RtsFlags.c 50.3 KB
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/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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 *
 * (c) The AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 1994-1997
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 * (c) The GHC Team, 1998-2006
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 *
 * Functions for parsing the argument list.
 *
 * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

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#include "PosixSource.h"
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#include "Rts.h"
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#include "RtsOpts.h"
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#include "RtsUtils.h"
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#include "Profiling.h"
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#include "RtsFlags.h"
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#ifdef HAVE_CTYPE_H
#include <ctype.h>
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#endif

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#include <string.h>

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// Flag Structure
RTS_FLAGS RtsFlags;
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/*
 * Split argument lists
 */
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int     prog_argc = 0;    /* an "int" so as to match normal "argc" */
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char  **prog_argv = NULL;
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int     full_prog_argc = 0;    /* an "int" so as to match normal "argc" */
char  **full_prog_argv = NULL;
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char   *prog_name = NULL; /* 'basename' of prog_argv[0] */
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int     rts_argc = 0;  /* ditto */
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char  **rts_argv = NULL;
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#if defined(mingw32_HOST_OS)
// On Windows, we want to use GetCommandLineW rather than argc/argv,
// but we need to mutate the command line arguments for withProgName and
// friends. The System.Environment module achieves that using this bit of
// shared state:
int       win32_prog_argc = 0;
wchar_t **win32_prog_argv = NULL;
#endif
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/*
 * constants, used later 
 */
#define RTS 1
#define PGM 0

/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Static function decls
   -------------------------------------------------------------------------- */

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static void procRtsOpts      (int rts_argc0, RtsOptsEnabledEnum enabled);

static void normaliseRtsOpts (void);

static void initStatsFile    (FILE *f);

static int  openStatsFile    (char *filename, const char *FILENAME_FMT,
                              FILE **file_ret);

static StgWord64 decodeSize  (const char *flag, nat offset,
                              StgWord64 min, StgWord64 max);

static void bad_option       (const char *s);
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#ifdef TRACING
static void read_trace_flags(char *arg);
#endif
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static void errorUsage      (void) GNU_ATTRIBUTE(__noreturn__);

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static char *  copyArg  (char *arg);
static char ** copyArgv (int argc, char *argv[]);
static void    freeArgv (int argc, char *argv[]);

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/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Command-line option parsing routines.
 * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

void initRtsFlagsDefaults(void)
{
    RtsFlags.GcFlags.statsFile		= NULL;
    RtsFlags.GcFlags.giveStats		= NO_GC_STATS;

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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.maxStkSize		= (8 * 1024 * 1024) / sizeof(W_);
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.initialStkSize	= 1024 / sizeof(W_);
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.stkChunkSize       = (32 * 1024) / sizeof(W_);
    RtsFlags.GcFlags.stkChunkBufferSize = (1 * 1024) / sizeof(W_);
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.minAllocAreaSize   = (512 * 1024)        / BLOCK_SIZE;
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.minOldGenSize      = (1024 * 1024)       / BLOCK_SIZE;
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.maxHeapSize	= 0;    /* off by default */
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.heapSizeSuggestion	= 0;    /* none */
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.heapSizeSuggestionAuto = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.pcFreeHeap		= 3;	/* 3% */
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.oldGenFactor       = 2;
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.generations        = 2;
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.squeezeUpdFrames	= rtsTrue;
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.compact            = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.compactThreshold   = 30.0;
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.sweep              = rtsFalse;
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#ifdef RTS_GTK_FRONTPANEL
    RtsFlags.GcFlags.frontpanel         = rtsFalse;
#endif
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    RtsFlags.GcFlags.idleGCDelayTime    = 300; /* millisecs */
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#if osf3_HOST_OS
/* ToDo: Perhaps by adjusting this value we can make linking without
 * -static work (i.e., not generate a core-dumping executable)? */
# if SIZEOF_VOID_P == 8
    RtsFlags.GcFlags.heapBase           = 0x180000000L;
# else
#  error I have no idea where to begin the heap on a non-64-bit osf3 machine.
# endif
#else
    RtsFlags.GcFlags.heapBase           = 0;   /* means don't care */
#endif

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#ifdef DEBUG
    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.scheduler	= rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.interpreter	= rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.weak		= rtsFalse;
    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.gccafs		= rtsFalse;
    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.gc		= rtsFalse;
    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.block_alloc	= rtsFalse;
    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.sanity		= rtsFalse;
    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.stable		= rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.stm             = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.prof		= rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.apply		= rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.linker		= rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.squeeze		= rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.hpc		= rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.DebugFlags.sparks		= rtsFalse;
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#endif

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#if defined(PROFILING)
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    RtsFlags.CcFlags.doCostCentres	= 0;
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#endif /* PROFILING */
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.doHeapProfile      = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.profileInterval    = 100;
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#ifdef PROFILING
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.includeTSOs        = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.showCCSOnException = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.maxRetainerSetSize = 8;
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.ccsLength          = 25;
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.modSelector        = NULL;
    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.descrSelector      = NULL;
    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.typeSelector       = NULL;
    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.ccSelector         = NULL;
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.ccsSelector        = NULL;
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    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.retainerSelector   = NULL;
    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.bioSelector        = NULL;
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#endif

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#ifdef TRACING
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    RtsFlags.TraceFlags.tracing       = TRACE_NONE;
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    RtsFlags.TraceFlags.timestamp     = rtsFalse;
    RtsFlags.TraceFlags.scheduler     = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.TraceFlags.gc            = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.TraceFlags.sparks        = rtsFalse;
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#endif

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    RtsFlags.MiscFlags.tickInterval	= 20;  /* In milliseconds */
    RtsFlags.ConcFlags.ctxtSwitchTime	= 20;  /* In milliseconds */
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    RtsFlags.MiscFlags.install_signal_handlers = rtsTrue;
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    RtsFlags.MiscFlags.machineReadable = rtsFalse;
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    RtsFlags.MiscFlags.linkerMemBase    = 0;
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#ifdef THREADED_RTS
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    RtsFlags.ParFlags.nNodes	        = 1;
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    RtsFlags.ParFlags.migrate           = rtsTrue;
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    RtsFlags.ParFlags.parGcEnabled      = 1;
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    RtsFlags.ParFlags.parGcGen          = 0;
    RtsFlags.ParFlags.parGcLoadBalancingEnabled = rtsTrue;
    RtsFlags.ParFlags.parGcLoadBalancingGen = 1;
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    RtsFlags.ParFlags.setAffinity       = 0;
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#endif
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#if defined(THREADED_RTS)
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    RtsFlags.ParFlags.maxLocalSparks	= 4096;
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#endif /* THREADED_RTS */
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#ifdef TICKY_TICKY
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    RtsFlags.TickyFlags.showTickyStats	 = rtsFalse;
    RtsFlags.TickyFlags.tickyFile	 = NULL;
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#endif
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#ifdef USE_PAPI
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    /* By default no special measurements taken */
    RtsFlags.PapiFlags.eventType        = 0;
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    RtsFlags.PapiFlags.numUserEvents    = 0;
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#endif
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}

static const char *
usage_text[] = {
"",
"Usage: <prog> <args> [+RTS <rtsopts> | -RTS <args>] ... --RTS <args>",
"",
"   +RTS    Indicates run time system options follow",
"   -RTS    Indicates program arguments follow",
"  --RTS    Indicates that ALL subsequent arguments will be given to the",
"           program (including any of these RTS flags)",
"",
"The following run time system options are available:",
"",
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"  -?       Prints this message and exits; the program is not executed",
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"  --info   Print information about the RTS used by this program",
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"",
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"  -K<size> Sets the maximum stack size (default 8M)  Egs: -K32k   -K512k",
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"  -ki<size> Sets the initial thread stack size (default 1k)  Egs: -ki4k -ki2m",
"  -kc<size> Sets the stack chunk size (default 32k)",
"  -kb<size> Sets the stack chunk buffer size (default 1k)",
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"",
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"  -A<size> Sets the minimum allocation area size (default 512k) Egs: -A1m -A10k",
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"  -M<size> Sets the maximum heap size (default unlimited)  Egs: -M256k -M1G",
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"  -H<size> Sets the minimum heap size (default 0M)   Egs: -H24m  -H1G",
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"  -m<n>    Minimum % of heap which must be available (default 3%)",
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"  -G<n>    Number of generations (default: 2)",
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"  -c<n>    Use in-place compaction instead of copying in the oldest generation",
"           when live data is at least <n>% of the maximum heap size set with",
"           -M (default: 30%)",
"  -c       Use in-place compaction for all oldest generation collections",
"           (the default is to use copying)",
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"  -w       Use mark-region for the oldest generation (experimental)",
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#if defined(THREADED_RTS)
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"  -I<sec>  Perform full GC after <sec> idle time (default: 0.3, 0 == off)",
#endif
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"",
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"  -t[<file>] One-line GC statistics (if <file> omitted, uses stderr)",
"  -s[<file>] Summary  GC statistics (if <file> omitted, uses stderr)",
"  -S[<file>] Detailed GC statistics (if <file> omitted, uses stderr)",
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#ifdef RTS_GTK_FRONTPANEL
"  -f       Display front panel (requires X11 & GTK+)",
#endif
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"",
"",
"  -Z       Don't squeeze out update frames on stack overflow",
"  -B       Sound the bell at the start of each garbage collection",
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#if defined(PROFILING)
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"",
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"  -px      Time/allocation profile (XML)  (output file <program>.prof)",
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"  -p       Time/allocation profile        (output file <program>.prof)",
"  -P       More detailed Time/Allocation profile",
"  -Pa      Give information about *all* cost centres",
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# if defined(PROFILING)
"",
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"  -hx            Heap residency profile (XML)   (output file <program>.prof)",
"  -h<break-down> Heap residency profile (hp2ps) (output file <program>.hp)",
"     break-down: c = cost centre stack (default)",
"                 m = module",
"                 d = closure description",
"                 y = type description",
"                 r = retainer",
"                 b = biography (LAG,DRAG,VOID,USE)",
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"  A subset of closures may be selected thusly:",
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"    -hc<cc>,...  specific cost centre(s) (top of stack only)",
"    -hC<cc>,...  specific cost centre(s) (anywhere in stack)",
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"    -hm<mod>...  all cost centres from the specified modules(s)",
"    -hd<des>,... closures with specified closure descriptions",
"    -hy<typ>...  closures with specified type descriptions",
"    -hr<cc>...   closures with specified retainers",
"    -hb<bio>...  closures with specified biographies (lag,drag,void,use)",
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"",
"  -R<size>       Set the maximum retainer set size (default: 8)",
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"", 
"  -L<chars>      Maximum length of a cost-centre stack in a heap profile",
"                 (default: 25)",
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"",
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"  -xt            Include threads (TSOs) in a heap profile",
"",
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"  -xc      Show current cost centre stack on raising an exception",
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# endif
#endif /* PROFILING or PAR */
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#ifdef TRACING
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"",
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"  -l[flags]  Log events in binary format to the file <program>.eventlog",
#  ifdef DEBUG
"  -v[flags]  Log events to stderr",
#  endif
"             where [flags] can contain:",
"                s    scheduler events",
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"                g    GC events",
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"                p    par spark events",
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#  ifdef DEBUG
"                t    add time stamps (only useful with -v)",
#  endif
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#endif

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#if !defined(PROFILING)
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"",
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"  -hT      Heap residency profile (output file <program>.hp)",
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#endif
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"  -i<sec>  Time between heap samples (seconds, default: 0.1)",
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"",
#if defined(TICKY_TICKY)
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"  -r<file>  Produce ticky-ticky statistics (with -rstderr for stderr)",
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"",
#endif
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"  -C<secs>  Context-switch interval in seconds.",
"            0 or no argument means switch as often as possible.",
"            Default: 0.02 sec; resolution is set by -V below.",
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"  -V<secs>  Master tick interval in seconds (0 == disable timer).",
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"            This sets the resolution for -C and the profile timer -i.",
"            Default: 0.02 sec.",
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"",
#if defined(DEBUG)
"  -Ds  DEBUG: scheduler",
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"  -Di  DEBUG: interpreter",
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"  -Dw  DEBUG: weak",
"  -DG  DEBUG: gccafs",
"  -Dg  DEBUG: gc",
"  -Db  DEBUG: block",
"  -DS  DEBUG: sanity",
"  -Dt  DEBUG: stable",
"  -Dp  DEBUG: prof",
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"  -De  DEBUG: event logging",
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"  -Da  DEBUG: apply",
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"  -Dl  DEBUG: linker",
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"  -Dm  DEBUG: stm",
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"  -Dz  DEBUG: stack squeezing",
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"  -Dc  DEBUG: program coverage",
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"  -Dr  DEBUG: sparks",
"",
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"     NOTE: DEBUG events are sent to stderr by default; add -l to create a",
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"     binary event log file instead.",
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"",
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#endif /* DEBUG */
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#if defined(THREADED_RTS) && !defined(NOSMP)
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"  -N<n>     Use <n> processors (default: 1)",
"  -N        Determine the number of processors to use automatically",
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"  -qg[<n>]  Use parallel GC only for generations >= <n>",
"            (default: 0, -qg alone turns off parallel GC)",
"  -qb[<n>]  Use load-balancing in the parallel GC only for generations >= <n>",
"            (default: 1, -qb alone turns off load-balancing)",
"  -qa       Use the OS to set thread affinity (experimental)",
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"  -qm       Don't automatically migrate threads between CPUs",
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#endif
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"  --install-signal-handlers=<yes|no>",
"            Install signal handlers (default: yes)",
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#if defined(THREADED_RTS)
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"  -e<n>     Maximum number of outstanding local sparks (default: 4096)",
#endif
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#if defined(x86_64_HOST_ARCH)
"  -xm       Base address to mmap memory in the GHCi linker",
"            (hex; must be <80000000)",
#endif
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#if defined(USE_PAPI)
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"  -aX       CPU performance counter measurements using PAPI",
"            (use with the -s<file> option).  X is one of:",
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"",
/* "            y - cycles", */
"            1 - level 1 cache misses",
"            2 - level 2 cache misses",
"            b - branch mispredictions",
"            s - stalled cycles",
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"            e - cache miss and branch misprediction events",
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"            +PAPI_EVENT   - collect papi preset event PAPI_EVENT",
"            #NATIVE_EVENT - collect native event NATIVE_EVENT (in hex)",
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#endif
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"",
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"RTS options may also be specified using the GHCRTS environment variable.",
"",
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"Other RTS options may be available for programs compiled a different way.",
"The GHC User's Guide has full details.",
"",
0
};

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STATIC_INLINE rtsBool
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strequal(const char *a, const char * b)
{
    return(strcmp(a, b) == 0);
}

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static void splitRtsFlags(char *s)
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{
    char *c1, *c2;

    c1 = s;
    do {
	while (isspace(*c1)) { c1++; };
	c2 = c1;
	while (!isspace(*c2) && *c2 != '\0') { c2++; };
	
	if (c1 == c2) { break; }
	
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        s = stgMallocBytes(c2-c1+1, "RtsFlags.c:splitRtsFlags()");
        strncpy(s, c1, c2-c1);
        s[c2-c1] = '\0';
        rts_argv[rts_argc++] = s;

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	c1 = c2;
    } while (*c1 != '\0');
}
    
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/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Parse the command line arguments, collecting options for the RTS.

   On return:
     - argv[] is *modified*, any RTS options have been stripped out
     - *argc  contains the new count of arguments in argv[]

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     - rts_argv[]  (global) contains a copy of the collected RTS args
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     - rts_argc    (global) contains the count of args in rts_argv

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     - prog_argv[] (global) contains a copy of the non-RTS args (== argv)
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     - prog_argc   (global) contains the count of args in prog_argv

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     - prog_name   (global) contains the basename of prog_argv[0]
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  -------------------------------------------------------------------------- */

void setupRtsFlags (int *argc, char *argv[])
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{
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    nat mode;
    nat total_arg;
    nat arg, rts_argc0;
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    setProgName (argv);
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    total_arg = *argc;
    arg = 1;

    *argc = 1;
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    rts_argc = 0;

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    rts_argv = stgCallocBytes(total_arg + 1, sizeof (char *), "setupRtsFlags");

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    rts_argc0 = rts_argc;
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    // process arguments from the ghc_rts_opts global variable first.
    // (arguments from the GHCRTS environment variable and the command
    // line override these).
    {
	if (ghc_rts_opts != NULL) {
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            splitRtsFlags(ghc_rts_opts);
            // opts from ghc_rts_opts are always enabled:
            procRtsOpts(rts_argc0, RtsOptsAll);
            rts_argc0 = rts_argc;
        }
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    }

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    // process arguments from the GHCRTS environment variable next
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    // (arguments from the command line override these).
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    {
	char *ghc_rts = getenv("GHCRTS");

	if (ghc_rts != NULL) {
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            if (rtsOptsEnabled == RtsOptsNone) {
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                errorBelch("Warning: Ignoring GHCRTS variable as RTS options are disabled.\n         Link with -rtsopts to enable them.");
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                // We don't actually exit, just warn
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            } else {
                splitRtsFlags(ghc_rts);
                procRtsOpts(rts_argc0, rtsOptsEnabled);
                rts_argc0 = rts_argc;
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            }
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        }
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    }
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    // Split arguments (argv) into PGM (argv) and RTS (rts_argv) parts
    //   argv[0] must be PGM argument -- leave in argv

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    for (mode = PGM; arg < total_arg; arg++) {
	// The '--RTS' argument disables all future +RTS ... -RTS processing.
	if (strequal("--RTS", argv[arg])) {
	    arg++;
	    break;
	}
	// The '--' argument is passed through to the program, but
	// disables all further +RTS ... -RTS processing.
	else if (strequal("--", argv[arg])) {
	    break;
	}
	else if (strequal("+RTS", argv[arg])) {
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            mode = RTS;
        }
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	else if (strequal("-RTS", argv[arg])) {
	    mode = PGM;
	}
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        else if (mode == RTS) {
            rts_argv[rts_argc++] = copyArg(argv[arg]);
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        }
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        else {
            argv[(*argc)++] = argv[arg];
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	}
    }
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    // process remaining program arguments
    for (; arg < total_arg; arg++) {
	argv[(*argc)++] = argv[arg];
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    }
    argv[*argc] = (char *) 0;
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    rts_argv[rts_argc] = (char *) 0;

    procRtsOpts(rts_argc0, rtsOptsEnabled);

    normaliseRtsOpts();

    setProgArgv(*argc, argv);

    if (RtsFlags.GcFlags.statsFile != NULL) {
        initStatsFile (RtsFlags.GcFlags.statsFile);
    }
    if (RtsFlags.TickyFlags.tickyFile != NULL) {
        initStatsFile (RtsFlags.GcFlags.statsFile);
    }
}

/* -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * procRtsOpts: Process rts_argv between rts_argc0 and rts_argc.
 * -------------------------------------------------------------------------- */

static void procRtsOpts (int rts_argc0, RtsOptsEnabledEnum enabled)
{
    rtsBool error = rtsFalse;
    int arg;
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    // Process RTS (rts_argv) part: mainly to determine statsfile
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    for (arg = rts_argc0; arg < rts_argc; arg++) {
        if (rts_argv[arg][0] != '-') {
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	    fflush(stdout);
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	    errorBelch("unexpected RTS argument: %s", rts_argv[arg]);
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	    error = rtsTrue;

        } else {
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            if (enabled == RtsOptsNone) {
                errorBelch("RTS options are disabled. Link with -rtsopts to enable them.");
                stg_exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            }

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            switch(rts_argv[arg][1]) {
            case '-':
                if (strequal("info", &rts_argv[arg][2])) {
                    printRtsInfo();
                    stg_exit(0);
                }
                break;
            default:
                break;
            }

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            if (enabled == RtsOptsSafeOnly) {
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                errorBelch("Most RTS options are disabled. Link with -rtsopts to enable them.");
                stg_exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
            }

            switch(rts_argv[arg][1]) {
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	      /* process: general args, then PROFILING-only ones, then
		 CONCURRENT-only, TICKY-only (same order as defined in
		 RtsFlags.lh); within those groups, mostly in
		 case-insensitive alphabetical order.  Final group is
		 x*, which allows for more options.
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	      */

#ifdef TICKY_TICKY
# define TICKY_BUILD_ONLY(x) x
#else
# define TICKY_BUILD_ONLY(x) \
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errorBelch("the flag %s requires the program to be built with -ticky", rts_argv[arg]); \
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error = rtsTrue;
#endif

#ifdef PROFILING
# define PROFILING_BUILD_ONLY(x)   x
#else
# define PROFILING_BUILD_ONLY(x) \
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errorBelch("the flag %s requires the program to be built with -prof", rts_argv[arg]); \
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error = rtsTrue;
#endif

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#ifdef TRACING
# define TRACING_BUILD_ONLY(x)   x
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#else
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# define TRACING_BUILD_ONLY(x) \
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errorBelch("the flag %s requires the program to be built with -eventlog or -debug", rts_argv[arg]); \
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error = rtsTrue;
#endif

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#ifdef THREADED_RTS
# define THREADED_BUILD_ONLY(x)      x
#else
# define THREADED_BUILD_ONLY(x) \
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errorBelch("the flag %s requires the program to be built with -threaded", rts_argv[arg]); \
error = rtsTrue;
#endif

#ifdef DEBUG
# define DEBUG_BUILD_ONLY(x) x
#else
# define DEBUG_BUILD_ONLY(x) \
errorBelch("the flag %s requires the program to be built with -debug", rts_argv[arg]); \
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error = rtsTrue;
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#endif

	      /* =========== GENERAL ========================== */
	      case '?':
		error = rtsTrue;
		break;

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              /* This isn't going to allow us to keep related options
                 together as we add more --* flags. We really need a
                 proper options parser. */
	      case '-':
                  if (strequal("install-signal-handlers=yes",
                               &rts_argv[arg][2])) {
                      RtsFlags.MiscFlags.install_signal_handlers = rtsTrue;
                  }
                  else if (strequal("install-signal-handlers=no",
                               &rts_argv[arg][2])) {
                      RtsFlags.MiscFlags.install_signal_handlers = rtsFalse;
                  }
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                  else if (strequal("machine-readable",
                               &rts_argv[arg][2])) {
                      RtsFlags.MiscFlags.machineReadable = rtsTrue;
                  }
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                  else if (strequal("info",
                               &rts_argv[arg][2])) {
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                      printRtsInfo();
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                      stg_exit(0);
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                  }
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                  else {
		      errorBelch("unknown RTS option: %s",rts_argv[arg]);
		      error = rtsTrue;
                  }
		  break;
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	      case 'A':
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                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.minAllocAreaSize
                      = decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 2, BLOCK_SIZE, HS_INT_MAX)
                           / BLOCK_SIZE;
                  break;
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#ifdef USE_PAPI
	      case 'a':
		switch(rts_argv[arg][2]) {
		case '1':
		  RtsFlags.PapiFlags.eventType = PAPI_FLAG_CACHE_L1;
		  break;
		case '2':
		  RtsFlags.PapiFlags.eventType = PAPI_FLAG_CACHE_L2;
		  break;
		case 'b':
		  RtsFlags.PapiFlags.eventType = PAPI_FLAG_BRANCH;
		  break;
		case 's':
		  RtsFlags.PapiFlags.eventType = PAPI_FLAG_STALLS;
		  break;
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		case 'e':
		  RtsFlags.PapiFlags.eventType = PAPI_FLAG_CB_EVENTS;
		  break;
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                case '+':
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                case '#':
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                  if (RtsFlags.PapiFlags.numUserEvents >= MAX_PAPI_USER_EVENTS) {
                      errorBelch("maximum number of PAPI events reached");
                      stg_exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                  }
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                  nat eventNum  = RtsFlags.PapiFlags.numUserEvents++;
                  char kind     = rts_argv[arg][2];
                  nat eventKind = kind == '+' ? PAPI_PRESET_EVENT_KIND : PAPI_NATIVE_EVENT_KIND;

                  RtsFlags.PapiFlags.userEvents[eventNum] = rts_argv[arg] + 3;
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                  RtsFlags.PapiFlags.eventType = PAPI_USER_EVENTS;
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                  RtsFlags.PapiFlags.userEventsKind[eventNum] = eventKind;
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                  break;
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		default:
		  bad_option( rts_argv[arg] );
		}
		break;
#endif

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	      case 'B':
		RtsFlags.GcFlags.ringBell = rtsTrue;
		break;

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	      case 'c':
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		  if (rts_argv[arg][2] != '\0') {
		      RtsFlags.GcFlags.compactThreshold =
			  atof(rts_argv[arg]+2);
		  } else {
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		      RtsFlags.GcFlags.compact = rtsTrue;
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		  }
		  break;
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              case 'w':
		RtsFlags.GcFlags.sweep = rtsTrue;
		break;

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	      case 'F':
	        RtsFlags.GcFlags.oldGenFactor = atof(rts_argv[arg]+2);
	      
		if (RtsFlags.GcFlags.oldGenFactor < 0)
		  bad_option( rts_argv[arg] );
		break;
	      
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	      case 'D':
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              DEBUG_BUILD_ONLY(
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	      { 
		  char *c;

		  for (c  = rts_argv[arg] + 2; *c != '\0'; c++) {
		      switch (*c) {
		      case 's':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.scheduler = rtsTrue;
			  break;
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		      case 'i':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.interpreter = rtsTrue;
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			  break;
		      case 'w':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.weak = rtsTrue;
			  break;
		      case 'G':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.gccafs = rtsTrue;
			  break;
		      case 'g':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.gc = rtsTrue;
			  break;
		      case 'b':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.block_alloc = rtsTrue;
			  break;
		      case 'S':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.sanity = rtsTrue;
			  break;
		      case 't':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.stable = rtsTrue;
			  break;
		      case 'p':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.prof = rtsTrue;
			  break;
		      case 'l':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.linker = rtsTrue;
			  break;
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		      case 'a':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.apply = rtsTrue;
			  break;
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		      case 'm':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.stm = rtsTrue;
			  break;
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		      case 'z':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.squeeze = rtsTrue;
			  break;
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		      case 'c':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.hpc = rtsTrue;
			  break;
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		      case 'r':
			  RtsFlags.DebugFlags.sparks = rtsTrue;
			  break;
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		      default:
			  bad_option( rts_argv[arg] );
		      }
		  }
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                  // -Dx also turns on -v.  Use -l to direct trace
                  // events to the .eventlog file instead.
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                  RtsFlags.TraceFlags.tracing = TRACE_STDERR;
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	      })
              break;
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	      case 'K':
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                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.maxStkSize =
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                      decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 2, sizeof(W_), HS_WORD_MAX) / sizeof(W_);
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                  break;
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	      case 'k':
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		switch(rts_argv[arg][2]) {
                case 'c':
                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.stkChunkSize =
                      decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 3, sizeof(W_), HS_WORD_MAX) / sizeof(W_);
                  break;
                case 'b':
                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.stkChunkBufferSize =
                      decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 3, sizeof(W_), HS_WORD_MAX) / sizeof(W_);
                  break;
                case 'i':
                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.initialStkSize =
                      decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 3, sizeof(W_), HS_WORD_MAX) / sizeof(W_);
                  break;
                default:
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                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.initialStkSize =
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                      decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 2, sizeof(W_), HS_WORD_MAX) / sizeof(W_);
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                  break;
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                }
                break;
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              case 'M':
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                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.maxHeapSize =
                      decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 2, BLOCK_SIZE, HS_WORD_MAX) / BLOCK_SIZE;
                  /* user give size in *bytes* but "maxHeapSize" is in *blocks* */
                  break;
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	      case 'm':
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                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.pcFreeHeap = atof(rts_argv[arg]+2);
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                  if (RtsFlags.GcFlags.pcFreeHeap < 0 ||
                      RtsFlags.GcFlags.pcFreeHeap > 100)
                      bad_option( rts_argv[arg] );
                  break;
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	      case 'G':
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                  RtsFlags.GcFlags.generations =
                      decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 2, 1, HS_INT_MAX);
                  break;
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	      case 'H':
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                  if (rts_argv[arg][2] == '\0') {
                      RtsFlags.GcFlags.heapSizeSuggestionAuto = rtsTrue;
                  } else {
                      RtsFlags.GcFlags.heapSizeSuggestion =
                          (nat)(decodeSize(rts_argv[arg], 2, BLOCK_SIZE, HS_WORD_MAX) / BLOCK_SIZE);
                  }
                  break;
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#ifdef RTS_GTK_FRONTPANEL
	      case 'f':
		  RtsFlags.GcFlags.frontpanel = rtsTrue;
		  break;
#endif

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    	      case 'I':	/* idle GC delay */
		if (rts_argv[arg][2] == '\0') {
		  /* use default */
		} else {
		    I_ cst; /* tmp */

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		    /* Convert to millisecs */
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		    cst = (I_) ((atof(rts_argv[arg]+2) * 1000));
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		    RtsFlags.GcFlags.idleGCDelayTime = cst;
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		}
		break;

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	      case 'S':
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		  RtsFlags.GcFlags.giveStats = VERBOSE_GC_STATS;
		  goto stats;
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	      case 's':
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		  RtsFlags.GcFlags.giveStats = SUMMARY_GC_STATS;
		  goto stats;
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	      case 't':
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		  RtsFlags.GcFlags.giveStats = ONELINE_GC_STATS;
		  goto stats;
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	    stats:
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		{ 
		    int r;
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                    r = openStatsFile(rts_argv[arg]+2, NULL,
                                      &RtsFlags.GcFlags.statsFile);
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		    if (r == -1) { error = rtsTrue; }
		}
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                break;
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	      case 'Z':
		RtsFlags.GcFlags.squeezeUpdFrames = rtsFalse;
		break;

	      /* =========== PROFILING ========================== */

	      case 'P': /* detailed cost centre profiling (time/alloc) */
	      case 'p': /* cost centre profiling (time/alloc) */
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		PROFILING_BUILD_ONLY(
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		switch (rts_argv[arg][2]) {
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		  case 'x':
		    RtsFlags.CcFlags.doCostCentres = COST_CENTRES_XML;
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		    break;
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		  case 'a':
		    RtsFlags.CcFlags.doCostCentres = COST_CENTRES_ALL;
		    break;
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		  default:
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		      if (rts_argv[arg][1] == 'P') {
			  RtsFlags.CcFlags.doCostCentres =
			      COST_CENTRES_VERBOSE;
		      } else {
			  RtsFlags.CcFlags.doCostCentres =
			      COST_CENTRES_SUMMARY;
		      }
		      break;
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		}
		) break;

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	      case 'R':
		  PROFILING_BUILD_ONLY(
		      RtsFlags.ProfFlags.maxRetainerSetSize = atof(rts_argv[arg]+2);
  	          ) break;
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	      case 'L':
		  PROFILING_BUILD_ONLY(
		      RtsFlags.ProfFlags.ccsLength = atof(rts_argv[arg]+2);
                      if(RtsFlags.ProfFlags.ccsLength <= 0) {
			bad_option(rts_argv[arg]);
                      }
		  ) break;
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	      case 'h': /* serial heap profile */
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#if !defined(PROFILING)
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		switch (rts_argv[arg][2]) {
		  case '\0':
		  case 'T':
		    RtsFlags.ProfFlags.doHeapProfile = HEAP_BY_CLOSURE_TYPE;
		    break;
		  default:
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		    errorBelch("invalid heap profile option: %s",rts_argv[arg]);
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		    error = rtsTrue;
		}
#else
		PROFILING_BUILD_ONLY(
		switch (rts_argv[arg][2]) {
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		case '\0':
		case 'C':
		case 'c':
		case 'M':
		case 'm':
		case 'D':
		case 'd':
		case 'Y':
		case 'y':
		case 'R':
		case 'r':
		case 'B':
		case 'b':
		    if (rts_argv[arg][2] != '\0' && rts_argv[arg][3] != '\0') {
			{
			    char *left  = strchr(rts_argv[arg], '{');
			    char *right = strrchr(rts_argv[arg], '}');
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			    // curly braces are optional, for
			    // backwards compat.
			    if (left)
				left = left+1;
			    else
				left = rts_argv[arg] + 3;

			    if (!right)
				right = rts_argv[arg] + strlen(rts_argv[arg]);

			    *right = '\0';

			    switch (rts_argv[arg][2]) {
			    case 'c': // cost centre label select
				RtsFlags.ProfFlags.ccSelector = left;
				break;
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			    case 'C':
				RtsFlags.ProfFlags.ccsSelector = left;
				break;
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			    case 'M':
			    case 'm': // cost centre module select
				RtsFlags.ProfFlags.modSelector = left;
				break;
			    case 'D':
			    case 'd': // closure descr select 
				RtsFlags.ProfFlags.descrSelector = left;
				break;
			    case 'Y':
			    case 'y': // closure type select
				RtsFlags.ProfFlags.typeSelector = left;
				break;
			    case 'R':
			    case 'r': // retainer select
				RtsFlags.ProfFlags.retainerSelector = left;
				break;
			    case 'B':
			    case 'b': // biography select
				RtsFlags.ProfFlags.bioSelector = left;
				break;
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			    }
			}
			break;
		    }
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		    if (RtsFlags.ProfFlags.doHeapProfile != 0) {
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			errorBelch("multiple heap profile options");
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			error = rtsTrue;
			break;
		    }

		    switch (rts_argv[arg][2]) {
		    case '\0':
		    case 'C':
		    case 'c':
			RtsFlags.ProfFlags.doHeapProfile = HEAP_BY_CCS;
			break;
		    case 'M':
		    case 'm':
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			  RtsFlags.ProfFlags.doHeapProfile = HEAP_BY_MOD;
			  break;
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		    case 'D':
		    case 'd':
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			  RtsFlags.ProfFlags.doHeapProfile = HEAP_BY_DESCR;
			  break;
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		    case 'Y':
		    case 'y':
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			  RtsFlags.ProfFlags.doHeapProfile = HEAP_BY_TYPE;
			  break;
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		    case 'R':
		    case 'r':
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			  RtsFlags.ProfFlags.doHeapProfile = HEAP_BY_RETAINER;
			  break;