1. 15 Nov, 2005 1 commit
  2. 31 Mar, 2005 1 commit
    • simonmar's avatar
      [project @ 2005-03-31 10:16:33 by simonmar] · 853e20a3
      simonmar authored
      Tweaks to get the GHC sources through Haddock.  Doesn't quite work
      yet, because Haddock complains about the recursive modules.  Haddock
      needs to understand SOURCE imports (it can probably just ignore them
      as a first attempt).
      853e20a3
  3. 25 Feb, 2005 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2005-02-25 13:06:31 by simonpj] · 8e67f550
      simonpj authored
      ---------------------------------------------
      Type signatures are no longer instantiated with skolem constants
      	---------------------------------------------
      
      	Merge to STABLE
      
      Consider
      
        p :: a
        q :: b
        (p,q,r) = (r,r,p)
      
      Here, 'a' and 'b' end up being the same, because they are both bound
      to the type for 'r', which is just a meta type variable.  So 'a' and 'b'
      can't be skolems.
      
      Sigh.  This commit goes back to an earlier way of doing things, by
      arranging that type signatures get instantiated with *meta* type
      variables; then at the end we must check that they have not been
      unified with types, nor with each other.
      
      This is a real bore.  I had to do quite a bit of related fiddling around
      to make error messages come out right.  Improved one or two.
      
      Also a small unrelated fix to make
      	:i (:+)
      print with parens in ghci.  Sorry this got mixed up in the same commit.
      8e67f550
  4. 09 Nov, 2004 1 commit
  5. 01 Oct, 2004 2 commits
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2004-10-01 13:42:04 by simonpj] · 837824d2
      simonpj authored
      ------------------------------------
      	Simplify the treatment of newtypes
      	Complete hi-boot file consistency checking
      	------------------------------------
      
      In the representation of types, newtypes used to have a special constructor
      all to themselves, very like TyConApp, called NewTcApp.    The trouble is
      that means we have to *know* when a newtype is a newtype, and in an hi-boot
      context we may not -- the data type might be declared as
      	data T
      in the hi-boot file, but as
      	newtype T = ...
      in the source file.  In GHCi, which accumulates stuff from multiple compiles,
      this makes a difference.
      
      So I've nuked NewTcApp.  Newtypes are represented using TyConApps again. This
      turned out to reduce the total amount of code, and simplify the Type data type,
      which is all to the good.
      
      
      This commit also fixes a few things in the hi-boot consistency checking
      stuff.
      837824d2
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2004-10-01 10:08:49 by simonpj] · da95f4a0
      simonpj authored
      -----------------------------------
      	Do simple checking on hi-boot files
      	-----------------------------------
      
      This commit arranges that, when compiling A.hs, we compare
      the types we infer with those in A.hi-boot, if the latter 
      exists.  (Or, more accurately, if anything A.hs imports in
      turn imports A.hi-boot, directly or indirectly.)
      
      This has been on the to-do list forever.
      da95f4a0
  6. 30 Sep, 2004 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2004-09-30 10:35:15 by simonpj] · 23f40f0e
      simonpj authored
      ------------------------------------
      	Add Generalised Algebraic Data Types
      	------------------------------------
      
      This rather big commit adds support for GADTs.  For example,
      
          data Term a where
       	  Lit :: Int -> Term Int
      	  App :: Term (a->b) -> Term a -> Term b
      	  If  :: Term Bool -> Term a -> Term a
      	  ..etc..
      
          eval :: Term a -> a
          eval (Lit i) = i
          eval (App a b) = eval a (eval b)
          eval (If p q r) | eval p    = eval q
          		    | otherwise = eval r
      
      
      Lots and lots of of related changes throughout the compiler to make
      this fit nicely.
      
      One important change, only loosely related to GADTs, is that skolem
      constants in the typechecker are genuinely immutable and constant, so
      we often get better error messages from the type checker.  See
      TcType.TcTyVarDetails.
      
      There's a new module types/Unify.lhs, which has purely-functional
      unification and matching for Type. This is used both in the typechecker
      (for type refinement of GADTs) and in Core Lint (also for type refinement).
      23f40f0e
  7. 26 Aug, 2004 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2004-08-26 15:44:50 by simonpj] · bb88e732
      simonpj authored
      -------------------------------
      	Print built-in sytax right
      	-------------------------------
      
      Built-in syntax, like (:) and [], is not "in scope" via the GlobalRdrEnv
      in the usual way.  When we print it out, we should also print it in unqualified
      form, even though it's not in the environment.
      
      I've finally bitten the (not very big) bullet, and added to Name the information
      about whether or not a name is one of these built-in ones.  That entailed changing
      the calls to mkWiredInName, but those are exactly the places where you have to
      decide whether it's built-in or not, which is fine.
      
      
      Built-in syntax => It's a syntactic form, not "in scope" (e.g. [])
      
      Wired-in thing  => The thing (Id, TyCon) is fully known to the compiler,
      		   not read from an interface file.
      		   E.g. Bool, True, Int, Float, and many others
      
      All built-in syntax is for wired-in things.
      bb88e732
  8. 16 Mar, 2004 1 commit
  9. 30 Dec, 2003 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2003-12-30 16:29:17 by simonpj] · f714e6b6
      simonpj authored
      ----------------------------
              Re-do kind inference (again)
      	----------------------------
      
         [WARNING: interface file binary representation has
         (as usual) changed slightly; recompile your libraries!]
      
      Inspired by the lambda-cube, for some time GHC has used
      	type Kind = Type
      That is, kinds were represented by the same data type as types.
      
      But GHC also supports unboxed types and unboxed tuples, and these
      complicate the kind system by requiring a sub-kind relationship.
      Notably, an unboxed tuple is acceptable as the *result* of a
      function but not as an *argument*.  So we have the following setup:
      
      		 ?
      		/ \
      	       /   \
      	      ??   (#)
      	     /  \
                  *   #
      
      where	*    [LiftedTypeKind]   means a lifted type
      	#    [UnliftedTypeKind] means an unlifted type
      	(#)  [UbxTupleKind]     means unboxed tuple
      	??   [ArgTypeKind]      is the lub of *,#
      	?    [OpenTypeKind]	means any type at all
      
      In particular:
      
        error :: forall a:?. String -> a
        (->)  :: ?? -> ? -> *
        (\(x::t) -> ...)	Here t::?? (i.e. not unboxed tuple)
      
      All this has beome rather difficult to accommodate with Kind=Type, so this
      commit splits the two.
      
        * Kind is a distinct type, defined in types/Kind.lhs
      
        * IfaceType.IfaceKind disappears: we just re-use Kind.Kind
      
        * TcUnify.unifyKind is a distinct unifier for kinds
      
        * TyCon no longer needs KindCon and SuperKindCon variants
      
        * TcUnify.zapExpectedType takes an expected Kind now, so that
          in TcPat.tcMonoPatBndr we can express that the bound variable
          must have an argTypeKind (??).
      
      The big change is really that kind inference is much more systematic and
      well behaved.  In particular, a kind variable can unify only with a
      "simple kind", which is built from * and (->).  This deals neatly
      with awkward questions about how we can combine sub-kinding with type
      inference.
      
      Lots of small consequential changes, especially to the kind-checking
      plumbing in TcTyClsDecls.  (We played a bit fast and loose before, and
      now we have to be more honest, in particular about how kind inference
      works for type synonyms.  They can have kinds like (* -> #), so
      
      This cures two long-standing SourceForge bugs
      
      * 753777 (tcfail115.hs), which used erroneously to pass,
        but crashed in the code generator
            type T a = Int -> (# Int, Int #)
            f :: T a -> T a
            f t = \x -> case t x of r -> r
      
      * 753780 (tc167.hs), which used erroneously to fail
            f :: (->) Int# Int#
      
      
      Still, the result is not entirely satisfactory.  In particular
      
      * The error message from tcfail115 is pretty obscure
      
      * SourceForge bug 807249 (Instance match failure on openTypeKind)
        is not fixed.  Alas.
      f714e6b6
  10. 13 Nov, 2003 1 commit
  11. 03 Nov, 2003 2 commits
  12. 31 Oct, 2003 1 commit
  13. 30 Oct, 2003 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2003-10-30 16:01:49 by simonpj] · 57573e7e
      simonpj authored
      This commit does a long-overdue tidy-up
      
      * Remove PprType (gets rid of one more bunch of hi-boot files)
      
      * Put pretty-printing for types in TypeRep
      
      * Make a specialised pretty-printer for Types, rather than
        converting to IfaceTypes and printing those
      57573e7e
  14. 09 Oct, 2003 2 commits
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2003-10-09 13:17:09 by simonpj] · 055a40ad
      simonpj authored
      Enable crudePprType without DEBUG
      055a40ad
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2003-10-09 11:58:39 by simonpj] · 98688c6e
      simonpj authored
      -------------------------
      		GHC heart/lung transplant
      		-------------------------
      
      This major commit changes the way that GHC deals with importing
      types and functions defined in other modules, during renaming and
      typechecking.  On the way I've changed or cleaned up numerous other
      things, including many that I probably fail to mention here.
      
      Major benefit: GHC should suck in many fewer interface files when
      compiling (esp with -O).  (You can see this with -ddump-rn-stats.)
      
      It's also some 1500 lines of code shorter than before.
      
      **	So expect bugs!  I can do a 3-stage bootstrap, and run
      **	the test suite, but you may be doing stuff I havn't tested.
      ** 	Don't update if you are relying on a working HEAD.
      
      
      In particular, (a) External Core and (b) GHCi are very little tested.
      
      	But please, please DO test this version!
      
      
      	------------------------
      		Big things
      	------------------------
      
      Interface files, version control, and importing declarations
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      * There is a totally new data type for stuff that lives in interface files:
      	Original names			IfaceType.IfaceExtName
      	Types				IfaceType.IfaceType
      	Declarations (type,class,id)	IfaceSyn.IfaceDecl
      	Unfoldings			IfaceSyn.IfaceExpr
        (Previously we used HsSyn for type/class decls, and UfExpr for unfoldings.)
        The new data types are in iface/IfaceType and iface/IfaceSyn.  They are
        all instances of Binary, so they can be written into interface files.
        Previous engronkulation concering the binary instance of RdrName has
        gone away -- RdrName is not an instance of Binary any more.  Nor does
        Binary.lhs need to know about the ``current module'' which it used to,
        which made it specialised to GHC.
      
        A good feature of this is that the type checker for source code doesn't
        need to worry about the possibility that we might be typechecking interface
        file stuff.  Nor does it need to do renaming; we can typecheck direct from
        IfaceSyn, saving a whole pass (module TcIface)
      
      * Stuff from interface files is sucked in *lazily*, rather than being eagerly
        sucked in by the renamer. Instead, we use unsafeInterleaveIO to capture
        a thunk for the unfolding of an imported function (say).  If that unfolding
        is every pulled on, TcIface will scramble over the unfolding, which may
        in turn pull in the interface files of things mentioned in the unfolding.
      
        The External Package State is held in a mutable variable so that it
        can be side-effected by this lazy-sucking-in process (which may happen
        way later, e.g. when the simplifier runs).   In effect, the EPS is a kind
        of lazy memo table, filled in as we suck things in.  Or you could think
        of it as a global symbol table, populated on demand.
      
      * This lazy sucking is very cool, but it can lead to truly awful bugs. The
        intent is that updates to the symbol table happen atomically, but very bad
        things happen if you read the variable for the table, and then force a
        thunk which updates the table.  Updates can get lost that way. I regret
        this subtlety.
      
        One example of the way it showed up is that the top level of TidyPgm
        (which updates the global name cache) to be much more disciplined about
        those updates, since TidyPgm may itself force thunks which allocate new
        names.
      
      * Version numbering in interface files has changed completely, fixing
        one major bug with ghc --make.  Previously, the version of A.f changed
        only if A.f's type and unfolding was textually different.  That missed
        changes to things that A.f's unfolding mentions; which was fixed by
        eagerly sucking in all of those things, and listing them in the module's
        usage list.  But that didn't work with --make, because they might have
        been already sucked in.
      
        Now, A.f's version changes if anything reachable from A.f (via interface
        files) changes.  A module with unchanged source code needs recompiling
        only if the versions of any of its free variables changes. [This isn't
        quite right for dictionary functions and rules, which aren't mentioned
        explicitly in the source.  There are extensive comments in module MkIface,
        where all version-handling stuff is done.]
      
      * We don't need equality on HsDecls any more (because they aren't used in
        interface files).  Instead we have a specialised equality for IfaceSyn
        (eqIfDecl etc), which uses IfaceEq instead of Bool as its result type.
        See notes in IfaceSyn.
      
      * The horrid bit of the renamer that tried to predict what instance decls
        would be needed has gone entirely.  Instead, the type checker simply
        sucks in whatever instance decls it needs, when it needs them.  Easy!
      
        Similarly, no need for 'implicitModuleFVs' and 'implicitTemplateHaskellFVs'
        etc.  Hooray!
      
      
      Types and type checking
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      * Kind-checking of types is far far tidier (new module TcHsTypes replaces
        the badly-named TcMonoType).  Strangely, this was one of my
        original goals, because the kind check for types is the Right Place to
        do type splicing, but it just didn't fit there before.
      
      * There's a new representation for newtypes in TypeRep.lhs.  Previously
        they were represented using "SourceTypes" which was a funny compromise.
        Now they have their own constructor in the Type datatype.  SourceType
        has turned back into PredType, which is what it used to be.
      
      * Instance decl overlap checking done lazily.  Consider
      	instance C Int b
      	instance C a Int
        These were rejected before as overlapping, because when seeking
        (C Int Int) one couldn't tell which to use.  But there's no problem when
        seeking (C Bool Int); it can only be the second.
      
        So instead of checking for overlap when adding a new instance declaration,
        we check for overlap when looking up an Inst.  If we find more than one
        matching instance, we see if any of the candidates dominates the others
        (in the sense of being a substitution instance of all the others);
        and only if not do we report an error.
      
      
      
      	------------------------
      	     Medium things
      	------------------------
      
      * The TcRn monad is generalised a bit further.  It's now based on utils/IOEnv.lhs,
        the IO monad with an environment.  The desugarer uses the monad too,
        so that anything it needs can get faulted in nicely.
      
      * Reduce the number of wired-in things; in particular Word and Integer
        are no longer wired in.  The latter required HsLit.HsInteger to get a
        Type argument.  The 'derivable type classes' data types (:+:, :*: etc)
        are not wired in any more either (see stuff about derivable type classes
        below).
      
      * The PersistentComilerState is now held in a mutable variable
        in the HscEnv.  Previously (a) it was passed to and then returned by
        many top-level functions, which was painful; (b) it was invariably
        accompanied by the HscEnv.  This change tidies up top-level plumbing
        without changing anything important.
      
      * Derivable type classes are treated much more like 'deriving' clauses.
        Previously, the Ids for the to/from functions lived inside the TyCon,
        but now the TyCon simply records their existence (with a simple boolean).
        Anyone who wants to use them must look them up in the environment.
      
        This in turn makes it easy to generate the to/from functions (done
        in types/Generics) using HsSyn (like TcGenDeriv for ordinary derivings)
        instead of CoreSyn, which in turn means that (a) we don't have to figure
        out all the type arguments etc; and (b) it'll be type-checked for us.
        Generally, the task of generating the code has become easier, which is
        good for Manuel, who wants to make it more sophisticated.
      
      * A Name now says what its "parent" is. For example, the parent of a data
        constructor is its type constructor; the parent of a class op is its
        class.  This relationship corresponds exactly to the Avail data type;
        there may be other places we can exploit it.  (I made the change so that
        version comparison in interface files would be a bit easier; but in
        fact it tided up other things here and there (see calls to
        Name.nameParent).  For example, the declaration pool, of declararations
        read from interface files, but not yet used, is now keyed only by the 'main'
        name of the declaration, not the subordinate names.
      
      * New types OccEnv and OccSet, with the usual operations.
        OccNames can be efficiently compared, because they have uniques, thanks
        to the hashing implementation of FastStrings.
      
      * The GlobalRdrEnv is now keyed by OccName rather than RdrName.  Not only
        does this halve the size of the env (because we don't need both qualified
        and unqualified versions in the env), but it's also more efficient because
        we can use a UniqFM instead of a FiniteMap.
      
        Consequential changes to Provenance, which has moved to RdrName.
      
      * External Core remains a bit of a hack, as it was before, done with a mixture
        of HsDecls (so that recursiveness and argument variance is still inferred),
        and IfaceExprs (for value declarations).  It's not thoroughly tested.
      
      
      	------------------------
      	     Minor things
      	------------------------
      
      * DataCon fields dcWorkId, dcWrapId combined into a single field
        dcIds, that is explicit about whether the data con is a newtype or not.
        MkId.mkDataConWorkId and mkDataConWrapId are similarly combined into
        MkId.mkDataConIds
      
      * Choosing the boxing strategy is done for *source* type decls only, and
        hence is now in TcTyDecls, not DataCon.
      
      * WiredIn names are distinguished by their n_sort field, not by their location,
        which was rather strange
      
      * Define Maybes.mapCatMaybes :: (a -> Maybe b) -> [a] -> [b]
        and use it here and there
      
      * Much better pretty-printing of interface files (--show-iface)
      
      Many, many other small things.
      
      
      	------------------------
      	     File changes
      	------------------------
      * New iface/ subdirectory
      * Much of RnEnv has moved to iface/IfaceEnv
      * MkIface and BinIface have moved from main/ to iface/
      * types/Variance has been absorbed into typecheck/TcTyDecls
      * RnHiFiles and RnIfaces have vanished entirely.  Their
        work is done by iface/LoadIface
      * hsSyn/HsCore has gone, replaced by iface/IfaceSyn
      * typecheck/TcIfaceSig has gone, replaced by iface/TcIface
      * typecheck/TcMonoType has been renamed to typecheck/TcHsType
      * basicTypes/Var.hi-boot and basicTypes/Generics.hi-boot have gone altogether
      98688c6e
  15. 04 Feb, 2003 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2003-02-04 15:09:38 by simonpj] · 957bf375
      simonpj authored
      -------------------------------------
      	Remove all vestiges of usage analysis
      	-------------------------------------
      
      This commit removes a large blob of usage-analysis-related code, almost
      all of which was commented out.
      
      Sadly, it doesn't look as if Keith is going to have enough time to polish it
      up, and in any case the actual performance benefits (so far as we can measure
      them) turned out to be pretty modest (a few percent).
      
      So, with regret, I'm chopping it all out.  It's still there in the repository
      if anyone wants go hack on it.  And Tobias Gedell at Chalmers is implementing
      a different analysis, via External Core.
      957bf375
  16. 11 Dec, 2002 2 commits
  17. 01 Apr, 2002 1 commit
  18. 04 Mar, 2002 1 commit
    • simonmar's avatar
      [project @ 2002-03-04 17:01:26 by simonmar] · 0171936c
      simonmar authored
      Binary Interface Files - stage 1
      --------------------------------
      
      This commit changes the default interface file format from text to
      binary, in order to improve compilation performace.
      
      To view an interface file, use 'ghc --show-iface Foo.hi'.
      
      utils/Binary.hs is the basic Binary I/O library, based on the nhc98
      binary I/O library but much stripped-down and working in terms of
      bytes rather than bits, and with some special features for GHC: it
      remembers which Module is being emitted to avoid dumping too many
      qualified names, and it keeps track of a "dictionary" of FastStrings
      so that we don't dump the same FastString more than once into the
      binary file.  I'll make a generic version of this for the libraries at
      some point.
      
      main/BinIface.hs contains most of the Binary instances.  Some
      instances are in the same module as the data type (RdrName, Name,
      OccName in particular).  Most instances were generated using a
      modified version of DrIFT, which I'll commit later.  However, editing
      them by hand isn't hard (certainly easier than modifying
      ParseIface.y).
      
      The first thing in a binary interface is the interface version, so
      nice error messages will be generated if the binary format changes and
      you still have old interfaces lying around.  The version also now
      includes the "way" as an extra sanity check.
      
      Other changes
      -------------
      
      I don't like the way FastStrings contain both hashed strings (with
      O(1) comparison) and literal C strings (with O(n) comparison).  So as
      a first step to separating these I made serveral "literal" type
      strings into hashed strings.  SLIT() still generates a literal, and
      now FSLIT() generates a hashed string.  With DEBUG on, you'll get a
      warning if you try to compare any SLIT()s with anything, and the
      compiler will fall over if you try to dump any literal C strings into
      an interface file (usually indicating a use of SLIT() which should be
      FSLIT()).
      
      mkSysLocal no longer re-encodes its FastString argument each time it
      is called.
      
      I also fixed the -pgm options so that the argument can now optionally
      be separted from the option.
      
      Bugfix: PrelNames declared Names for several comparison primops, eg.
      eqCharName, eqIntName etc. but these had different uniques from the
      real primop names.  I've moved these to PrimOps and defined them using
      mkPrimOpIdName instead, and deleted some for which we don't have real
      primops (Manuel: please check that things still work for you after
      this change).
      0171936c
  19. 06 Feb, 2002 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2002-02-06 15:54:23 by simonpj] · 979947f5
      simonpj authored
      Eliminate all vestiages of UsageTy, in preparation for
      	Keith's new version.  Hurrah!
      
      	Keith: LBVarInfo and usOnce,usMany are still there,
      	because I know you have eliminated LBVarInfo, and I didn't
      	want to cause unnecessary conflicts.
      979947f5
  20. 29 Nov, 2001 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2001-11-29 13:47:09 by simonpj] · 32a89583
      simonpj authored
      ------------------------------
      	Add linear implicit parameters
      	------------------------------
      
      Linear implicit parameters are an idea developed by Koen Claessen,
      Mark Shields, and Simon PJ, last week.  They address the long-standing
      problem that monads seem over-kill for certain sorts of problem, notably:
      
      	* distributing a supply of unique names
      	* distributing a suppply of random numbers
      	* distributing an oracle (as in QuickCheck)
      
      
      Linear implicit parameters are just like ordinary implicit parameters,
      except that they are "linear" -- that is, they cannot be copied, and
      must be explicitly "split" instead.  Linear implicit parameters are
      written '%x' instead of '?x'.  (The '/' in the '%' suggests the
      split!)
      
      For example:
      
          data NameSupply = ...
      
          splitNS :: NameSupply -> (NameSupply, NameSupply)
          newName :: NameSupply -> Name
      
          instance PrelSplit.Splittable NameSupply where
      	split = splitNS
      
      
          f :: (%ns :: NameSupply) => Env -> Expr -> Expr
          f env (Lam x e) = Lam x' (f env e)
      		    where
      		      x'   = newName %ns
      		      env' = extend env x x'
          ...more equations for f...
      
      Notice that the implicit parameter %ns is consumed
      	once by the call to newName
      	once by the recursive call to f
      
      So the translation done by the type checker makes
      the parameter explicit:
      
          f :: NameSupply -> Env -> Expr -> Expr
          f ns env (Lam x e) = Lam x' (f ns1 env e)
      		       where
      	 		 (ns1,ns2) = splitNS ns
      			 x' = newName ns2
      			 env = extend env x x'
      
      Notice the call to 'split' introduced by the type checker.
      How did it know to use 'splitNS'?  Because what it really did
      was to introduce a call to the overloaded function 'split',
      ndefined by
      
      	class Splittable a where
      	  split :: a -> (a,a)
      
      The instance for Splittable NameSupply tells GHC how to implement
      split for name supplies.  But we can simply write
      
      	g x = (x, %ns, %ns)
      
      and GHC will infer
      
      	g :: (Splittable a, %ns :: a) => b -> (b,a,a)
      
      The Splittable class is built into GHC.  It's defined in PrelSplit,
      and exported by GlaExts.
      
      Other points:
      
      * '?x' and '%x' are entirely distinct implicit parameters: you
        can use them together and they won't intefere with each other.
      
      * You can bind linear implicit parameters in 'with' clauses.
      
      * You cannot have implicit parameters (whether linear or not)
        in the context of a class or instance declaration.
      
      
      Warnings
      ~~~~~~~~
      The monomorphism restriction is even more important than usual.
      Consider the example above:
      
          f :: (%ns :: NameSupply) => Env -> Expr -> Expr
          f env (Lam x e) = Lam x' (f env e)
      		    where
      		      x'   = newName %ns
      		      env' = extend env x x'
      
      If we replaced the two occurrences of x' by (newName %ns), which is
      usually a harmless thing to do, we get:
      
          f :: (%ns :: NameSupply) => Env -> Expr -> Expr
          f env (Lam x e) = Lam (newName %ns) (f env e)
      		    where
      		      env' = extend env x (newName %ns)
      
      But now the name supply is consumed in *three* places
      (the two calls to newName,and the recursive call to f), so
      the result is utterly different.  Urk!  We don't even have
      the beta rule.
      
      Well, this is an experimental change.  With implicit
      parameters we have already lost beta reduction anyway, and
      (as John Launchbury puts it) we can't sensibly reason about
      Haskell programs without knowing their typing.
      
      Of course, none of this is throughly tested, either.
      32a89583
  21. 26 Nov, 2001 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2001-11-26 09:20:25 by simonpj] · 5e3f005d
      simonpj authored
      ----------------------
      	Implement Rank-N types
      	----------------------
      
      This commit implements the full glory of Rank-N types, using
      the Odersky/Laufer approach described in their paper
      	"Putting type annotations to work"
      
      In fact, I've had to adapt their approach to deal with the
      full glory of Haskell (including pattern matching, and the
      scoped-type-variable extension).  However, the result is:
      
      * There is no restriction to rank-2 types.  You can nest forall's
        as deep as you like in a type.  For example, you can write a type
        like
      	p :: ((forall a. Eq a => a->a) -> Int) -> Int
        This is a rank-3 type, illegal in GHC 5.02
      
      * When matching types, GHC uses the cunning Odersky/Laufer coercion
        rules.  For example, suppose we have
      	q :: (forall c. Ord c => c->c) -> Int
        Then, is this well typed?
      	x :: Int
      	x = p q
        Yes, it is, but GHC has to generate the right coercion.  Here's
        what it looks like with all the big lambdas and dictionaries put in:
      
      	x = p (\ f :: (forall a. Eq a => a->a) ->
      		 q (/\c \d::Ord c -> f c (eqFromOrd d)))
      
        where eqFromOrd selects the Eq superclass dictionary from the Ord
        dicationary:		eqFromOrd :: Ord a -> Eq a
      
      
      * You can use polymorphic types in pattern type signatures.  For
        example:
      
      	f (g :: forall a. a->a) = (g 'c', g True)
      
        (Previously, pattern type signatures had to be monotypes.)
      
      * The basic rule for using rank-N types is that you must specify
        a type signature for every binder that you want to have a type
        scheme (as opposed to a plain monotype) as its type.
      
        However, you don't need to give the type signature on the
        binder (as I did above in the defn for f).  You can give it
        in a separate type signature, thus:
      
      	f :: (forall a. a->a) -> (Char,Bool)
      	f g = (g 'c', g True)
      
        GHC will push the external type signature inwards, and use
        that information to decorate the binders as it comes across them.
        I don't have a *precise* specification of this process, but I
        think it is obvious enough in practice.
      
      * In a type synonym you can use rank-N types too.  For example,
        you can write
      
      	type IdFun = forall a. a->a
      
      	f :: IdFun -> (Char,Bool)
      	f g = (g 'c', g True)
      
        As always, type synonyms must always occur saturated; GHC
        expands them before it does anything else.  (Still, GHC goes
        to some trouble to keep them unexpanded in error message.)
      
      
      The main plan is as before.  The main typechecker for expressions,
      tcExpr, takes an "expected type" as its argument.  This greatly
      improves error messages.  The new feature is that when this
      "expected type" (going down) meets an "actual type" (coming up)
      we use the new subsumption function
      	TcUnify.tcSub
      which checks that the actual type can be coerced into the
      expected type (and produces a coercion function to demonstrate).
      
      The main new chunk of code is TcUnify.tcSub.  The unifier itself
      is unchanged, but it has moved from TcMType into TcUnify.  Also
      checkSigTyVars has moved from TcMonoType into TcUnify.
      Result: the new module, TcUnify, contains all stuff relevant
      to subsumption and unification.
      
      Unfortunately, there is now an inevitable loop between TcUnify
      and TcSimplify, but that's just too bad (a simple TcUnify.hi-boot
      file).
      
      
      All of this doesn't come entirely for free.  Here's the typechecker
      line count (INCLUDING comments)
      	Before	16,551
      	After	17,116
      5e3f005d
  22. 23 Aug, 2001 1 commit
  23. 25 Jun, 2001 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2001-06-25 08:09:57 by simonpj] · d069cec2
      simonpj authored
      ----------------
      	Squash newtypes
      	----------------
      
      This commit squashes newtypes and their coerces, from the typechecker
      onwards.  The original idea was that the coerces would not get in the
      way of optimising transformations, but despite much effort they continue
      to do so.   There's no very good reason to retain newtype information
      beyond the typechecker, so now we don't.
      
      Main points:
      
      * The post-typechecker suite of Type-manipulating functions is in
      types/Type.lhs, as before.   But now there's a new suite in types/TcType.lhs.
      The difference is that in the former, newtype are transparent, while in
      the latter they are opaque.  The typechecker should only import TcType,
      not Type.
      
      * The operations in TcType are all non-monadic, and most of them start with
      "tc" (e.g. tcSplitTyConApp).  All the monadic operations (used exclusively
      by the typechecker) are in a new module, typecheck/TcMType.lhs
      
      * I've grouped newtypes with predicate types, thus:
      	data Type = TyVarTy Tyvar | ....
      		  | SourceTy SourceType
      
      	data SourceType = NType TyCon [Type]
      			| ClassP Class [Type]
      			| IParam Type
      
      [SourceType was called PredType.]  This is a little wierd in some ways,
      because NTypes can't occur in qualified types.   However, the idea is that
      a SourceType is a type that is opaque to the type checker, but transparent
      to the rest of the compiler, and newtypes fit that as do implicit parameters
      and dictionaries.
      
      * Recursive newtypes still retain their coreces, exactly as before. If
      they were transparent we'd get a recursive type, and that would make
      various bits of the compiler diverge (e.g. things which do type comparison).
      
      * I've removed types/Unify.lhs (non-monadic type unifier and matcher),
      merging it into TcType.
      
      Ditto typecheck/TcUnify.lhs (monadic unifier), merging it into TcMType.
      d069cec2
  24. 13 Mar, 2001 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2001-03-13 14:58:25 by simonpj] · 788faebb
      simonpj authored
      ----------------
      	Nuke ClassContext
      	----------------
      
      This commit tidies up a long-standing inconsistency in GHC.
      The context of a class or instance decl used to be restricted
      to predicates of the form
      	C t1 .. tn
      with
      	type ClassContext = [(Class,[Type])]
      
      but everywhere else in the compiler we used
      
      	type ThetaType = [PredType]
      where PredType can be any sort of constraint (= predicate).
      
      The inconsistency actually led to a crash, when compiling
      	class (?x::Int) => C a where {}
      
      I've tidied all this up by nuking ClassContext altogether, and using
      PredType throughout.  Lots of modified files, but all in
      more-or-less trivial ways.
      
      I've also added a check that the context of a class or instance
      decl doesn't include a non-inheritable predicate like (?x::Int).
      
      Other things
      
       * rename constructor 'Class' from type TypeRep.Pred to 'ClassP'
         (makes it easier to grep for)
      
       * rename constructor HsPClass  => HsClassP
      		      HsPIParam => HsIParam
      788faebb
  25. 03 Jan, 2001 1 commit
    • simonmar's avatar
      [project @ 2001-01-03 11:18:51 by simonmar] · 20d387c4
      simonmar authored
      s/boxed/lifted/
      
      The typechecker's notion of "boxed" versus "unboxed" kind should
      really have been "unlifted" versus "lifted" instead.  It is illegal to
      unify an unlifted (but boxed) type with a polymorphic type variable,
      since an unlifted/boxed type is always assumed to be a pointer to the
      object itself, never a thunk or indirection.
      
      This commit removes isUnboxedType, and renames a bunch of things that
      were previously boxed/unboxed to unlifted/lifted.
      20d387c4
  26. 24 Nov, 2000 1 commit
  27. 20 Nov, 2000 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2000-11-20 14:48:52 by simonpj] · c271b647
      simonpj authored
      When renaming, typechecking an expression from the user
      interface, we may suck in declarations from interface
      files (e.g. the Prelude).  This commit takes account of that.
      
      To do so, I did some significant restructuring in TcModule,
      with consequential changes and tidy ups elsewhere in the type
      checker.  I think there should be fewer lines in total than before.
      c271b647
  28. 07 Nov, 2000 1 commit
  29. 27 Oct, 2000 1 commit
  30. 16 Oct, 2000 1 commit
  31. 12 Oct, 2000 2 commits
  32. 03 Oct, 2000 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2000-10-03 08:43:00 by simonpj] · 710e2074
      simonpj authored
      --------------------------------------
      	Adding generics		SLPJ Oct 2000
      	--------------------------------------
      
      This big commit adds Hinze/PJ-style generic class definitions, based
      on work by Andrei Serjantov.  For example:
      
        class Bin a where
          toBin   :: a -> [Int]
          fromBin :: [Int] -> (a, [Int])
      
          toBin {| Unit |}    Unit	  = []
          toBin {| a :+: b |} (Inl x)   = 0 : toBin x
          toBin {| a :+: b |} (Inr y)   = 1 : toBin y
          toBin {| a :*: b |} (x :*: y) = toBin x ++ toBin y
      
      
          fromBin {| Unit |}    bs      = (Unit, bs)
          fromBin {| a :+: b |} (0:bs)  = (Inl x, bs')    where (x,bs') = fromBin bs
          fromBin {| a :+: b |} (1:bs)  = (Inr y, bs')    where (y,bs') = fromBin bs
          fromBin {| a :*: b |} bs  	  = (x :*: y, bs'') where (x,bs' ) = fromBin bs
      							  (y,bs'') = fromBin bs'
      
      Now we can say simply
      
        instance Bin a => Bin [a]
      
      and the compiler will derive the appropriate code automatically.
      
      		(About 9k lines of diffs.  Ha!)
      
      
      Generic related things
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      
      * basicTypes/BasicTypes: The EP type (embedding-projection pairs)
      
      * types/TyCon:
      	An extra field in an algebraic tycon (genInfo)
      
      * types/Class, and hsSyn/HsBinds:
      	Each class op (or ClassOpSig) carries information about whether
      	it  	a) has no default method
      		b) has a polymorphic default method
      		c) has a generic default method
      	There's a new data type for this: Class.DefMeth
      
      * types/Generics:
      	A new module containing good chunk of the generic-related code
      	It has a .hi-boot file (alas).
      
      * typecheck/TcInstDcls, typecheck/TcClassDcl:
      	Most of the rest of the generics-related code
      
      * hsSyn/HsTypes:
      	New infix type form to allow types of the form
      		data a :+: b = Inl a | Inr b
      
      * parser/Parser.y, Lex.lhs, rename/ParseIface.y:
      	Deal with the new syntax
      
      * prelude/TysPrim, TysWiredIn:
      	Need to generate generic stuff for the wired-in TyCons
      
      * rename/RnSource RnBinds:
      	A rather gruesome hack to deal with scoping of type variables
      	from a generic patterns.  Details commented in the ClassDecl
      	case of RnSource.rnDecl.
      
      	Of course, there are many minor renamer consequences of the
      	other changes above.
      
      * lib/std/PrelBase.lhs
      	Data type declarations for Unit, :+:, :*:
      
      
      Slightly unrelated housekeeping
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      * hsSyn/HsDecls:
      	ClassDecls now carry the Names for their implied declarations
      	(superclass selectors, tycon, etc) in a list, rather than
      	laid out one by one.  This simplifies code between the parser
      	and the type checker.
      
      * prelude/PrelNames, TysWiredIn:
      	All the RdrNames are now together in PrelNames.
      
      * utils/ListSetOps:
      	Add finite mappings based on equality and association lists (Assoc a b)
      	Move stuff from List.lhs that is related
      710e2074
  33. 28 Sep, 2000 2 commits
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2000-09-28 16:49:36 by simonpj] · 5f8800e2
      simonpj authored
      Another wibble
      5f8800e2
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2000-09-28 13:04:14 by simonpj] · 861e836e
      simonpj authored
      ------------------------------------
      	   Mainly PredTypes (28 Sept 00)
      	------------------------------------
      
      Three things in this commit:
      
      	1.  Main thing: tidy up PredTypes
      	2.  Move all Keys into PrelNames
      	3.  Check for unboxed tuples in function args
      
      1. Tidy up PredTypes
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      The main thing in this commit is to modify the representation of Types
      so that they are a (much) better for the qualified-type world.  This
      should simplify Jeff's life as he proceeds with implicit parameters
      and functional dependencies.  In particular, PredType, introduced by
      Jeff, is now blessed and dignified with a place in TypeRep.lhs:
      
      	data PredType  = Class  Class [Type]
      		       | IParam Name  Type
      
      Consider these examples:
      	f :: (Eq a) => a -> Int
      	g :: (?x :: Int -> Int) => a -> Int
      	h :: (r\l) => {r} => {l::Int | r}
      
      Here the "Eq a" and "?x :: Int -> Int" and "r\l" are all called
      *predicates*, and are represented by a PredType.  (We don't support
      TREX records yet, but the setup is designed to expand to allow them.)
      
      In addition, Type gains an extra constructor:
      
      	data Type = .... | PredTy PredType
      
      so that PredType is injected directly into Type.  So the type
      	p => t
      is represented by
      	PredType p `FunTy` t
      
      I have deleted the hackish IPNote stuff; predicates are dealt with entirely
      through PredTys, not through NoteTy at all.
      
      
      2.  Move Keys into PrelNames
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      This is just a housekeeping operation. I've moved all the pre-assigned Uniques
      (aka Keys) from Unique.lhs into PrelNames.lhs.  I've also moved knowKeyRdrNames
      from PrelInfo down into PrelNames.  This localises in PrelNames lots of stuff
      about predefined names.  Previously one had to alter three files to add one,
      now only one.
      
      3.  Unboxed tuples
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      Add a static check for unboxed tuple arguments.  E.g.
      	data T = T (# Int, Int #)
      is illegal
      861e836e
  34. 14 Jul, 2000 1 commit
    • simonpj's avatar
      [project @ 2000-07-14 08:17:36 by simonpj] · 77a8c0db
      simonpj authored
      This commit completely re-does the kind-inference mechanism.
      Previously it was inter-wound with type inference, but that was
      always hard to understand, and it finally broke when we started
      checking for ambiguity when type-checking a type signature (details
      irrelevant).
      
      So now kind inference is more clearly separated, so that it never
      takes place at the same time as type inference.  The biggest change
      is in TcTyClsDecls, which does the kind inference for a group of
      type and class declarations.  It now contains comments to explain
      how it all works.
      
      There are also comments in TypeRep which describes the slightly
      tricky way in which we deal with the fact that kind 'type' (written
      '*') actually has 'boxed type' and 'unboxed type' as sub-kinds.
      The whole thing is a bit of a hack, because we don't really have 
      sub-kinding, but it's less of a hack than before.
      
      A lot of general tidying up happened at the same time.
      In particular, I removed some dead code here and there
      77a8c0db