessary is always OK, as in-scope sets
are only ever used to avoid collisions.
Sadly, the freshening substitution described in (1) really musn't bind
variables outside of their scope: note that its domain is the *unrenamed*
variables. This means that the substitution gets "pushed down" (like a
reader monad) while the in-scope set gets threaded (like a state monad).
Because a TCvSubst contains its own in-scope set, we don't carry a TCvSubst;
instead, we just carry a TvSubstEnv down, tying it to the InScopeSet
traveling separately as necessary.
3. Consider `F ty_1 ... ty_n`, where F is a type family with arity k:
type family F ty_1 ... ty_k :: res_k
It's tempting to just flatten `F ty_1 ... ty_n` to `alpha`, where alpha is a
flattening skolem. But we must instead flatten it to
`alpha ty_(k+1) ... ty_n`—that is, by only flattening up to the arity of the
type family.
Why is this better? Consider the following concrete example from #16995:
type family Param :: Type -> Type
type family LookupParam (a :: Type) :: Type where
LookupParam (f Char) = Bool
LookupParam x = Int
foo :: LookupParam (Param ())
foo = 42
In order for `foo` to typecheck, `LookupParam (Param ())` must reduce to
`Int`. But if we flatten `Param ()` to `alpha`, then GHC can't be sure if
`alpha` is apart from `f Char`, so it won't fall through to the second
equation. But since the `Param` type family has arity 0, we can instead
flatten `Param ()` to `alpha ()`, about which GHC knows with confidence is
apart from `f Char`, permitting the second equation to be reached.
Not only does this allow more programs to be accepted, it's also important
for correctness. Not doing this was the root cause of the Core Lint error
in #16995.
flattenTys is defined here because of module dependencies.
data FlattenEnv = FlattenEnv { fe_type_map :: TypeMap TyVar
, fe_subst :: TCvSubst }
data FlattenEnv
= FlattenEnv { fe_type_map :: TypeMap TyVar
-- domain: exactly-saturated type family applications
-- range: fresh variables
, fe_in_scope :: InScopeSet }
-- See Note [Flattening]
emptyFlattenEnv :: InScopeSet -> FlattenEnv
emptyFlattenEnv in_scope
= FlattenEnv { fe_type_map = emptyTypeMap
, fe_subst = mkEmptyTCvSubst in_scope }
, fe_in_scope = in_scope }
-- See Note [Flattening]
flattenTys :: InScopeSet -> [Type] -> [Type]
flattenTys in_scope tys = snd $ coreFlattenTys env tys
-- when we hit a type function, we replace it with a fresh variable
-- but, we need to make sure that this fresh variable isn't mentioned
-- *anywhere* in the types we're flattening, even if locally-bound in
-- a forall. That way, we can ensure consistency both within and outside
-- of that forall.
all_in_scope = in_scope `extendInScopeSetSet` allTyCoVarsInTys tys
env = emptyFlattenEnv all_in_scope
coreFlattenTys :: FlattenEnv -> [Type] -> (FlattenEnv, [Type])
coreFlattenTys = go []
go rtys env [] = (env, reverse rtys)
go rtys env (ty : tys)
= let (env', ty') = coreFlattenTy env ty in
go (ty' : rtys) env' tys
updateInScopeSet :: FlattenEnv -> (InScopeSet -> InScopeSet) -> FlattenEnv
updateInScopeSet env upd = env { fe_in_scope = upd (fe_in_scope env) }
coreFlattenTy :: FlattenEnv -> Type -> (FlattenEnv, Type)
coreFlattenTy = go
flattenTys :: InScopeSet -> [Type] -> [Type]
-- See Note [Flattening]
-- NB: the returned types may mention fresh type variables,
-- arising from the flattening. We don't return the
-- mapping from those fresh vars to the ty-fam
-- applications they stand for (we could, but no need)
flattenTys in_scope tys
= snd $ coreFlattenTys emptyTvSubstEnv (emptyFlattenEnv in_scope) tys
coreFlattenTys :: TvSubstEnv -> FlattenEnv
-> [Type] -> (FlattenEnv, [Type])
coreFlattenTys subst = mapAccumL (coreFlattenTy subst)
coreFlattenTy :: TvSubstEnv -> FlattenEnv
-> Type -> (FlattenEnv, Type)
coreFlattenTy subst = go
go env ty | Just ty' <- coreView ty = go env ty'
go env (TyVarTy tv) = (env, substTyVar (fe_subst env) tv)
go env (TyVarTy tv)
| Just ty <- lookupVarEnv subst tv = (env, ty)
| otherwise = let (env', ki) = go env (tyVarKind tv) in
(env', mkTyVarTy $ setTyVarKind tv ki)
go env (AppTy ty1 ty2) = let (env1, ty1') = go env ty1
(env2, ty2') = go env1 ty2 in
(env2, AppTy ty1' ty2')
......@@ -1618,11 +1730,10 @@ coreFlattenTy = go
-- NB: Don't just check if isFamilyTyCon: this catches *data* families,
-- which are generative and thus can be preserved during flattening
| not (isGenerativeTyCon tc Nominal)
= let (env', tv) = coreFlattenTyFamApp env tc tys in
(env', mkTyVarTy tv)
= coreFlattenTyFamApp subst env tc tys
| otherwise
= let (env', tys') = coreFlattenTys env tys in
= let (env', tys') = coreFlattenTys subst env tys in
(env', mkTyConApp tc tys')
go env ty@(FunTy { ft_arg = ty1, ft_res = ty2 })
......@@ -1631,122 +1742,78 @@ coreFlattenTy = go
(env2, ty { ft_arg = ty1', ft_res = ty2' })
go env (ForAllTy (Bndr tv vis) ty)
= let (env1, tv') = coreFlattenVarBndr env tv
(env2, ty') = go env1 ty in
= let (env1, subst', tv') = coreFlattenVarBndr subst env tv
(env2, ty') = coreFlattenTy subst' env1 ty in
(env2, ForAllTy (Bndr tv' vis) ty')
go env ty@(LitTy {}) = (env, ty)
go env (CastTy ty co) = let (env1, ty') = go env ty
(env2, co') = coreFlattenCo env1 co in
(env2, CastTy ty' co')
go env (CastTy ty co)
= let (env1, ty') = go env ty
(env2, co') = coreFlattenCo subst env1 co in
(env2, CastTy ty' co')
go env (CoercionTy co) = let (env', co') = coreFlattenCo env co in
(env', CoercionTy co')
go env (CoercionTy co)
= let (env', co') = coreFlattenCo subst env co in
(env', CoercionTy co')
-- when flattening, we don't care about the contents of coercions.
-- so, just return a fresh variable of the right (flattened) type
coreFlattenCo :: FlattenEnv -> Coercion -> (FlattenEnv, Coercion)
coreFlattenCo env co
coreFlattenCo :: TvSubstEnv -> FlattenEnv
-> Coercion -> (FlattenEnv, Coercion)
coreFlattenCo subst env co
= (env2, mkCoVarCo covar)
(env1, kind') = coreFlattenTy env (coercionType co)
fresh_name = mkFlattenFreshCoName
subst1 = fe_subst env1
in_scope = getTCvInScope subst1
covar = uniqAway in_scope (mkCoVar fresh_name kind')
env2 = env1 { fe_subst = subst1 `extendTCvInScope` covar }
coreFlattenVarBndr :: FlattenEnv -> TyCoVar -> (FlattenEnv, TyCoVar)
coreFlattenVarBndr env tv
| kind' `eqType` kind
= ( env { fe_subst = extendTCvSubst old_subst tv (mkTyCoVarTy tv) }
-- override any previous binding for tv
, tv)
| otherwise
= let new_tv = uniqAway (getTCvInScope old_subst) (setVarType tv kind')
new_subst = extendTCvSubstWithClone old_subst tv new_tv
(env' { fe_subst = new_subst }, new_tv)
(env1, kind') = coreFlattenTy subst env (coercionType co)
covar = uniqAway (fe_in_scope env1) (mkCoVar fresh_name kind')
-- Add the covar to the FlattenEnv's in-scope set.
-- See Note [Flattening], wrinkle 2A.
env2 = updateInScopeSet env1 (flip extendInScopeSet covar)
coreFlattenVarBndr :: TvSubstEnv -> FlattenEnv
-> TyCoVar -> (FlattenEnv, TvSubstEnv, TyVar)
coreFlattenVarBndr subst env tv
= (env2, subst', tv')
-- See Note [Flattening], wrinkle 2B.
kind = varType tv
(env', kind') = coreFlattenTy env kind
old_subst = fe_subst env
(env1, kind') = coreFlattenTy subst env kind
tv' = uniqAway (fe_in_scope env1) (setVarType tv kind')
subst' = extendVarEnv subst tv (mkTyVarTy tv')
env2 = updateInScopeSet env1 (flip extendInScopeSet tv')
coreFlattenTyFamApp :: FlattenEnv
coreFlattenTyFamApp :: TvSubstEnv -> FlattenEnv
-> TyCon -- type family tycon
-> [Type] -- args
-> (FlattenEnv, TyVar)
coreFlattenTyFamApp env fam_tc fam_args
-> [Type] -- args, already flattened
-> (FlattenEnv, Type)
coreFlattenTyFamApp tv_subst env fam_tc fam_args
= case lookupTypeMap type_map fam_ty of
Just tv -> (env, tv)
-- we need fresh variables here, but this is called far from
-- any good source of uniques. So, we just use the fam_tc's unique
-- and trust uniqAway to avoid clashes. Recall that the in_scope set
-- contains *all* tyvars, even locally bound ones elsewhere in the
-- overall type, so this really is fresh.
Just tv -> (env', mkAppTys (mkTyVarTy tv) leftover_args')
Nothing -> let tyvar_name = mkFlattenFreshTyName fam_tc
tv = uniqAway (getTCvInScope subst) $
mkTyVar tyvar_name (typeKind fam_ty)
env' = env { fe_type_map = extendTypeMap type_map fam_ty tv
, fe_subst = extendTCvInScope subst tv }
in (env', tv)
where fam_ty = mkTyConApp fam_tc fam_args
FlattenEnv { fe_type_map = type_map
, fe_subst = subst } = env
-- | Get the set of all type/coercion variables mentioned anywhere in the list
-- of types. These variables are not necessarily free.
allTyCoVarsInTys :: [Type] -> VarSet
allTyCoVarsInTys [] = emptyVarSet
allTyCoVarsInTys (ty:tys) = allTyCoVarsInTy ty `unionVarSet` allTyCoVarsInTys tys
-- | Get the set of all type/coercion variables mentioned anywhere in a type.
allTyCoVarsInTy :: Type -> VarSet
allTyCoVarsInTy = go
tv = uniqAway in_scope $
mkTyVar tyvar_name (typeKind fam_ty)
ty' = mkAppTys (mkTyVarTy tv) leftover_args'
env'' = env' { fe_type_map = extendTypeMap type_map fam_ty tv
, fe_in_scope = extendInScopeSet in_scope tv }
in (env'', ty')
go (TyVarTy tv) = unitVarSet tv
go (TyConApp _ tys) = allTyCoVarsInTys tys
go (AppTy ty1 ty2) = (go ty1) `unionVarSet` (go ty2)
go (FunTy _ ty1 ty2) = (go ty1) `unionVarSet` (go ty2)
go (ForAllTy (Bndr tv _) ty) = unitVarSet tv `unionVarSet`
go (tyVarKind tv) `unionVarSet`
go ty
-- Don't remove the tv from the set!
go (LitTy {}) = emptyVarSet
go (CastTy ty co) = go ty `unionVarSet` go_co co
go (CoercionTy co) = go_co co
go_mco MRefl = emptyVarSet
go_mco (MCo co) = go_co co
go_co (Refl ty) = go ty
go_co (GRefl _ ty mco) = go ty `unionVarSet` go_mco mco
go_co (TyConAppCo _ _ args) = go_cos args
go_co (AppCo co arg) = go_co co `unionVarSet` go_co arg
go_co (ForAllCo tv h co)
= unionVarSets [unitVarSet tv, go_co co, go_co h]
go_co (FunCo _ c1 c2) = go_co c1 `unionVarSet` go_co c2
go_co (CoVarCo cv) = unitVarSet cv
go_co (HoleCo h) = unitVarSet (coHoleCoVar h)
go_co (AxiomInstCo _ _ cos) = go_cos cos
go_co (UnivCo p _ t1 t2) = go_prov p `unionVarSet` go t1 `unionVarSet` go t2
go_co (SymCo co) = go_co co
go_co (TransCo c1 c2) = go_co c1 `unionVarSet` go_co c2
go_co (NthCo _ _ co) = go_co co
go_co (LRCo _ co) = go_co co
go_co (InstCo co arg) = go_co co `unionVarSet` go_co arg
go_co (KindCo co) = go_co co
go_co (SubCo co) = go_co co
go_co (AxiomRuleCo _ cs) = go_cos cs
go_cos = foldr (unionVarSet . go_co) emptyVarSet
go_prov UnsafeCoerceProv = emptyVarSet
go_prov (PhantomProv co) = go_co co
go_prov (ProofIrrelProv co) = go_co co
go_prov (PluginProv _) = emptyVarSet
arity = tyConArity fam_tc
tcv_subst = TCvSubst (fe_in_scope env) tv_subst emptyVarEnv
(sat_fam_args, leftover_args) = ASSERT( arity <= length fam_args )
splitAt arity fam_args
-- Apply the substitution before looking up an application in the
-- environment. See Note [Flattening], wrinkle 1.
-- NB: substTys short-cuts the common case when the substitution is empty.
sat_fam_args' = substTys tcv_subst sat_fam_args
(env', leftover_args') = coreFlattenTys tv_subst env leftover_args
-- `fam_tc` may be over-applied to `fam_args` (see Note [Flattening],
-- wrinkle 3), so we split it into the arguments needed to saturate it
-- (sat_fam_args') and the rest (leftover_args')
fam_ty = mkTyConApp fam_tc sat_fam_args'
FlattenEnv { fe_type_map = type_map
, fe_in_scope = in_scope } = env'
mkFlattenFreshTyName :: Uniquable a => a -> Name
mkFlattenFreshTyName unq
{-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-}
module T16995 where
import Data.Kind
type family Param1 :: Type -> Type
type family Param2 (a :: Type) :: Type -> Type
type family Param3 (a :: Type) (b :: Type) :: Type -> Type
type family LookupParam (a :: Type) :: Type where
LookupParam (_ Char) = Bool
LookupParam _ = Int
foo :: LookupParam (Param1 Bool)
foo = 42
bar :: LookupParam (Param2 Bool Bool)
bar = 27
baz :: LookupParam (Param3 Bool Bool Bool)
baz = 12
......@@ -686,6 +686,7 @@ test('UnliftedNewtypesLPFamily', normal, compile, [''])
test('UnliftedNewtypesDifficultUnification', normal, compile, [''])
test('T16832', normal, ghci_script, ['T16832.script'])
test('T16946', normal, compile, [''])
test('T16995', normal, compile, [''])
test('T17007', normal, compile, [''])
test('T17067', normal, compile, [''])
test('T17202', expect_broken(17202), compile, [''])
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