1. 23 Jan, 2017 1 commit
  2. 11 Dec, 2015 1 commit
    • eir@cis.upenn.edu's avatar
      Add kind equalities to GHC. · 67465497
      eir@cis.upenn.edu authored
      This implements the ideas originally put forward in
      "System FC with Explicit Kind Equality" (ICFP'13).
      There are several noteworthy changes with this patch:
       * We now have casts in types. These change the kind
         of a type. See new constructor `CastTy`.
       * All types and all constructors can be promoted.
         This includes GADT constructors. GADT pattern matches
         take place in type family equations. In Core,
         types can now be applied to coercions via the
         `CoercionTy` constructor.
       * Coercions can now be heterogeneous, relating types
         of different kinds. A coercion proving `t1 :: k1 ~ t2 :: k2`
         proves both that `t1` and `t2` are the same and also that
         `k1` and `k2` are the same.
       * The `Coercion` type has been significantly enhanced.
         The documentation in `docs/core-spec/core-spec.pdf` reflects
         the new reality.
       * The type of `*` is now `*`. No more `BOX`.
       * Users can write explicit kind variables in their code,
         anywhere they can write type variables. For backward compatibility,
         automatic inference of kind-variable binding is still permitted.
       * The new extension `TypeInType` turns on the new user-facing
       * Type families and synonyms are now promoted to kinds. This causes
         trouble with parsing `*`, leading to the somewhat awkward new
         `HsAppsTy` constructor for `HsType`. This is dispatched with in
         the renamer, where the kind `*` can be told apart from a
         type-level multiplication operator. Without `-XTypeInType` the
         old behavior persists. With `-XTypeInType`, you need to import
         `Data.Kind` to get `*`, also known as `Type`.
       * The kind-checking algorithms in TcHsType have been significantly
         rewritten to allow for enhanced kinds.
       * The new features are still quite experimental and may be in flux.
       * TODO: Several open tickets: #11195, #11196, #11197, #11198, #11203.
       * TODO: Update user manual.
      Tickets addressed: #9017, #9173, #7961, #10524, #8566, #11142.
      Updates Haddock submodule.
  3. 10 Apr, 2015 1 commit
  4. 02 Dec, 2014 1 commit
  5. 15 May, 2014 1 commit
    • Herbert Valerio Riedel's avatar
      Add LANGUAGE pragmas to compiler/ source files · 23892440
      Herbert Valerio Riedel authored
      In some cases, the layout of the LANGUAGE/OPTIONS_GHC lines has been
      reorganized, while following the convention, to
      - place `{-# LANGUAGE #-}` pragmas at the top of the source file, before
        any `{-# OPTIONS_GHC #-}`-lines.
      - Moreover, if the list of language extensions fit into a single
        `{-# LANGUAGE ... -#}`-line (shorter than 80 characters), keep it on one
        line. Otherwise split into `{-# LANGUAGE ... -#}`-lines for each
        individual language extension. In both cases, try to keep the
        enumeration alphabetically ordered.
        (The latter layout is preferable as it's more diff-friendly)
      While at it, this also replaces obsolete `{-# OPTIONS ... #-}` pragma
      occurences by `{-# OPTIONS_GHC ... #-}` pragmas.
  6. 02 Aug, 2013 1 commit
  7. 21 Jun, 2013 1 commit
    • eir@cis.upenn.edu's avatar
      Revise implementation of overlapping type family instances. · 569b2652
      eir@cis.upenn.edu authored
      This commit changes the syntax and story around overlapping type
      family instances. Before, we had "unbranched" instances and
      "branched" instances. Now, we have closed type families and
      open ones.
      The behavior of open families is completely unchanged. In particular,
      coincident overlap of open type family instances still works, despite
      emails to the contrary.
      A closed type family is declared like this:
      > type family F a where
      >   F Int = Bool
      >   F a   = Char
      The equations are tried in order, from top to bottom, subject to
      certain constraints, as described in the user manual. It is not
      allowed to declare an instance of a closed family.
  8. 22 Dec, 2012 1 commit
    • eir@cis.upenn.edu's avatar
      Implement overlapping type family instances. · 8366792e
      eir@cis.upenn.edu authored
      An ordered, overlapping type family instance is introduced by 'type
      where', followed by equations. See the new section in the user manual
      ( for details. The canonical example is Boolean equality at the
      type family Equals (a :: k) (b :: k) :: Bool
      type instance where
        Equals a a = True
        Equals a b = False
      A branched family instance, such as this one, checks its equations in
      and applies only the first the matches. As explained in the note
      checking within groups] in FamInstEnv.lhs, we must be careful not to
      say, (Equals Int b) to False, because b might later unify with Int.
      This commit includes all of the commits on the overlapping-tyfams
      branch. SPJ
      requested that I combine all my commits over the past several months
      into one
      monolithic commit. The following GHC repos are affected: ghc, testsuite,
      utils/haddock, libraries/template-haskell, and libraries/dph.
      Here are some details for the interested:
      - The definition of CoAxiom has been moved from TyCon.lhs to a
        new file CoAxiom.lhs. I made this decision because of the
        number of definitions necessary to support BranchList.
      - BranchList is a GADT whose type tracks whether it is a
        singleton list or not-necessarily-a-singleton-list. The reason
        I introduced this type is to increase static checking of places
        where GHC code assumes that a FamInst or CoAxiom is indeed a
        singleton. This assumption takes place roughly 10 times
        throughout the code. I was worried that a future change to GHC
        would invalidate the assumption, and GHC might subtly fail to
        do the right thing. By explicitly labeling CoAxioms and
        FamInsts as being Unbranched (singleton) or
        Branched (not-necessarily-singleton), we make this assumption
        explicit and checkable. Furthermore, to enforce the accuracy of
        this label, the list of branches of a CoAxiom or FamInst is
        stored using a BranchList, whose constructors constrain its
        type index appropriately.
      I think that the decision to use BranchList is probably the most
      controversial decision I made from a code design point of view.
      Although I provide conversions to/from ordinary lists, it is more
      efficient to use the brList... functions provided in CoAxiom than
      always to convert. The use of these functions does not wander far
      from the core CoAxiom/FamInst logic.
      BranchLists are motivated and explained in the note [Branched axioms] in
      - The CoAxiom type has changed significantly. You can see the new
        type in CoAxiom.lhs. It uses a CoAxBranch type to track
        branches of the CoAxiom. Correspondingly various functions
        producing and consuming CoAxioms had to change, including the
        binary layout of interface files.
      - To get branched axioms to work correctly, it is important to have a
        of type "apartness": two types are apart if they cannot unify, and no
        substitution of variables can ever get them to unify, even after type
        simplification. (This is different than the normal failure to unify
        of the type family bit.) This notion in encoded in tcApartTys, in
        Because apartness is finer-grained than unification, the tcUnifyTys
        calls tcApartTys.
      - CoreLinting axioms has been updated, both to reflect the new
        form of CoAxiom and to enforce the apartness rules of branch
        application. The formalization of the new rules is in
      - The FamInst type (in types/FamInstEnv.lhs) has changed
        significantly, paralleling the changes to CoAxiom. Of course,
        this forced minor changes in many files.
      - There are several new Notes in FamInstEnv.lhs, including one
        discussing confluent overlap and why we're not doing it.
      - lookupFamInstEnv, lookupFamInstEnvConflicts, and
        lookup_fam_inst_env' (the function that actually does the work)
        have all been more-or-less completely rewritten. There is a
        Note [lookup_fam_inst_env' implementation] describing the
        implementation. One of the changes that affects other files is
        to change the type of matches from a pair of (FamInst, [Type])
        to a new datatype (which now includes the index of the matching
        branch). This seemed a better design.
      - The TySynInstD constructor in Template Haskell was updated to
        use the new datatype TySynEqn. I also bumped the TH version
        number, requiring changes to DPH cabal files. (That's why the
        DPH repo has an overlapping-tyfams branch.)
      - As SPJ requested, I refactored some of the code in HsDecls:
       * splitting up TyDecl into SynDecl and DataDecl, correspondingly
         changing HsTyDefn to HsDataDefn (with only one constructor)
       * splitting FamInstD into TyFamInstD and DataFamInstD and
         splitting FamInstDecl into DataFamInstDecl and TyFamInstDecl
       * making the ClsInstD take a ClsInstDecl, for parallelism with
         InstDecl's other constructors
       * changing constructor TyFamily into FamDecl
       * creating a FamilyDecl type that stores the details for a family
         declaration; this is useful because FamilyDecls can appear in classes
         other decls cannot
       * restricting the associated types and associated type defaults for a
       * class
         to be the new, more restrictive types
       * splitting cid_fam_insts into cid_tyfam_insts and cid_datafam_insts,
         according to the new types
       * perhaps one or two more that I'm overlooking
      None of these changes has far-reaching implications.
      - The user manual, section, is updated to describe the new type
  9. 17 Sep, 2012 1 commit
  10. 27 Jun, 2012 1 commit
  11. 03 Jan, 2012 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      Major refactoring of CoAxioms · 98a642cf
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      This patch should have no user-visible effect.  It implements a
      significant internal refactoring of the way that FC axioms are
      handled.  The ultimate goal is to put us in a position to implement
      "pattern-matching axioms".  But the changes here are only does
      refactoring; there is no change in functionality.
       * We now treat data/type family instance declarations very,
         very similarly to types class instance declarations:
         - Renamed InstEnv.Instance as InstEnv.ClsInst, for symmetry with
           FamInstEnv.FamInst.  This change does affect the GHC API, but
           for the better I think.
         - Previously, each family type/data instance declaration gave rise
           to a *TyCon*; typechecking a type/data instance decl produced
           that TyCon.  Now, each type/data instance gives rise to
           a *FamInst*, by direct analogy with each class instance
           declaration giving rise to a ClsInst.
         - Just as each ClsInst contains its evidence, a DFunId, so each FamInst
           contains its evidence, a CoAxiom.  See Note [FamInsts and CoAxioms]
           in FamInstEnv.  The CoAxiom is a System-FC thing, and can relate any
           two types, whereas the FamInst relates directly to the Haskell source
           language construct, and always has a function (F tys) on the LHS.
         - Just as a DFunId has its own declaration in an interface file, so now
           do CoAxioms (see IfaceSyn.IfaceAxiom).
         These changes give rise to almost all the refactoring.
       * We used to have a hack whereby a type family instance produced a dummy
         type synonym, thus
            type instance F Int = Bool -> Bool
         translated to
            axiom FInt :: F Int ~ R:FInt
            type R:FInt = Bool -> Bool
         This was always a hack, and now it's gone.  Instead the type instance
         declaration produces a FamInst, whose axiom has kind
            axiom FInt :: F Int ~ Bool -> Bool
         just as you'd expect.
       * Newtypes are done just as before; they generate a CoAxiom. These
         CoAxioms are "implicit" (do not generate an IfaceAxiom declaration),
         unlike the ones coming from family instance declarations.  See
         Note [Implicit axioms] in TyCon
      On the whole the code gets significantly nicer.  There were consequential
      tidy-ups in the vectoriser, but I think I got them right.
  12. 25 Nov, 2011 1 commit
  13. 23 Nov, 2011 1 commit
  14. 18 Nov, 2011 1 commit
  15. 15 Nov, 2011 1 commit
  16. 14 Nov, 2011 2 commits
  17. 31 Oct, 2011 1 commit
  18. 25 Oct, 2011 1 commit
  19. 19 Apr, 2011 1 commit
    • Simon Peyton Jones's avatar
      This BIG PATCH contains most of the work for the New Coercion Representation · fdf86568
      Simon Peyton Jones authored
      See the paper "Practical aspects of evidence based compilation in System FC"
      * Coercion becomes a data type, distinct from Type
      * Coercions become value-level things, rather than type-level things,
        (although the value is zero bits wide, like the State token)
        A consequence is that a coerion abstraction increases the arity by 1
        (just like a dictionary abstraction)
      * There is a new constructor in CoreExpr, namely Coercion, to inject
        coercions into terms
  20. 18 Dec, 2010 1 commit
  21. 09 Sep, 2010 1 commit