GHC.hs 58.1 KB
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-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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--
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-- (c) The University of Glasgow, 2005
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--
-- The GHC API
--
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-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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module GHC (
	-- * Initialisation
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	Session,
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	defaultErrorHandler,
	defaultCleanupHandler,
	init,
	newSession,

	-- * Flags and settings
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	DynFlags(..), DynFlag(..), GhcMode(..), HscTarget(..), dopt,
	parseDynamicFlags,
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	getSessionDynFlags,
	setSessionDynFlags,
	setMsgHandler,
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	-- * Targets
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	Target(..), TargetId(..),
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	setTargets,
	getTargets,
	addTarget,
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	removeTarget,
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	guessTarget,
	
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	-- * Loading\/compiling the program
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	depanal,
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	load, LoadHowMuch(..), SuccessFlag(..),	-- also does depanal
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	workingDirectoryChanged,
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	checkModule, CheckedModule(..),
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	-- * Inspecting the module structure of the program
	ModuleGraph, ModSummary(..),
	getModuleGraph,
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	isLoaded,
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	topSortModuleGraph,

	-- * Interactive evaluation
	getBindings, getPrintUnqual,
#ifdef GHCI
	setContext, getContext,	
	moduleIsInterpreted,
	getInfo, GetInfoResult,
	exprType,
	typeKind,
	lookupName,
	RunResult(..),
	runStmt,
	browseModule,
	showModule,
	compileExpr, HValue,
#endif

	-- * Abstract syntax elements
	Module, mkModule, pprModule,
	Type, dropForAlls,
	Kind,
	Name, Id, TyCon, Class, DataCon,
	TyThing(..), 
	idType,

	-- used by DriverMkDepend:
	sessionHscEnv,
	cyclicModuleErr,
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  ) where

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{-
 ToDo:

  * return error messages rather than printing them.
  * inline bits of HscMain here to simplify layering: hscGetInfo,
    hscTcExpr, hscStmt.
  * implement second argument to load.
  * we need to expose DynFlags, so should parseDynamicFlags really be
    part of this interface?
  * what StaticFlags should we expose, if any?
-}

#include "HsVersions.h"

#ifdef GHCI
import qualified Linker
import Linker		( HValue, extendLinkEnv )
import NameEnv		( lookupNameEnv )
import TcRnDriver	( mkExportEnv, getModuleContents )
import RdrName		( GlobalRdrEnv, plusGlobalRdrEnv )
import HscMain		( hscGetInfo, GetInfoResult, 
			  hscStmt, hscTcExpr, hscKcType )
import Type		( tidyType )
import VarEnv		( emptyTidyEnv )
import GHC.Exts		( unsafeCoerce# )
import IfaceSyn		( IfaceDecl )
#endif

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import HsSyn		( HsModule, LHsBinds )
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import Type		( Kind, Type, dropForAlls )
import Id		( Id, idType )
import TyCon		( TyCon )
import Class		( Class )
import DataCon		( DataCon )
import Name		( Name )
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import RdrName		( RdrName )
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import NameEnv		( nameEnvElts )
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import SrcLoc		( Located )
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import DriverPipeline
import DriverPhases	( Phase(..), isHaskellSrcFilename, startPhase )
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import GetImports	( getImports )
import Packages		( isHomePackage )
import Finder
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import HscMain		( newHscEnv, hscFileCheck, HscResult(..) )
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import HscTypes
import DynFlags
import StaticFlags
import SysTools		( initSysTools, cleanTempFiles )
import Module
import FiniteMap
import Panic
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import Digraph
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import ErrUtils		( showPass, Messages, putMsg )
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import qualified ErrUtils
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import Util
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import StringBuffer	( StringBuffer, hGetStringBuffer )
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import Outputable
import SysTools		( cleanTempFilesExcept )
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import BasicTypes	( SuccessFlag(..), succeeded, failed )
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import Maybes		( orElse, expectJust, mapCatMaybes )

import Directory        ( getModificationTime, doesFileExist )
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import Maybe		( isJust, isNothing, fromJust )
import Maybes		( expectJust )
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import List		( partition, nub )
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import qualified List
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import Monad		( unless, when, foldM )
import System		( exitWith, ExitCode(..) )
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import Time		( ClockTime )
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import EXCEPTION as Exception hiding (handle)
import DATA_IOREF
import IO
import Prelude hiding (init)
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-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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-- Exception handlers
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-- | Install some default exception handlers and run the inner computation.
-- Unless you want to handle exceptions yourself, you should wrap this around
-- the top level of your program.  The default handlers output the error
-- message(s) to stderr and exit cleanly.
defaultErrorHandler :: IO a -> IO a
defaultErrorHandler inner = 
  -- top-level exception handler: any unrecognised exception is a compiler bug.
  handle (\exception -> do
  	   hFlush stdout
	   case exception of
		-- an IO exception probably isn't our fault, so don't panic
		IOException _ ->  hPutStrLn stderr (show exception)
		AsyncException StackOverflow ->
			hPutStrLn stderr "stack overflow: use +RTS -K<size> to increase it"
		_other ->  hPutStr stderr (show (Panic (show exception)))
	   exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
         ) $

  -- all error messages are propagated as exceptions
  handleDyn (\dyn -> do
  		hFlush stdout
  		case dyn of
		     PhaseFailed _ code -> exitWith code
		     Interrupted -> exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
		     _ -> do hPutStrLn stderr (show (dyn :: GhcException))
			     exitWith (ExitFailure 1)
	    ) $
  inner

-- | Install a default cleanup handler to remove temporary files
-- deposited by a GHC run.  This is seperate from
-- 'defaultErrorHandler', because you might want to override the error
-- handling, but still get the ordinary cleanup behaviour.
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defaultCleanupHandler :: DynFlags -> IO a -> IO a
defaultCleanupHandler dflags inner = 
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   -- make sure we clean up after ourselves
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   later (unless (dopt Opt_KeepTmpFiles dflags) $ 
	    cleanTempFiles dflags) 
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	-- exceptions will be blocked while we clean the temporary files,
	-- so there shouldn't be any difficulty if we receive further
	-- signals.
   inner


-- | Initialises GHC.  This must be done /once/ only.  Takes the
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-- command-line arguments.  All command-line arguments which aren't
-- understood by GHC will be returned.

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init :: [String] -> IO [String]
init args = do
   -- catch ^C
   installSignalHandlers

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   -- Grab the -B option if there is one
   let (minusB_args, argv1) = partition (prefixMatch "-B") args
   dflags0 <- initSysTools minusB_args defaultDynFlags
   writeIORef v_initDynFlags dflags0
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   -- Parse the static flags
   argv2 <- parseStaticFlags argv1
   return argv2

GLOBAL_VAR(v_initDynFlags, error "initDynFlags", DynFlags)
	-- stores the DynFlags between the call to init and subsequent
	-- calls to newSession.
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-- | Starts a new session.  A session consists of a set of loaded
-- modules, a set of options (DynFlags), and an interactive context.
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-- ToDo: GhcMode should say "keep typechecked code" and\/or "keep renamed
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-- code".
newSession :: GhcMode -> IO Session
newSession mode = do
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  dflags0 <- readIORef v_initDynFlags
  dflags <- initDynFlags dflags0
  env <- newHscEnv dflags{ ghcMode=mode }
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  ref <- newIORef env
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  return (Session ref)

-- tmp: this breaks the abstraction, but required because DriverMkDepend
-- needs to call the Finder.  ToDo: untangle this.
sessionHscEnv :: Session -> IO HscEnv
sessionHscEnv (Session ref) = readIORef ref

withSession :: Session -> (HscEnv -> IO a) -> IO a
withSession (Session ref) f = do h <- readIORef ref; f h

modifySession :: Session -> (HscEnv -> HscEnv) -> IO ()
modifySession (Session ref) f = do h <- readIORef ref; writeIORef ref $! f h
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-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Flags & settings

-- | Grabs the DynFlags from the Session
getSessionDynFlags :: Session -> IO DynFlags
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getSessionDynFlags s = withSession s (return . hsc_dflags)
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-- | Updates the DynFlags in a Session
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setSessionDynFlags :: Session -> DynFlags -> IO ()
setSessionDynFlags s dflags = modifySession s (\h -> h{ hsc_dflags = dflags })
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-- | Messages during compilation (eg. warnings and progress messages)
-- are reported using this callback.  By default, these messages are
-- printed to stderr.
setMsgHandler :: (String -> IO ()) -> IO ()
setMsgHandler = ErrUtils.setMsgHandler

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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-- Targets
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-- ToDo: think about relative vs. absolute file paths. And what
-- happens when the current directory changes.

-- | Sets the targets for this session.  Each target may be a module name
-- or a filename.  The targets correspond to the set of root modules for
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-- the program\/library.  Unloading the current program is achieved by
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-- setting the current set of targets to be empty, followed by load.
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setTargets :: Session -> [Target] -> IO ()
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setTargets s targets = modifySession s (\h -> h{ hsc_targets = targets })
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-- | returns the current set of targets
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getTargets :: Session -> IO [Target]
getTargets s = withSession s (return . hsc_targets)
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-- | Add another target
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addTarget :: Session -> Target -> IO ()
addTarget s target
  = modifySession s (\h -> h{ hsc_targets = target : hsc_targets h })
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-- | Remove a target
removeTarget :: Session -> TargetId -> IO ()
removeTarget s target_id
  = modifySession s (\h -> h{ hsc_targets = filter (hsc_targets h) })
  where
   filter targets = [ t | t@(Target id _) <- targets, id /= target_id ]
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-- Attempts to guess what Target a string refers to.  This function implements
-- the --make/GHCi command-line syntax for filenames: 
--
-- 	- if the string looks like a Haskell source filename, then interpret
--	  it as such
--	- if adding a .hs or .lhs suffix yields the name of an existing file,
--	  then use that
-- 	- otherwise interpret the string as a module name
--
guessTarget :: String -> IO Target
guessTarget file
   | isHaskellSrcFilename file
   = return (Target (TargetFile file) Nothing)
   | otherwise
   = do exists <- doesFileExist hs_file
	if exists then return (Target (TargetFile hs_file) Nothing) else do
	exists <- doesFileExist lhs_file
	if exists then return (Target (TargetFile lhs_file) Nothing) else do
	return (Target (TargetModule (mkModule file)) Nothing)
     where 
	 hs_file = file ++ ".hs"
	 lhs_file = file ++ ".lhs"

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Loading the program
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-- Perform a dependency analysis starting from the current targets
-- and update the session with the new module graph.
depanal :: Session -> [Module] -> IO ()
depanal (Session ref) excluded_mods = do
  hsc_env <- readIORef ref
  let
	 dflags  = hsc_dflags hsc_env
	 gmode   = ghcMode (hsc_dflags hsc_env)
	 targets = hsc_targets hsc_env
	 old_graph = hsc_mod_graph hsc_env
	
  showPass dflags "Chasing dependencies"
  when (verbosity dflags >= 1 && gmode == BatchCompile) $
	       hPutStrLn stderr (showSDoc (hcat [
		     text "Chasing modules from: ",
	     		hcat (punctuate comma (map pprTarget targets))]))

  graph <- downsweep hsc_env old_graph excluded_mods
  writeIORef ref hsc_env{ hsc_mod_graph=graph }

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{-
-- | The result of load.
data LoadResult
  = LoadOk	Errors	-- ^ all specified targets were loaded successfully.
  | LoadFailed  Errors	-- ^ not all modules were loaded.

type Errors = [String]

data ErrMsg = ErrMsg { 
	errMsgSeverity  :: Severity,  -- warning, error, etc.
	errMsgSpans     :: [SrcSpan],
	errMsgShortDoc  :: Doc,
	errMsgExtraInfo :: Doc
	}
-}

data LoadHowMuch
   = LoadAllTargets
   | LoadUpTo Module
   | LoadDependenciesOf Module
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-- | Try to load the program.  If a Module is supplied, then just
-- attempt to load up to this target.  If no Module is supplied,
-- then try to load all targets.
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load :: Session -> LoadHowMuch -> IO SuccessFlag
load s@(Session ref) how_much
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   = do 
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	-- Dependency analysis first.  Note that this fixes the module graph:
	-- even if we don't get a fully successful upsweep, the full module
	-- graph is still retained in the Session.  We can tell which modules
	-- were successfully loaded by inspecting the Session's HPT.
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	depanal s []

	hsc_env <- readIORef ref

        let hpt1      = hsc_HPT hsc_env
        let dflags    = hsc_dflags hsc_env
	let mod_graph = hsc_mod_graph hsc_env

        let ghci_mode = ghcMode (hsc_dflags hsc_env) -- this never changes
        let verb      = verbosity dflags

	-- The "bad" boot modules are the ones for which we have
	-- B.hs-boot in the module graph, but no B.hs
	-- The downsweep should have ensured this does not happen
	-- (see msDeps)
        let all_home_mods = [ms_mod s | s <- mod_graph, not (isBootSummary s)]
	    bad_boot_mods = [s 	      | s <- mod_graph, isBootSummary s,
					not (ms_mod s `elem` all_home_mods)]
	ASSERT( null bad_boot_mods ) return ()

        -- mg2_with_srcimps drops the hi-boot nodes, returning a 
	-- graph with cycles.  Among other things, it is used for
        -- backing out partially complete cycles following a failed
        -- upsweep, and for removing from hpt all the modules
        -- not in strict downwards closure, during calls to compile.
        let mg2_with_srcimps :: [SCC ModSummary]
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	    mg2_with_srcimps = topSortModuleGraph True mod_graph Nothing
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	    -- check the stability property for each module.
	    stable_mods@(stable_obj,stable_bco)
		| BatchCompile <- ghci_mode = ([],[])
	        | otherwise = checkStability hpt1 mg2_with_srcimps all_home_mods

	    -- prune bits of the HPT which are definitely redundant now,
	    -- to save space.
	    pruned_hpt = pruneHomePackageTable hpt1 
				(flattenSCCs mg2_with_srcimps)
				stable_mods

	evaluate pruned_hpt

	when (verb >= 2) $
            putStrLn (showSDoc (text "Stable obj:" <+> ppr stable_obj $$
				text "Stable BCO:" <+> ppr stable_bco))
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	-- Unload any modules which are going to be re-linked this time around.
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	let stable_linkables = [ linkable
			       | m <- stable_obj++stable_bco,
				 Just hmi <- [lookupModuleEnv pruned_hpt m],
				 Just linkable <- [hm_linkable hmi] ]
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	unload hsc_env stable_linkables

        -- We could at this point detect cycles which aren't broken by
        -- a source-import, and complain immediately, but it seems better
        -- to let upsweep_mods do this, so at least some useful work gets
        -- done before the upsweep is abandoned.
        --hPutStrLn stderr "after tsort:\n"
        --hPutStrLn stderr (showSDoc (vcat (map ppr mg2)))

        -- Now do the upsweep, calling compile for each module in
        -- turn.  Final result is version 3 of everything.

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        -- Topologically sort the module graph, this time including hi-boot
	-- nodes, and possibly just including the portion of the graph
	-- reachable from the module specified in the 2nd argument to load.
	-- This graph should be cycle-free.
	-- If we're restricting the upsweep to a portion of the graph, we
	-- also want to retain everything that is still stable.
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        let full_mg :: [SCC ModSummary]
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	    full_mg    = topSortModuleGraph False mod_graph Nothing
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	    maybe_top_mod = case how_much of
				LoadUpTo m           -> Just m
			  	LoadDependenciesOf m -> Just m
			  	_		     -> Nothing

	    partial_mg0 :: [SCC ModSummary]
	    partial_mg0 = topSortModuleGraph False mod_graph maybe_top_mod

	    -- LoadDependenciesOf m: we want the upsweep to stop just
	    -- short of the specified module (unless the specified module
	    -- is stable).
	    partial_mg
		| LoadDependenciesOf mod <- how_much
		= ASSERT( case last partial_mg0 of 
			    AcyclicSCC ms -> ms_mod ms == mod; _ -> False )
		  List.init partial_mg0
		| otherwise
		= partial_mg0
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	    stable_mg = 
		[ AcyclicSCC ms
	        | AcyclicSCC ms <- full_mg,
		  ms_mod ms `elem` stable_obj++stable_bco,
		  ms_mod ms `notElem` [ ms_mod ms' | 
					AcyclicSCC ms' <- partial_mg ] ]

	    mg = stable_mg ++ partial_mg

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	-- clean up between compilations
	let cleanup = cleanTempFilesExcept dflags
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			  (ppFilesFromSummaries (flattenSCCs mg2_with_srcimps))
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        (upsweep_ok, hsc_env1, modsUpswept)
           <- upsweep (hsc_env { hsc_HPT = emptyHomePackageTable })
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			   pruned_hpt stable_mods cleanup mg
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	-- Make modsDone be the summaries for each home module now
	-- available; this should equal the domain of hpt3.
        -- Get in in a roughly top .. bottom order (hence reverse).

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        let modsDone = reverse modsUpswept
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        -- Try and do linking in some form, depending on whether the
        -- upsweep was completely or only partially successful.

        if succeeded upsweep_ok

         then 
           -- Easy; just relink it all.
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           do when (verb >= 2) $ putMsg "Upsweep completely successful."
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	      -- Clean up after ourselves
	      cleanTempFilesExcept dflags (ppFilesFromSummaries modsDone)

	      -- Issue a warning for the confusing case where the user
	      -- said '-o foo' but we're not going to do any linking.
	      -- We attempt linking if either (a) one of the modules is
	      -- called Main, or (b) the user said -no-hs-main, indicating
	      -- that main() is going to come from somewhere else.
	      --
	      let ofile = outputFile dflags
	      let no_hs_main = dopt Opt_NoHsMain dflags
	      let mb_main_mod = mainModIs dflags
	      let 
	 	main_mod = mb_main_mod `orElse` "Main"
		a_root_is_Main 
               	    = any ((==main_mod).moduleUserString.ms_mod) 
                    	  mod_graph
		do_linking = a_root_is_Main || no_hs_main

	      when (ghci_mode == BatchCompile && isJust ofile && not do_linking
		     && verb > 0) $
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	         	putMsg ("Warning: output was redirected with -o, " ++
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				   "but no output will be generated\n" ++
				   "because there is no " ++ main_mod ++ " module.")

	      -- link everything together
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              linkresult <- link ghci_mode dflags do_linking (hsc_HPT hsc_env1)
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	      loadFinish Succeeded linkresult ref hsc_env1
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         else 
           -- Tricky.  We need to back out the effects of compiling any
           -- half-done cycles, both so as to clean up the top level envs
           -- and to avoid telling the interactive linker to link them.
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           do when (verb >= 2) $ putMsg "Upsweep partially successful."
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              let modsDone_names
                     = map ms_mod modsDone
              let mods_to_zap_names 
                     = findPartiallyCompletedCycles modsDone_names 
			  mg2_with_srcimps
              let mods_to_keep
                     = filter ((`notElem` mods_to_zap_names).ms_mod) 
			  modsDone

              let hpt4 = retainInTopLevelEnvs (map ms_mod mods_to_keep) 
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					      (hsc_HPT hsc_env1)
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	      -- Clean up after ourselves
	      cleanTempFilesExcept dflags (ppFilesFromSummaries mods_to_keep)

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	      -- there should be no Nothings where linkables should be, now
	      ASSERT(all (isJust.hm_linkable) 
			(moduleEnvElts (hsc_HPT hsc_env))) do
	
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	      -- Link everything together
              linkresult <- link ghci_mode dflags False hpt4

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	      let hsc_env4 = hsc_env1{ hsc_HPT = hpt4 }
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	      loadFinish Failed linkresult ref hsc_env4

-- Finish up after a load.

-- If the link failed, unload everything and return.
loadFinish all_ok Failed ref hsc_env
  = do unload hsc_env []
       writeIORef ref $! discardProg hsc_env
       return Failed

-- Empty the interactive context and set the module context to the topmost
-- newly loaded module, or the Prelude if none were loaded.
loadFinish all_ok Succeeded ref hsc_env
  = do writeIORef ref $! hsc_env{ hsc_IC = emptyInteractiveContext }
       return all_ok

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-- Forget the current program, but retain the persistent info in HscEnv
discardProg :: HscEnv -> HscEnv
discardProg hsc_env
  = hsc_env { hsc_mod_graph = emptyMG, 
	      hsc_IC = emptyInteractiveContext,
	      hsc_HPT = emptyHomePackageTable }

-- used to fish out the preprocess output files for the purposes of
-- cleaning up.  The preprocessed file *might* be the same as the
-- source file, but that doesn't do any harm.
ppFilesFromSummaries summaries = [ fn | Just fn <- map ms_hspp_file summaries ]

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-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Check module

data CheckedModule = 
  CheckedModule { parsedSource      :: ParsedSource,
		  typecheckedSource :: Maybe TypecheckedSource
	        }

type ParsedSource  = Located (HsModule RdrName)
type TypecheckedSource = (LHsBinds Id, GlobalRdrEnv)

-- | This is the way to get access to parsed and typechecked source code
-- for a module.  'checkModule' loads all the dependencies of the specified
-- module in the Session, and then attempts to typecheck the module.  If
-- successful, it returns the abstract syntax for the module.
checkModule :: Session -> Module -> (Messages -> IO ()) 
	-> IO (Maybe CheckedModule)
checkModule session@(Session ref) mod msg_act = do
	-- load up the dependencies first
   r <- load session (LoadDependenciesOf mod)
   if (failed r) then return Nothing else do

	-- now parse & typecheck the module
   hsc_env <- readIORef ref   
   let mg  = hsc_mod_graph hsc_env
   case [ ms | ms <- mg, ms_mod ms == mod ] of
	[] -> return Nothing
	(ms:_) -> do 
	   r <- hscFileCheck hsc_env msg_act ms
	   case r of
		HscFail -> 
		   return Nothing
		HscChecked parsed tcd -> 
		   return (Just (CheckedModule parsed tcd)   )

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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Unloading

unload :: HscEnv -> [Linkable] -> IO ()
unload hsc_env stable_linkables	-- Unload everthing *except* 'stable_linkables'
  = case ghcMode (hsc_dflags hsc_env) of
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	BatchCompile  -> return ()
	JustTypecheck -> return ()
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#ifdef GHCI
	Interactive -> Linker.unload (hsc_dflags hsc_env) stable_linkables
#else
	Interactive -> panic "unload: no interpreter"
#endif
	other -> panic "unload: strange mode"

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-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- checkStability

{-
  Stability tells us which modules definitely do not need to be recompiled.
  There are two main reasons for having stability:
  
   - avoid doing a complete upsweep of the module graph in GHCi when
     modules near the bottom of the tree have not changed.

   - to tell GHCi when it can load object code: we can only load object code
     for a module when we also load object code fo  all of the imports of the
     module.  So we need to know that we will definitely not be recompiling
     any of these modules, and we can use the object code.

  NB. stability is of no importance to BatchCompile at all, only Interactive.
  (ToDo: what about JustTypecheck?)

  The stability check is as follows.  Both stableObject and
  stableBCO are used during the upsweep phase later.

  -------------------
  stable m = stableObject m || stableBCO m

  stableObject m = 
	all stableObject (imports m)
	&& old linkable does not exist, or is == on-disk .o
	&& date(on-disk .o) > date(.hs)

  stableBCO m =
	all stable (imports m)
	&& date(BCO) > date(.hs)
  -------------------    

  These properties embody the following ideas:

    - if a module is stable:
	- if it has been compiled in a previous pass (present in HPT)
	  then it does not need to be compiled or re-linked.
        - if it has not been compiled in a previous pass,
	  then we only need to read its .hi file from disk and
	  link it to produce a ModDetails.

    - if a modules is not stable, we will definitely be at least
      re-linking, and possibly re-compiling it during the upsweep.
      All non-stable modules can (and should) therefore be unlinked
      before the upsweep.

    - Note that objects are only considered stable if they only depend
      on other objects.  We can't link object code against byte code.
-}

checkStability
	:: HomePackageTable		-- HPT from last compilation
	-> [SCC ModSummary]		-- current module graph (cyclic)
	-> [Module]			-- all home modules
	-> ([Module],			-- stableObject
	    [Module])			-- stableBCO

checkStability hpt sccs all_home_mods = foldl checkSCC ([],[]) sccs
  where
   checkSCC (stable_obj, stable_bco) scc0
     | stableObjects = (scc_mods ++ stable_obj, stable_bco)
     | stableBCOs    = (stable_obj, scc_mods ++ stable_bco)
     | otherwise     = (stable_obj, stable_bco)
     where
	scc = flattenSCC scc0
	scc_mods = map ms_mod scc
	home_module m   = m `elem` all_home_mods && m `notElem` scc_mods

        scc_allimps = nub (filter home_module (concatMap ms_allimps scc))
	    -- all imports outside the current SCC, but in the home pkg
	
	stable_obj_imps = map (`elem` stable_obj) scc_allimps
	stable_bco_imps = map (`elem` stable_bco) scc_allimps

	stableObjects = 
	   and stable_obj_imps
	   && all object_ok scc

	stableBCOs = 
	   and (zipWith (||) stable_obj_imps stable_bco_imps)
	   && all bco_ok scc

	object_ok ms
	  | Just t <- ms_obj_date ms  =  t >= ms_hs_date ms 
					 && same_as_prev t
	  | otherwise = False
	  where
	     same_as_prev t = case lookupModuleEnv hpt (ms_mod ms) of
				Nothing  -> True
				Just hmi  | Just l <- hm_linkable hmi
				 -> isObjectLinkable l && t == linkableTime l
		-- why '>=' rather than '>' above?  If the filesystem stores
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		-- times to the nearset second, we may occasionally find that
		-- the object & source have the same modification time, 
		-- especially if the source was automatically generated
		-- and compiled.  Using >= is slightly unsafe, but it matches
		-- make's behaviour.

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	bco_ok ms
	  = case lookupModuleEnv hpt (ms_mod ms) of
	   	Nothing  -> False
		Just hmi  | Just l <- hm_linkable hmi ->
			not (isObjectLinkable l) && 
			linkableTime l >= ms_hs_date ms
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ms_allimps :: ModSummary -> [Module]
ms_allimps ms = ms_srcimps ms ++ ms_imps ms
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-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Prune the HomePackageTable
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-- Before doing an upsweep, we can throw away:
--
--   - For non-stable modules:
--	- all ModDetails, all linked code
--   - all unlinked code that is out of date with respect to
--     the source file
--
-- This is VERY IMPORTANT otherwise we'll end up requiring 2x the
-- space at the end of the upsweep, because the topmost ModDetails of the
-- old HPT holds on to the entire type environment from the previous
-- compilation.

pruneHomePackageTable
   :: HomePackageTable
   -> [ModSummary]
   -> ([Module],[Module])
   -> HomePackageTable

pruneHomePackageTable hpt summ (stable_obj, stable_bco)
  = mapModuleEnv prune hpt
  where prune hmi
	  | is_stable modl = hmi'
	  | otherwise      = hmi'{ hm_details = emptyModDetails }
	  where
	   modl = mi_module (hm_iface hmi)
	   hmi' | Just l <- hm_linkable hmi, linkableTime l < ms_hs_date ms
		= hmi{ hm_linkable = Nothing }
		| otherwise
		= hmi
		where ms = expectJust "prune" (lookupModuleEnv ms_map modl)
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        ms_map = mkModuleEnv [(ms_mod ms, ms) | ms <- summ]
767

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	is_stable m = m `elem` stable_obj || m `elem` stable_bco

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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-- Return (names of) all those in modsDone who are part of a cycle
-- as defined by theGraph.
findPartiallyCompletedCycles :: [Module] -> [SCC ModSummary] -> [Module]
findPartiallyCompletedCycles modsDone theGraph
   = chew theGraph
     where
        chew [] = []
        chew ((AcyclicSCC v):rest) = chew rest    -- acyclic?  not interesting.
        chew ((CyclicSCC vs):rest)
           = let names_in_this_cycle = nub (map ms_mod vs)
                 mods_in_this_cycle  
                    = nub ([done | done <- modsDone, 
                                   done `elem` names_in_this_cycle])
                 chewed_rest = chew rest
             in 
             if   notNull mods_in_this_cycle
                  && length mods_in_this_cycle < length names_in_this_cycle
             then mods_in_this_cycle ++ chewed_rest
             else chewed_rest

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-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- The upsweep

-- This is where we compile each module in the module graph, in a pass
-- from the bottom to the top of the graph.
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-- There better had not be any cyclic groups here -- we check for them.
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upsweep
    :: HscEnv			-- Includes initially-empty HPT
    -> HomePackageTable		-- HPT from last time round (pruned)
    -> ([Module],[Module])	-- stable modules (see checkStability)
    -> IO ()			-- How to clean up unwanted tmp files
    -> [SCC ModSummary]		-- Mods to do (the worklist)
    -> IO (SuccessFlag,
           HscEnv,		-- With an updated HPT
           [ModSummary])	-- Mods which succeeded

upsweep hsc_env old_hpt stable_mods cleanup
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     []
   = return (Succeeded, hsc_env, [])

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upsweep hsc_env old_hpt stable_mods cleanup
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     (CyclicSCC ms:_)
   = do hPutStrLn stderr (showSDoc (cyclicModuleErr ms))
        return (Failed, hsc_env, [])

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upsweep hsc_env old_hpt stable_mods cleanup
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     (AcyclicSCC mod:mods)
   = do -- putStrLn ("UPSWEEP_MOD: hpt = " ++ 
	--	     show (map (moduleUserString.moduleName.mi_module.hm_iface) 
	--		       (moduleEnvElts (hsc_HPT hsc_env)))

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        mb_mod_info <- upsweep_mod hsc_env old_hpt stable_mods mod 
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	cleanup		-- Remove unwanted tmp files between compilations

        case mb_mod_info of
	    Nothing -> return (Failed, hsc_env, [])
	    Just mod_info -> do 
		{ let this_mod = ms_mod mod

			-- Add new info to hsc_env
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		      hpt1     = extendModuleEnv (hsc_HPT hsc_env) 
					this_mod mod_info
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		      hsc_env1 = hsc_env { hsc_HPT = hpt1 }
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			-- Space-saving: delete the old HPT entry
			-- for mod BUT if mod is a hs-boot
			-- node, don't delete it.  For the
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			-- interface, the HPT entry is probaby for the
			-- main Haskell source file.  Deleting it
			-- would force .. (what?? --SDM)
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		      old_hpt1 | isBootSummary mod = old_hpt
			       | otherwise = delModuleEnv old_hpt this_mod
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		; (restOK, hsc_env2, modOKs) 
			<- upsweep hsc_env1 old_hpt1 stable_mods cleanup mods
		; return (restOK, hsc_env2, mod:modOKs)
		}
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-- Compile a single module.  Always produce a Linkable for it if 
-- successful.  If no compilation happened, return the old Linkable.
upsweep_mod :: HscEnv
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            -> HomePackageTable
	    -> ([Module],[Module])
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            -> ModSummary
            -> IO (Maybe HomeModInfo)	-- Nothing => Failed

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upsweep_mod hsc_env old_hpt (stable_obj, stable_bco) summary
863
   = do 
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        let 
	    this_mod    = ms_mod summary
	    mb_obj_date = ms_obj_date summary
	    obj_fn	= ml_obj_file (ms_location summary)
	    hs_date     = ms_hs_date summary

	    compile_it :: Maybe Linkable -> IO (Maybe HomeModInfo)
	    compile_it  = upsweep_compile hsc_env old_hpt this_mod summary

	case ghcMode (hsc_dflags hsc_env) of
	    BatchCompile ->
		case () of
		   -- Batch-compilating is easy: just check whether we have
		   -- an up-to-date object file.  If we do, then the compiler
		   -- needs to do a recompilation check.
		   _ | Just obj_date <- mb_obj_date, obj_date >= hs_date -> do
		           linkable <- 
				findObjectLinkable this_mod obj_fn obj_date
			   compile_it (Just linkable)

		     | otherwise ->
		           compile_it Nothing

	    interactive ->
		case () of
		    _ | is_stable_obj, isJust old_hmi ->
			   return old_hmi
			-- object is stable, and we have an entry in the
			-- old HPT: nothing to do

		      | is_stable_obj, isNothing old_hmi -> do
		           linkable <-
				findObjectLinkable this_mod obj_fn 
					(expectJust "upseep1" mb_obj_date)
			   compile_it (Just linkable)
			-- object is stable, but we need to load the interface
			-- off disk to make a HMI.

		      | is_stable_bco -> 
			   ASSERT(isJust old_hmi) -- must be in the old_hpt
			   return old_hmi
			-- BCO is stable: nothing to do

		      | Just hmi <- old_hmi,
			Just l <- hm_linkable hmi, not (isObjectLinkable l),
			linkableTime l >= ms_hs_date summary ->
			   compile_it (Just l)
			-- we have an old BCO that is up to date with respect
			-- to the source: do a recompilation check as normal.

		      | otherwise ->
			  compile_it Nothing
			-- no existing code at all: we must recompile.
		   where
		    is_stable_obj = this_mod `elem` stable_obj
		    is_stable_bco = this_mod `elem` stable_bco

		    old_hmi = lookupModuleEnv old_hpt this_mod

-- Run hsc to compile a module
upsweep_compile hsc_env old_hpt this_mod summary mb_old_linkable = do
  let
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	-- The old interface is ok if it's in the old HPT 
	--	a) we're compiling a source file, and the old HPT
	--	entry is for a source file
	--	b) we're compiling a hs-boot file
	-- Case (b) allows an hs-boot file to get the interface of its
	-- real source file on the second iteration of the compilation
	-- manager, but that does no harm.  Otherwise the hs-boot file
	-- will always be recompiled

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        mb_old_iface 
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		= case lookupModuleEnv old_hpt this_mod of
		     Nothing	 			  -> Nothing
		     Just hm_info | isBootSummary summary -> Just iface
				  | not (mi_boot iface)   -> Just iface
				  | otherwise		  -> Nothing
				   where 
				     iface = hm_iface hm_info

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  compresult <- compile hsc_env summary mb_old_linkable mb_old_iface
945

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  case compresult of
        -- Compilation failed.  Compile may still have updated the PCS, tho.
        CompErrs -> return Nothing
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	-- Compilation "succeeded", and may or may not have returned a new
	-- linkable (depending on whether compilation was actually performed
	-- or not).
	CompOK new_details new_iface new_linkable
              -> do let new_info = HomeModInfo { hm_iface = new_iface,
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						 hm_details = new_details,
						 hm_linkable = new_linkable }
                    return (Just new_info)


-- Filter modules in the HPT
retainInTopLevelEnvs :: [Module] -> HomePackageTable -> HomePackageTable
retainInTopLevelEnvs keep_these hpt
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   = mkModuleEnv [ (mod, expectJust "retain" mb_mod_info)
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		 | mod <- keep_these
		 , let mb_mod_info = lookupModuleEnv hpt mod
		 , isJust mb_mod_info ]

-- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Topological sort of the module graph

topSortModuleGraph
	  :: Bool 		-- Drop hi-boot nodes? (see below)
	  -> [ModSummary]
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	  -> Maybe Module
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	  -> [SCC ModSummary]
-- Calculate SCCs of the module graph, possibly dropping the hi-boot nodes
--
-- Drop hi-boot nodes (first boolean arg)? 
--
--   False:	treat the hi-boot summaries as nodes of the graph,
--		so the graph must be acyclic
--
--   True:	eliminate the hi-boot nodes, and instead pretend
--		the a source-import of Foo is an import of Foo
--		The resulting graph has no hi-boot nodes, but can by cyclic

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topSortModuleGraph drop_hs_boot_nodes summaries Nothing
  = stronglyConnComp (fst (moduleGraphNodes drop_hs_boot_nodes summaries))
topSortModuleGraph drop_hs_boot_nodes summaries (Just mod)
  = stronglyConnComp (map vertex_fn (reachable graph root))
  where 
	-- restrict the graph to just those modules reachable from
	-- the specified module.  We do this by building a graph with
	-- the full set of nodes, and determining the reachable set from
	-- the specified node.
	(nodes, lookup_key) = moduleGraphNodes drop_hs_boot_nodes summaries
	(graph, vertex_fn, key_fn) = graphFromEdges' nodes
	root 
	  | Just key <- lookup_key HsSrcFile mod, Just v <- key_fn key = v
	  | otherwise  = throwDyn (ProgramError "module does not exist")

moduleGraphNodes :: Bool -> [ModSummary]
  -> ([(ModSummary, Int, [Int])], HscSource -> Module -> Maybe Int)
moduleGraphNodes drop_hs_boot_nodes summaries = (nodes, lookup_key)
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   where
	-- Drop hs-boot nodes by using HsSrcFile as the key
	hs_boot_key | drop_hs_boot_nodes = HsSrcFile
		    | otherwise		 = HsBootFile	

	-- We use integers as the keys for the SCC algorithm
	nodes :: [(ModSummary, Int, [Int])]	
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	nodes = [(s, expectJust "topSort" (lookup_key (ms_hsc_src s) (ms_mod s)), 
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		     out_edge_keys hs_boot_key (ms_srcimps s) ++
		     out_edge_keys HsSrcFile   (ms_imps s)    )
		| s <- summaries
		, not (isBootSummary s && drop_hs_boot_nodes) ]
		-- Drop the hi-boot ones if told to do so

	key_map :: NodeMap Int
	key_map = listToFM ([(ms_mod s, ms_hsc_src s) | s <- summaries]
			   `zip` [1..])

	lookup_key :: HscSource -> Module -> Maybe Int
	lookup_key hs_src mod = lookupFM key_map (mod, hs_src)

	out_edge_keys :: HscSource -> [Module] -> [Int]
        out_edge_keys hi_boot ms = mapCatMaybes (lookup_key hi_boot) ms
		-- If we want keep_hi_boot_nodes, then we do lookup_key with
		-- the IsBootInterface parameter True; else False


type NodeKey   = (Module, HscSource)	  -- The nodes of the graph are 
type NodeMap a = FiniteMap NodeKey a	  -- keyed by (mod, src_file_type) pairs

msKey :: ModSummary -> NodeKey
msKey (ModSummary { ms_mod = mod, ms_hsc_src = boot }) = (mod,boot)

emptyNodeMap :: NodeMap a
emptyNodeMap = emptyFM

mkNodeMap :: [ModSummary] -> NodeMap ModSummary
mkNodeMap summaries = listToFM [ (msKey s, s) | s <- summaries]
	
nodeMapElts :: NodeMap a -> [a]
nodeMapElts = eltsFM

-- -----------------------------------------------------------------
-- The unlinked image
-- 
-- The compilation manager keeps a list of compiled, but as-yet unlinked
-- binaries (byte code or object code).  Even when it links bytecode
-- it keeps the unlinked version so it can re-link it later without
-- recompiling.

type UnlinkedImage = [Linkable]	-- the unlinked images (should be a set, really)

findModuleLinkable_maybe :: [Linkable] -> Module -> Maybe Linkable
findModuleLinkable_maybe lis mod
   = case [LM time nm us | LM time nm us <- lis, nm == mod] of
        []   -> Nothing
        [li] -> Just li
        many -> pprPanic "findModuleLinkable" (ppr mod)

delModuleLinkable :: [Linkable] -> Module -> [Linkable]
delModuleLinkable ls mod = [ l | l@(LM _ nm _) <- ls, nm /= mod ]

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Downsweep (dependency analysis)

-- Chase downwards from the specified root set, returning summaries
-- for all home modules encountered.  Only follow source-import
-- links.

-- We pass in the previous collection of summaries, which is used as a
-- cache to avoid recalculating a module summary if the source is
-- unchanged.
--
-- The returned list of [ModSummary] nodes has one node for each home-package
-- module, plus one for any hs-boot files.  The imports of these nodes 
-- are all there, including the imports of non-home-package modules.

downsweep :: HscEnv
	  -> [ModSummary]	-- Old summaries
	  -> [Module]		-- Ignore dependencies on these; treat them as
				-- if they were package modules
	  -> IO [ModSummary]
downsweep hsc_env old_summaries excl_mods
   = do rootSummaries <- mapM getRootSummary roots
	checkDuplicates rootSummaries
        loop (concatMap msDeps rootSummaries) 
	     (mkNodeMap rootSummaries)
     where
	roots = hsc_targets hsc_env

	old_summary_map :: NodeMap ModSummary
	old_summary_map = mkNodeMap old_summaries

	getRootSummary :: Target -> IO ModSummary
	getRootSummary (Target (TargetFile file) maybe_buf)
	   = do exists <- doesFileExist file
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		if exists then summariseFile hsc_env file maybe_buf else do
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		throwDyn (CmdLineError ("can't find file: " ++ file))	
	getRootSummary (Target (TargetModule modl) maybe_buf)
 	   = do maybe_summary <- summarise hsc_env emptyNodeMap Nothing False 
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					   modl maybe_buf excl_mods
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		case maybe_summary of
		   Nothing -> packageModErr modl
		   Just s  -> return s

	-- In a root module, the filename is allowed to diverge from the module
	-- name, so we have to check that there aren't multiple root files
	-- defining the same module (otherwise the duplicates will be silently
 	-- ignored, leading to confusing behaviour).
	checkDuplicates :: [ModSummary] -> IO ()
	checkDuplicates summaries = mapM_ check summaries
  	  where check summ = 
		  case dups of
			[]     -> return ()
			[_one] -> return ()
			many   -> multiRootsErr modl many
		   where modl = ms_mod summ
			 dups = 
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			   [ expectJust "checkDup" (ml_hs_file (ms_location summ'))
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			   | summ' <- summaries, ms_mod summ' == modl ]

	loop :: [(FilePath,Module,IsBootInterface)]
			-- Work list: process these modules
	     -> NodeMap ModSummary
		 	-- Visited set
	     -> IO [ModSummary]
			-- The result includes the worklist, except
			-- for those mentioned in the visited set
	loop [] done 	  = return (nodeMapElts done)
	loop ((cur_path, wanted_mod, is_boot) : ss) done 
	  | key `elemFM` done = loop ss done
	  | otherwise	      = do { mb_s <- summarise hsc_env old_summary_map 
						 (Just cur_path) is_boot 
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						 wanted_mod Nothing excl_mods
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				   ; case mb_s of
					Nothing -> loop ss done
					Just s  -> loop (msDeps s ++ ss) 
							(addToFM done key s) }
	  where
	    key = (wanted_mod, if is_boot then HsBootFile else HsSrcFile)

msDeps :: ModSummary -> [(FilePath, 		-- Importing module
			  Module,	 	-- Imported module
			  IsBootInterface)]	 -- {-# SOURCE #-} import or not
-- (msDeps s) returns the dependencies of the ModSummary s.
-- A wrinkle is that for a {-# SOURCE #-} import we return
--	*both* the hs-boot file
--	*and* the source file
-- as "dependencies".  That ensures that the list of all relevant
-- modules always contains B.hs if it contains B.hs-boot.
-- Remember, this pass isn't doing the topological sort.  It's
-- just gathering the list of all relevant ModSummaries
msDeps s =  concat [ [(f, m, True), (f,m,False)] | m <- ms_srcimps s] 
	 ++ [(f,m,False) | m <- ms_imps    s] 
	where
	  f = msHsFilePath s	-- Keep the importing module for error reporting


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Summarising modules

-- We have two types of summarisation:
--
--    * Summarise a file.  This is used for the root module(s) passed to
--	cmLoadModules.  The file is read, and used to determine the root
--	module name.  The module name may differ from the filename.
--
--    * Summarise a module.  We are given a module name, and must provide
--	a summary.  The finder is used to locate the file in which the module
--	resides.

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summariseFile :: HscEnv -> FilePath
   -> Maybe (StringBuffer,ClockTime)
   -> IO ModSummary
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-- Used for Haskell source only, I think
-- We know the file name, and we know it exists,
-- but we don't necessarily know the module name (might differ)
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summariseFile hsc_env file maybe_buf
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   = do let dflags = hsc_dflags hsc_env

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	(dflags', hspp_fn, buf)
	    <- preprocessFile dflags file maybe_buf
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        (srcimps,the_imps,mod) <- getImports dflags' buf hspp_fn

	-- Make a ModLocation for this file
	location <- mkHomeModLocation dflags mod file

	-- Tell the Finder cache where it is, so that subsequent calls
	-- to findModule will find it, even if it's not on any search path
	addHomeModuleToFinder hsc_env mod location

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        src_timestamp <- case maybe_buf of
			   Just (_,t) -> return t
			   Nothing    -> getModificationTime file

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	obj_timestamp <- modificationTimeIfExists (ml_obj_file location)

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        return (ModSummary { ms_mod = mod, ms_hsc_src = HsSrcFile,
			     ms_location = location,
                             ms_hspp_file = Just hspp_fn,
			     ms_hspp_buf  = Just buf,
                             ms_srcimps = srcimps, ms_imps = the_imps,
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			     ms_hs_date = src_timestamp,
			     ms_obj_date = obj_timestamp })
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-- Summarise a module, and pick up source and timestamp.
summarise :: HscEnv
	  -> NodeMap ModSummary	-- Map of old summaries
	  -> Maybe FilePath	-- Importing module (for error messages)
	  -> IsBootInterface	-- True <=> a {-# SOURCE #-} import
	  -> Module 		-- Imported module to be summarised
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	  -> Maybe (StringBuffer, ClockTime)
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	  -> [Module]		-- Modules to exclude
	  -> IO (Maybe ModSummary)	-- Its new summary

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summarise hsc_env old_summary_map cur_mod is_boot wanted_mod maybe_buf excl_mods
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  | wanted_mod `elem` excl_mods
  = return Nothing

  | Just old_summary <- lookupFM old_summary_map (wanted_mod, hsc_src)
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  = do	 	-- Find its new timestamp; all the 
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		-- ModSummaries in the old map have valid ml_hs_files
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	let location = ms_location old_summary
	    src_fn = expectJust "summarise" (ml_hs_file location)
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		-- return the cached summary if the source didn't change
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	src_timestamp <- case maybe_buf of
			   Just (_,t) -> return t
			   Nothing    -> getModificationTime src_fn

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	if ms_hs_date old_summary == src_timestamp 
	   then do -- update the object-file timestamp
		  obj_timestamp <- getObjTimestamp location is_boot
		  return (Just old_summary{ ms_obj_date = obj_timestamp })
	   else
		-- source changed: re-summarise
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		new_summary location src_fn maybe_buf src_timestamp
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  | otherwise
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  = do	found <- findModule hsc_env wanted_mod True {-explicit-}
	case found of
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	     Found location pkg 
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		| not (isHomePackage pkg) -> return Nothing
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			-- Drop external-pkg
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		| isJust (ml_hs_file location) -> just_found location
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			-- Home package
	     err -> noModError dflags cur_mod wanted_mod err
			-- Not found
  where
    dflags = hsc_dflags hsc_env

    hsc_src = if is_boot then HsBootFile else HsSrcFile

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    just_found location = do
	  	-- Adjust location to point to the hs-boot source file, 
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		-- hi file, object file, when is_boot says so
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	let location' | is_boot   = addBootSuffixLocn location
		      | otherwise = location
	    src_fn = expectJust "summarise2" (ml_hs_file location')
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		-- Check that it exists
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	  	-- It might have been deleted since the Finder last found it
	maybe_t <- modificationTimeIfExists src_fn
	case maybe_t of
	  Nothing -> noHsFileErr cur_mod src_fn
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	  Just t  -> new_summary location' src_fn Nothing t
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    new_summary location src_fn maybe_bug src_timestamp
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      = do
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	-- Preprocess the source file and get its imports
	-- The dflags' contains the OPTIONS pragmas
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	(dflags', hspp_fn, buf) <- preprocessFile dflags src_fn maybe_buf
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        (srcimps, the_imps, mod_name) <- getImports dflags' buf hspp_fn
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	when (mod_name /= wanted_mod) $
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		throwDyn (ProgramError 
		   (showSDoc (text src_fn
			      <>  text ": file name does not match module name"
			      <+> quotes (ppr mod_name))))

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		-- Find the object timestamp, and return the summary
	obj_timestamp <- getObjTimestamp location is_boot

	return (Just ( ModSummary { ms_mod       = wanted_mod, 
				    ms_hsc_src   = hsc_src,
				    ms_location  = location,
				    ms_hspp_file = Just hspp_fn,
				    ms_hspp_buf  = Just buf,
				    ms_srcimps   = srcimps,
				    ms_imps      = the_imps,
				    ms_hs_date   = src_timestamp,
				    ms_obj_date  = obj_timestamp }))

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getObjTimestamp location is_boot
  = if is_boot then return Nothing
	       else modificationTimeIfExists (ml_obj_file location)
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preprocessFile :: DynFlags -> FilePath -> Maybe (StringBuffer,ClockTime)
  -> IO (DynFlags, FilePath, StringBuffer)
preprocessFile dflags src_fn Nothing
  = do
	(dflags', hspp_fn) <- preprocess dflags src_fn
	buf <- hGetStringBuffer hspp_fn
	return (dflags', hspp_fn, buf)

preprocessFile dflags src_fn (Just (buf, time))
  = do
	-- case we bypass the preprocessing stage?
	let 
	    local_opts = getOptionsFromStringBuffer buf
	--
	(dflags', errs) <- parseDynamicFlags dflags local_opts

	let
	    needs_preprocessing
		| Unlit _ <- startPhase src_fn  = True
		  -- note: local_opts is only required if there's no Unlit phase
		| dopt Opt_Cpp dflags'		= True
		| dopt Opt_Pp  dflags'		= True
		| otherwise			= False

	when needs_preprocessing $
	   ghcError (ProgramError "buffer needs preprocesing; interactive check disabled")

	return (dflags', "<buffer>", buf)


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