Commit a058828d authored by simonmar's avatar simonmar
Browse files

[project @ 2000-07-06 13:32:35 by simonmar]

New section on Packages, collecting together the various
package-related documentation and adding some new stuff about the package
management features.
parent 040b3640
......@@ -826,20 +826,6 @@ country.
</ListItem>
</VarListEntry>
<VarListEntry>
<Term><Option>-package &lt;lib&gt;</Option></Term>
<ListItem>
<Para>
<IndexTerm><Primary>-package &lt;lib&gt; option</Primary></IndexTerm>
If you are using a system-supplied non-Prelude library (e.g., the
POSIX library), just use a <Option>-package posix</Option> option (for
example). The right interface files should then be available. The
accompanying HsLibs document lists the libraries available by this
mechanism.
</Para>
</ListItem>
</VarListEntry>
<VarListEntry>
<Term><Option>-I&lt;dir&gt;</Option></Term>
<ListItem>
......@@ -991,67 +977,6 @@ Patrick Sansom had a workshop paper about how all this is done (though
the details have changed quite a bit). <ULink URL="mailto:sansom@dcs.gla.ac.uk">Ask him</ULink> if you want a copy.
</Para>
<Sect3 id="packages">
<Title>Packages</Title>
<Para>
<IndexTerm><Primary>packages</Primary></IndexTerm>
To simplify organisation and compilation, GHC keeps libraries in <Emphasis>packages</Emphasis>. Packages are also compiled into single libraries on Unix, and DLLs on Windows. The term ``package'' can be used pretty much synonymously with ``library'', except that an application also forms a package, the Main package.
</Para>
<ItemizedList>
<ListItem>
<Para>
A package is a group of modules. It may span many directories, or many packages may exist in a single directory. Packages may not be mutually recursive.
</Para>
</ListItem>
<ListItem>
<Para>
A package has a name (e.g. <Filename>std</Filename>)
</Para>
</ListItem>
<ListItem>
<Para>
Each package is built into a single library (Unix; e.g. <Filename>libHSfoo.a</Filename>), or a single DLL (Windows; e.g. <Filename>HSfoo.dll</Filename>)
</Para>
</ListItem>
<ListItem>
<Para>
The <Option>-package-name foo</Option> flag tells GHC that the module being compiled is destined for package <Filename>foo</Filename>. If this is omitted, the default package, <Filename>Main</Filename>, is assumed.
</Para>
</ListItem>
<ListItem>
<Para>
The <Option>-package foo</Option> flag tells GHC to make available modules
from package <Filename>foo</Filename>. It replaces <Option>-syslib foo</Option>, which is now deprecated.
</Para>
</ListItem>
<ListItem>
<Para>
GHC does not maintain detailed cross-package dependency information.
It does remember which modules in other packages the current module
depends on, but not which things within those imported things.
</Para>
</ListItem>
</ItemizedList>
<Para>
All of this tidies up the Prelude enormously. The Prelude and
Standard Libraries are built into a single package called <Filename>std</Filename>. (This
is a change; the library is now called <Filename>libHSstd.a</Filename> instead of <Filename>libHS.a</Filename>).
</Para>
<Para>
It is worth noting that on Windows, because each package is built as a DLL, and a reference to a DLL costs an extra indirection, intra-package references are cheaper than inter-package references. Of course, this applies to the <Filename>Main</Filename> package as well. This is not normally the case on most Unices.
</Para>
</Sect3>
</Sect2>
......@@ -1484,6 +1409,327 @@ construction of interface files, is (allegedly) in the works.
</Sect1>
<sect1 id="packages">
<title>Packages</title>
<indexterm><primary>packages</primary></indexterm>
<para>Packages are collections of libraries, conveniently grouped
together as a single entity. The package system is flexible: a
package may consist of Haskell code, foreign language code (eg. C
libraries), or a mixture of the two. A package is a good way to
group together related Haskell modules, and is essential if you
intend to make the modules into a Windows DLL (see below).</para>
<para>Because packages can contain both Haskell and C libraries, they
are also a good way to provide convenient access to a Haskell
layer over a C library.</para>
<para>GHC comes with several packages (see <xref
linkend="book-hslibs">), and packages can be added/removed from an
existing GHC installation.</para>
<sect2 id="listing-packages">
<title>Listing the available packages</title>
<indexterm><primary>packages</primary>
<secondary>listing</secondary></indexterm>
<para>To see what packages are currently installed, use the
<literal>--list-packages</literal> option:</para>
<indexterm><primary><literal>--list-packages</literal></primary>
</indexterm>
<screen>
$ ghc --list-packages
gmp, rts, std, lang, concurrent, data, net, posix, text, util
</screen>
<para>Note that your GHC installation might have a slightly
different set of packages installed.</para>
<para>The <literal>gmp</literal> and <literal>rts</literal>
packages are always present, and represent the multi-precision
integer and runtime system libraries respectively. The
<literal>std</literal> package contains the Haskell prelude.
The rest of the packages are optional libraries.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="using-packages">
<title>Using a package</title>
<indexterm><primary>packages</primary>
<secondary>using</secondary></indexterm>
<para>To use a package, add the <literal>-package</literal> flag
to the command line:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>-package &lt;lib&gt;</option></term>
<indexterm><primary>-package &lt;lib&gt; option</primary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>This option brings into scope all the modules from
package <literal>&lt;lib&gt;</literal> (they still have to
be imported in your Haskell source, however). It also
causes the relevant libraries to be linked when linking is
being done.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>Some packages depend on other packages, for example the
<literal>text</literal> package makes use of some of the modules
in the <literal>lang</literal> package. The package system
takes care of all these dependencies, so that when you say
<literal>-package text</literal> on the command line, you
automatically get <literal>-package lang</literal> too.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="building-packages">
<title>Building a package from Haskell source</title>
<indexterm><primary>packages</primary>
<secondary>building</secondary></indexterm>
<para>It takes some special considerations to build a new
package:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>A package may contain several Haskell modules. A
package may span many directories, or many packages may
exist in a single directory. Packages may not be mutually
recursive.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>A package has a name
(e.g. <filename>std</filename>)</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>The Haskell code in a package may be built into one or
more Unix libraries (e.g. <Filename>libHSfoo.a</Filename>),
or a single DLL on Windows
(e.g. <Filename>HSfoo.dll</Filename>). The restriction to a
single DLL on Windows is that the package system is used to
tell the compiler when it should make an inter-DLL call
rather than an intra-DLL call (inter-DLL calls require an
extra indirection).</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>GHC does not maintain detailed cross-package
dependency information. It does remember which modules in
other packages the current module depends on, but not which
things within those imported things.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<para>To compile a module which is to be part of a new package,
use the <literal>-package-name</literal> option:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>-package-name &lt;foo&gt;</option></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>-package-name</literal></primary>
<secondary>option</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>This option is added to the command line when
compiling a module that is destined to be part of package
<literal>foo</literal>. If this flag is omitted then the
default package <literal>Main</literal> is assumed.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>Failure to use the <literal>-package-name</literal> option
when compiling a package will result in disaster on Windows, but
is relatively harmless on Unix at the moment (it will just cause
a few extra dependencies in some interface files). However,
bear in mind that we might add support for Unix shared libraries
at some point in the future.</para>
<para>It is worth noting that on Windows, because each package
is built as a DLL, and a reference to a DLL costs an extra
indirection, intra-package references are cheaper than
inter-package references. Of course, this applies to the
<Filename>Main</Filename> package as well.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="package-management">
<title>Package management</title>
<indexterm><primary>packages</primary>
<secondary>management</secondary></indexterm>
<para>GHC uses a package configuration file, called
<literal>packages.conf</literal>, which can be found in your GHC
install directory. This file isn't intended to be edited
directly, instead GHC provides options for adding & removing
packages:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--add-package</option></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>--add-package</literal></primary>
<secondary>option</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>Reads a package specification (see below) on stdin,
and adds it to the database of installed packages. The
package specification must be a package that isn't already
installed.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><option>--delete-package &lt;foo&gt;</option></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>--delete-package</literal></primary>
<secondary>option</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>Removes the specified package from the installed
configuration.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>In both cases, the old package configuration file is saved
in <literal>packages.conf.old</literal> in your GHC install
directory, so in an emergency you can always copy this file into
<literal>package.conf</literal> to restore the old
settings.</para>
<para>A package specification looks like this:</para>
<screen>
("mypkg",
"4.08",
Package
{
import_dirs = ["/usr/local/lib/imports/mypkg"],
library_dirs = ["/usr/local/lib"],
libraries = ["HSmypkg", "HSmypkg_cbits"],
include_dir = "",
c_include = "HsMyPkg.h",
package_deps = ["text", "data"],
extra_ghc_opts = "",
extra_cc_opts = "",
extra_ld_opts = "-lmy_clib"
}
)
</screen>
<para>The first line is the name of the package, for use with
the <literal>-package</literal> flag and as listed in the
<literal>--list-packages</literal> list. The second line is the
version of GHC that was used to compile any Haskell code in this
package (GHC will refuse to add the package if its version
number differs from this one). The rest of the components of
the package speecification may be specified in any order, and
are:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>import_dirs</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>import_dirs</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>A list of directories containing interface files
(<literal>.hi</literal> files) for this package.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>library_dirs</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>library_dirs</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>A list of directories containing libraries for this
package.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>libraries</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>libraries</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>A list of libraries for this package, with the
<literal>.a</literal> or <literal>.dll</literal> suffix
omitted. On Unix, the <literal>lib</literal> prefix is
also omitted.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>include_dir</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>include_dir</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>A directory containing C includes for this package
(may be the empty string).</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>c_include</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>c_include</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>A file to include for via-C compilations using this
package. Typically this include file will contain
function prototypes for any C functions used in the
package, in case they end up being called as a result of
Haskell functions from the package being inlined.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>package_deps</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>package_deps</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>A list of packages which this package depends
on.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>extra_ghc_opts</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>extra_ghc_opts</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>Extra arguments to be added to the GHC command line
when this package is being used.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>extra_cc_opts</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>extra_cc_opts</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>Extra arguments to be added to the gcc command line
when this package is being used (only for via-C
compilations).</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><literal>extra_ld_opts</literal></term>
<indexterm><primary><literal>extra_ld_opts</literal></primary>
<secondary>package specification</secondary></indexterm>
<listitem>
<para>Extra arguments to be added to the gcc command line
(for linking) when this package is being used.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<para>For examples of more package specifications, take a look
at the <literal>package.conf</literal> in your GHC
installation.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<Sect1 id="options-optimise">
<Title>Optimisation (code improvement)
</Title>
......
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