TcSimplify.lhs 68.9 KB
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%
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% (c) The GRASP/AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 1992-1998
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%
\section[TcSimplify]{TcSimplify}

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\begin{code}
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module TcSimplify (
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	tcSimplifyInfer, tcSimplifyInferCheck,
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	tcSimplifyCheck, tcSimplifyRestricted,
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	tcSimplifyToDicts, tcSimplifyIPs, tcSimplifyTop,
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	tcSimplifyBracket,
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	tcSimplifyDeriv, tcSimplifyDefault,
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	bindInstsOfLocalFuns
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    ) where

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#include "HsVersions.h"
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import {-# SOURCE #-} TcUnify( unifyTauTy )
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import TcEnv		-- temp
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import HsSyn		( MonoBinds(..), HsExpr(..), andMonoBinds, andMonoBindList )
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import TcHsSyn		( TcExpr, TcId,
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			  TcMonoBinds, TcDictBinds
			)
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import TcRnMonad
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import Inst		( lookupInst, LookupInstResult(..),
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			  tyVarsOfInst, fdPredsOfInsts, fdPredsOfInst, newDicts,
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			  isDict, isClassDict, isLinearInst, linearInstType,
			  isStdClassTyVarDict, isMethodFor, isMethod,
			  instToId, tyVarsOfInsts,  cloneDict,
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			  ipNamesOfInsts, ipNamesOfInst, dictPred,
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			  instBindingRequired, instCanBeGeneralised,
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			  newDictsFromOld, tcInstClassOp,
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			  getDictClassTys, isTyVarDict,
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			  instLoc, zonkInst, tidyInsts, tidyMoreInsts,
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			  Inst, pprInsts, pprInstsInFull,
			  isIPDict, isInheritableInst
sof's avatar
sof committed
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			)
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import TcEnv		( tcGetGlobalTyVars, tcGetInstEnv, tcLookupId, findGlobals )
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import InstEnv		( lookupInstEnv, classInstEnv, InstLookupResult(..) )
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import TcMType		( zonkTcTyVarsAndFV, tcInstTyVars, checkAmbiguity )
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import TcType		( TcTyVar, TcTyVarSet, ThetaType, TyVarDetails(VanillaTv),
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			  mkClassPred, isOverloadedTy, mkTyConApp,
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			  mkTyVarTy, tcGetTyVar, isTyVarClassPred, mkTyVarTys,
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			  tyVarsOfPred )
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import Id		( idType, mkUserLocal )
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import Var		( TyVar )
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import Name		( getOccName, getSrcLoc )
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import NameSet		( NameSet, mkNameSet, elemNameSet )
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import Class		( classBigSig )
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import FunDeps		( oclose, grow, improve, pprEquationDoc )
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import PrelInfo		( isNumericClass, isCreturnableClass, isCcallishClass ) 
import PrelNames	( splitName, fstName, sndName )
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import Subst		( mkTopTyVarSubst, substTheta, substTy )
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import TysWiredIn	( unitTy, pairTyCon )
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import ErrUtils		( Message )
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import VarSet
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import VarEnv		( TidyEnv )
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import FiniteMap
import Outputable
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import ListSetOps	( equivClasses )
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import Util		( zipEqual )
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import List		( partition )
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import CmdLineOpts
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\end{code}


%************************************************************************
%*									*
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\subsection{NOTES}
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%*									*
%************************************************************************

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	--------------------------------------
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		Notes on quantification
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	--------------------------------------
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Suppose we are about to do a generalisation step.
We have in our hand

	G	the environment
	T	the type of the RHS
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	C	the constraints from that RHS
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The game is to figure out

	Q	the set of type variables over which to quantify
	Ct	the constraints we will *not* quantify over
	Cq	the constraints we will quantify over

So we're going to infer the type

	forall Q. Cq => T

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and float the constraints Ct further outwards.
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Here are the things that *must* be true:

 (A)	Q intersect fv(G) = EMPTY			limits how big Q can be
 (B)	Q superset fv(Cq union T) \ oclose(fv(G),C)	limits how small Q can be

(A) says we can't quantify over a variable that's free in the
environment.  (B) says we must quantify over all the truly free
variables in T, else we won't get a sufficiently general type.  We do
not *need* to quantify over any variable that is fixed by the free
vars of the environment G.

	BETWEEN THESE TWO BOUNDS, ANY Q WILL DO!

Example:	class H x y | x->y where ...

	fv(G) = {a}	C = {H a b, H c d}
			T = c -> b

	(A)  Q intersect {a} is empty
	(B)  Q superset {a,b,c,d} \ oclose({a}, C) = {a,b,c,d} \ {a,b} = {c,d}

	So Q can be {c,d}, {b,c,d}

Other things being equal, however, we'd like to quantify over as few
variables as possible: smaller types, fewer type applications, more
constraints can get into Ct instead of Cq.


-----------------------------------------
We will make use of

  fv(T)	 	the free type vars of T

  oclose(vs,C)	The result of extending the set of tyvars vs
		using the functional dependencies from C

  grow(vs,C)	The result of extend the set of tyvars vs
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		using all conceivable links from C.
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		E.g. vs = {a}, C = {H [a] b, K (b,Int) c, Eq e}
		Then grow(vs,C) = {a,b,c}

		Note that grow(vs,C) `superset` grow(vs,simplify(C))
		That is, simplfication can only shrink the result of grow.

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Notice that
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   oclose is conservative one way:      v `elem` oclose(vs,C) => v is definitely fixed by vs
   grow is conservative the other way:  if v might be fixed by vs => v `elem` grow(vs,C)


-----------------------------------------

Choosing Q
~~~~~~~~~~
Here's a good way to choose Q:

	Q = grow( fv(T), C ) \ oclose( fv(G), C )

That is, quantify over all variable that that MIGHT be fixed by the
call site (which influences T), but which aren't DEFINITELY fixed by
G.  This choice definitely quantifies over enough type variables,
albeit perhaps too many.

Why grow( fv(T), C ) rather than fv(T)?  Consider

	class H x y | x->y where ...
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	T = c->c
	C = (H c d)

  If we used fv(T) = {c} we'd get the type

	forall c. H c d => c -> b

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  And then if the fn was called at several different c's, each of
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  which fixed d differently, we'd get a unification error, because
  d isn't quantified.  Solution: quantify d.  So we must quantify
  everything that might be influenced by c.

Why not oclose( fv(T), C )?  Because we might not be able to see
all the functional dependencies yet:

	class H x y | x->y where ...
	instance H x y => Eq (T x y) where ...

	T = c->c
	C = (Eq (T c d))

  Now oclose(fv(T),C) = {c}, because the functional dependency isn't
  apparent yet, and that's wrong.  We must really quantify over d too.


There really isn't any point in quantifying over any more than
grow( fv(T), C ), because the call sites can't possibly influence
any other type variables.



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	--------------------------------------
		Notes on ambiguity
	--------------------------------------
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It's very hard to be certain when a type is ambiguous.  Consider

	class K x
	class H x y | x -> y
	instance H x y => K (x,y)

Is this type ambiguous?
	forall a b. (K (a,b), Eq b) => a -> a

Looks like it!  But if we simplify (K (a,b)) we get (H a b) and
now we see that a fixes b.  So we can't tell about ambiguity for sure
without doing a full simplification.  And even that isn't possible if
the context has some free vars that may get unified.  Urgle!

Here's another example: is this ambiguous?
	forall a b. Eq (T b) => a -> a
Not if there's an insance decl (with no context)
	instance Eq (T b) where ...

You may say of this example that we should use the instance decl right
away, but you can't always do that:

	class J a b where ...
	instance J Int b where ...

	f :: forall a b. J a b => a -> a

(Notice: no functional dependency in J's class decl.)
Here f's type is perfectly fine, provided f is only called at Int.
It's premature to complain when meeting f's signature, or even
when inferring a type for f.



However, we don't *need* to report ambiguity right away.  It'll always
show up at the call site.... and eventually at main, which needs special
treatment.  Nevertheless, reporting ambiguity promptly is an excellent thing.

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So here's the plan.  We WARN about probable ambiguity if
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	fv(Cq) is not a subset of  oclose(fv(T) union fv(G), C)

(all tested before quantification).
That is, all the type variables in Cq must be fixed by the the variables
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in the environment, or by the variables in the type.
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Notice that we union before calling oclose.  Here's an example:

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	class J a b c | a b -> c
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	fv(G) = {a}

Is this ambiguous?
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	forall b c. (J a b c) => b -> b
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Only if we union {a} from G with {b} from T before using oclose,
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do we see that c is fixed.
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It's a bit vague exactly which C we should use for this oclose call.  If we
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don't fix enough variables we might complain when we shouldn't (see
the above nasty example).  Nothing will be perfect.  That's why we can
only issue a warning.


Can we ever be *certain* about ambiguity?  Yes: if there's a constraint

	c in C such that fv(c) intersect (fv(G) union fv(T)) = EMPTY

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then c is a "bubble"; there's no way it can ever improve, and it's
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certainly ambiguous.  UNLESS it is a constant (sigh).  And what about
the nasty example?

	class K x
	class H x y | x -> y
	instance H x y => K (x,y)

Is this type ambiguous?
	forall a b. (K (a,b), Eq b) => a -> a

Urk.  The (Eq b) looks "definitely ambiguous" but it isn't.  What we are after
is a "bubble" that's a set of constraints

	Cq = Ca union Cq'  st  fv(Ca) intersect (fv(Cq') union fv(T) union fv(G)) = EMPTY

Hence another idea.  To decide Q start with fv(T) and grow it
by transitive closure in Cq (no functional dependencies involved).
Now partition Cq using Q, leaving the definitely-ambiguous and probably-ok.
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The definitely-ambiguous can then float out, and get smashed at top level
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(which squashes out the constants, like Eq (T a) above)


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	--------------------------------------
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		Notes on principal types
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    class C a where
      op :: a -> a
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    f x = let g y = op (y::Int) in True

Here the principal type of f is (forall a. a->a)
but we'll produce the non-principal type
    f :: forall a. C Int => a -> a


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		Notes on implicit parameters
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Question 1: can we "inherit" implicit parameters
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider this:

	f x = (x::Int) + ?y
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where f is *not* a top-level binding.
From the RHS of f we'll get the constraint (?y::Int).
There are two types we might infer for f:
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	f :: Int -> Int

(so we get ?y from the context of f's definition), or
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	f :: (?y::Int) => Int -> Int

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At first you might think the first was better, becuase then
?y behaves like a free variable of the definition, rather than
having to be passed at each call site.  But of course, the WHOLE
IDEA is that ?y should be passed at each call site (that's what
dynamic binding means) so we'd better infer the second.

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BOTTOM LINE: when *inferring types* you *must* quantify 
over implicit parameters. See the predicate isFreeWhenInferring.
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Question 2: type signatures
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
BUT WATCH OUT: When you supply a type signature, we can't force you
to quantify over implicit parameters.  For example:
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	(?x + 1) :: Int

This is perfectly reasonable.  We do not want to insist on

	(?x + 1) :: (?x::Int => Int)

That would be silly.  Here, the definition site *is* the occurrence site,
so the above strictures don't apply.  Hence the difference between
tcSimplifyCheck (which *does* allow implicit paramters to be inherited)
and tcSimplifyCheckBind (which does not).
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What about when you supply a type signature for a binding?
Is it legal to give the following explicit, user type 
signature to f, thus:
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	f :: Int -> Int
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	f x = (x::Int) + ?y
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At first sight this seems reasonable, but it has the nasty property
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that adding a type signature changes the dynamic semantics.
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Consider this:
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	(let f x = (x::Int) + ?y
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 	 in (f 3, f 3 with ?y=5))  with ?y = 6

		returns (3+6, 3+5)
vs
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	(let f :: Int -> Int
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	     f x = x + ?y
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	 in (f 3, f 3 with ?y=5))  with ?y = 6

		returns (3+6, 3+6)

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Indeed, simply inlining f (at the Haskell source level) would change the
dynamic semantics.
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Nevertheless, as Launchbury says (email Oct 01) we can't really give the
semantics for a Haskell program without knowing its typing, so if you 
change the typing you may change the semantics.

To make things consistent in all cases where we are *checking* against
a supplied signature (as opposed to inferring a type), we adopt the
rule: 

	a signature does not need to quantify over implicit params.

[This represents a (rather marginal) change of policy since GHC 5.02,
which *required* an explicit signature to quantify over all implicit
params for the reasons mentioned above.]

But that raises a new question.  Consider 

	Given (signature)	?x::Int
	Wanted (inferred)	?x::Int, ?y::Bool

Clearly we want to discharge the ?x and float the ?y out.  But
what is the criterion that distinguishes them?  Clearly it isn't
what free type variables they have.  The Right Thing seems to be
to float a constraint that
	neither mentions any of the quantified type variables
	nor any of the quantified implicit parameters

See the predicate isFreeWhenChecking.
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Question 3: monomorphism
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
There's a nasty corner case when the monomorphism restriction bites:
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	z = (x::Int) + ?y

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The argument above suggests that we *must* generalise
over the ?y parameter, to get
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	z :: (?y::Int) => Int,
but the monomorphism restriction says that we *must not*, giving
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	z :: Int.
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Why does the momomorphism restriction say this?  Because if you have

	let z = x + ?y in z+z

you might not expect the addition to be done twice --- but it will if
we follow the argument of Question 2 and generalise over ?y.



Possible choices
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(A) Always generalise over implicit parameters
    Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
	be generalised

    Consequences:
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	* Inlining remains valid
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	* No unexpected loss of sharing
	* But simple bindings like
		z = ?y + 1
	  will be rejected, unless you add an explicit type signature
	  (to avoid the monomorphism restriction)
		z :: (?y::Int) => Int
		z = ?y + 1
	  This seems unacceptable

(B) Monomorphism restriction "wins"
    Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
	be generalised
    Always generalise over implicit parameters *except* for bindings
	that fall under the monomorphism restriction

    Consequences
	* Inlining isn't valid in general
	* No unexpected loss of sharing
	* Simple bindings like
		z = ?y + 1
	  accepted (get value of ?y from binding site)

(C) Always generalise over implicit parameters
    Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
	be generalised, EXCEPT for implicit parameters
    Consequences
	* Inlining remains valid
	* Unexpected loss of sharing (from the extra generalisation)
	* Simple bindings like
		z = ?y + 1
	  accepted (get value of ?y from occurrence sites)


Discussion
~~~~~~~~~~
None of these choices seems very satisfactory.  But at least we should
decide which we want to do.
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It's really not clear what is the Right Thing To Do.  If you see
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	z = (x::Int) + ?y
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would you expect the value of ?y to be got from the *occurrence sites*
of 'z', or from the valuue of ?y at the *definition* of 'z'?  In the
case of function definitions, the answer is clearly the former, but
less so in the case of non-fucntion definitions.   On the other hand,
if we say that we get the value of ?y from the definition site of 'z',
then inlining 'z' might change the semantics of the program.
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Choice (C) really says "the monomorphism restriction doesn't apply
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to implicit parameters".  Which is fine, but remember that every
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innocent binding 'x = ...' that mentions an implicit parameter in
the RHS becomes a *function* of that parameter, called at each
use of 'x'.  Now, the chances are that there are no intervening 'with'
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clauses that bind ?y, so a decent compiler should common up all
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those function calls.  So I think I strongly favour (C).  Indeed,
one could make a similar argument for abolishing the monomorphism
restriction altogether.
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BOTTOM LINE: we choose (B) at present.  See tcSimplifyRestricted
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%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{tcSimplifyInfer}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

tcSimplify is called when we *inferring* a type.  Here's the overall game plan:

    1. Compute Q = grow( fvs(T), C )
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    2. Partition C based on Q into Ct and Cq.  Notice that ambiguous
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       predicates will end up in Ct; we deal with them at the top level
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    3. Try improvement, using functional dependencies
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    4. If Step 3 did any unification, repeat from step 1
       (Unification can change the result of 'grow'.)

Note: we don't reduce dictionaries in step 2.  For example, if we have
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Eq (a,b), we don't simplify to (Eq a, Eq b).  So Q won't be different
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after step 2.  However note that we may therefore quantify over more
type variables than we absolutely have to.

For the guts, we need a loop, that alternates context reduction and
improvement with unification.  E.g. Suppose we have

	class C x y | x->y where ...
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and tcSimplify is called with:
	(C Int a, C Int b)
Then improvement unifies a with b, giving
	(C Int a, C Int a)

If we need to unify anything, we rattle round the whole thing all over
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again.
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\begin{code}
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tcSimplifyInfer
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	:: SDoc
	-> TcTyVarSet		-- fv(T); type vars
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	-> [Inst]		-- Wanted
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	-> TcM ([TcTyVar],	-- Tyvars to quantify (zonked)
		TcDictBinds,	-- Bindings
		[TcId])		-- Dict Ids that must be bound here (zonked)
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	-- Any free (escaping) Insts are tossed into the environment
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\end{code}
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\begin{code}
tcSimplifyInfer doc tau_tvs wanted_lie
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  = inferLoop doc (varSetElems tau_tvs)
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	      wanted_lie		`thenM` \ (qtvs, frees, binds, irreds) ->
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	-- Check for non-generalisable insts
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    mappM_ addCantGenErr (filter (not . instCanBeGeneralised) irreds)	`thenM_`
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    extendLIEs frees							`thenM_`
    returnM (qtvs, binds, map instToId irreds)
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inferLoop doc tau_tvs wanteds
  =   	-- Step 1
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    zonkTcTyVarsAndFV tau_tvs		`thenM` \ tau_tvs' ->
    mappM zonkInst wanteds		`thenM` \ wanteds' ->
    tcGetGlobalTyVars			`thenM` \ gbl_tvs ->
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    let
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 	preds = fdPredsOfInsts wanteds'
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	qtvs  = grow preds tau_tvs' `minusVarSet` oclose preds gbl_tvs
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	try_me inst
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	  | isFreeWhenInferring qtvs inst = Free
	  | isClassDict inst 		  = DontReduceUnlessConstant	-- Dicts
	  | otherwise	    		  = ReduceMe 			-- Lits and Methods
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    in
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		-- Step 2
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    reduceContext doc try_me [] wanteds'    `thenM` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
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		-- Step 3
    if no_improvement then
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	returnM (varSetElems qtvs, frees, binds, irreds)
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    else
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	-- If improvement did some unification, we go round again.  There
	-- are two subtleties:
	--   a) We start again with irreds, not wanteds
	-- 	Using an instance decl might have introduced a fresh type variable
	--	which might have been unified, so we'd get an infinite loop
	--	if we started again with wanteds!  See example [LOOP]
	--
	--   b) It's also essential to re-process frees, because unification
	--      might mean that a type variable that looked free isn't now.
	--
	-- Hence the (irreds ++ frees)

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	-- However, NOTICE that when we are done, we might have some bindings, but
	-- the final qtvs might be empty.  See [NO TYVARS] below.
				
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	inferLoop doc tau_tvs (irreds ++ frees)	`thenM` \ (qtvs1, frees1, binds1, irreds1) ->
	returnM (qtvs1, frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1, irreds1)
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\end{code}
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Example [LOOP]

	class If b t e r | b t e -> r
	instance If T t e t
	instance If F t e e
	class Lte a b c | a b -> c where lte :: a -> b -> c
	instance Lte Z b T
	instance (Lte a b l,If l b a c) => Max a b c

Wanted:	Max Z (S x) y

Then we'll reduce using the Max instance to:
	(Lte Z (S x) l, If l (S x) Z y)
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and improve by binding l->T, after which we can do some reduction
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on both the Lte and If constraints.  What we *can't* do is start again
with (Max Z (S x) y)!

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[NO TYVARS]

	class Y a b | a -> b where
	    y :: a -> X b
	
	instance Y [[a]] a where
	    y ((x:_):_) = X x
	
	k :: X a -> X a -> X a

	g :: Num a => [X a] -> [X a]
	g xs = h xs
	    where
	    h ys = ys ++ map (k (y [[0]])) xs

The excitement comes when simplifying the bindings for h.  Initially
try to simplify {y @ [[t1]] t2, 0 @ t1}, with initial qtvs = {t2}.
From this we get t1:=:t2, but also various bindings.  We can't forget
the bindings (because of [LOOP]), but in fact t1 is what g is
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635
636
polymorphic in.  

The net effect of [NO TYVARS] 
637

638
\begin{code}
639
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isFreeWhenInferring :: TyVarSet -> Inst	-> Bool
isFreeWhenInferring qtvs inst
641
642
643
  =  isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst		-- Constrains no quantified vars
  && isInheritableInst inst		-- And no implicit parameter involved
					-- (see "Notes on implicit parameters")
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650
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653

isFreeWhenChecking :: TyVarSet	-- Quantified tyvars
	 	   -> NameSet	-- Quantified implicit parameters
		   -> Inst -> Bool
isFreeWhenChecking qtvs ips inst
  =  isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst
  && isFreeWrtIPs    ips inst

isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst = not (tyVarsOfInst inst `intersectsVarSet` qtvs)
isFreeWrtIPs     ips inst = not (any (`elemNameSet` ips) (ipNamesOfInst inst))
654
\end{code}
655

656

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659
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%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{tcSimplifyCheck}
%*									*
%************************************************************************
662

663
@tcSimplifyCheck@ is used when we know exactly the set of variables
664
we are going to quantify over.  For example, a class or instance declaration.
665
666

\begin{code}
667
tcSimplifyCheck
668
	 :: SDoc
669
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	 -> [TcTyVar]		-- Quantify over these
	 -> [Inst]		-- Given
671
672
	 -> [Inst]		-- Wanted
	 -> TcM TcDictBinds	-- Bindings
673

674
-- tcSimplifyCheck is used when checking expression type signatures,
675
-- class decls, instance decls etc.
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--
-- NB: tcSimplifyCheck does not consult the
--	global type variables in the environment; so you don't
--	need to worry about setting them before calling tcSimplifyCheck
680
tcSimplifyCheck doc qtvs givens wanted_lie
681
  = tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs
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		 givens wanted_lie	`thenM` \ (qtvs', binds) ->
    returnM binds
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  where
    get_qtvs = zonkTcTyVarsAndFV qtvs


-- tcSimplifyInferCheck is used when we know the constraints we are to simplify
-- against, but we don't know the type variables over which we are going to quantify.
-- This happens when we have a type signature for a mutually recursive group
tcSimplifyInferCheck
692
	 :: SDoc
693
694
	 -> TcTyVarSet		-- fv(T)
	 -> [Inst]		-- Given
695
	 -> [Inst]		-- Wanted
696
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	 -> TcM ([TcTyVar],	-- Variables over which to quantify
		 TcDictBinds)	-- Bindings

tcSimplifyInferCheck doc tau_tvs givens wanted_lie
700
  = tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs givens wanted_lie
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  where
	-- Figure out which type variables to quantify over
	-- You might think it should just be the signature tyvars,
	-- but in bizarre cases you can get extra ones
	-- 	f :: forall a. Num a => a -> a
	--	f x = fst (g (x, head [])) + 1
	--	g a b = (b,a)
	-- Here we infer g :: forall a b. a -> b -> (b,a)
	-- We don't want g to be monomorphic in b just because
	-- f isn't quantified over b.
    all_tvs = varSetElems (tau_tvs `unionVarSet` tyVarsOfInsts givens)

713
714
    get_qtvs = zonkTcTyVarsAndFV all_tvs	`thenM` \ all_tvs' ->
	       tcGetGlobalTyVars		`thenM` \ gbl_tvs ->
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717
	       let
	          qtvs = all_tvs' `minusVarSet` gbl_tvs
			-- We could close gbl_tvs, but its not necessary for
718
			-- soundness, and it'll only affect which tyvars, not which
719
720
			-- dictionaries, we quantify over
	       in
721
	       returnM qtvs
722
723
724
725
\end{code}

Here is the workhorse function for all three wrappers.

726
\begin{code}
727
tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs givens wanted_lie
728
  = check_loop givens wanted_lie	`thenM` \ (qtvs, frees, binds, irreds) ->
729

730
	-- Complain about any irreducible ones
731
    complainCheck doc givens irreds		`thenM_`
732

733
	-- Done
734
735
    extendLIEs frees				`thenM_`
    returnM (qtvs, binds)
736

737
  where
738
739
    ip_set = mkNameSet (ipNamesOfInsts givens)

740
741
    check_loop givens wanteds
      =		-- Step 1
742
743
744
    	mappM zonkInst givens	`thenM` \ givens' ->
    	mappM zonkInst wanteds	`thenM` \ wanteds' ->
    	get_qtvs 			`thenM` \ qtvs' ->
745

746
747
748
749
 		    -- Step 2
    	let
 	    -- When checking against a given signature we always reduce
 	    -- until we find a match against something given, or can't reduce
750
751
 	    try_me inst | isFreeWhenChecking qtvs' ip_set inst = Free
 			| otherwise  			       = ReduceMe
752
    	in
753
    	reduceContext doc try_me givens' wanteds'	`thenM` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
754

755
756
 		    -- Step 3
    	if no_improvement then
757
 	    returnM (varSetElems qtvs', frees, binds, irreds)
758
    	else
759
760
 	    check_loop givens' (irreds ++ frees) 	`thenM` \ (qtvs', frees1, binds1, irreds1) ->
 	    returnM (qtvs', frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1, irreds1)
761
762
763
\end{code}


764
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768
769
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771
%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{tcSimplifyRestricted}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

\begin{code}
tcSimplifyRestricted 	-- Used for restricted binding groups
772
			-- i.e. ones subject to the monomorphism restriction
773
	:: SDoc
774
	-> TcTyVarSet		-- Free in the type of the RHSs
775
	-> [Inst]		-- Free in the RHSs
776
777
778
	-> TcM ([TcTyVar],	-- Tyvars to quantify (zonked)
		TcDictBinds)	-- Bindings

779
tcSimplifyRestricted doc tau_tvs wanteds
780
  = 	-- First squash out all methods, to find the constrained tyvars
781
   	-- We can't just take the free vars of wanted_lie because that'll
782
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784
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786
787
788
	-- have methods that may incidentally mention entirely unconstrained variables
	--  	e.g. a call to 	f :: Eq a => a -> b -> b
	-- Here, b is unconstrained.  A good example would be
	--	foo = f (3::Int)
	-- We want to infer the polymorphic type
	--	foo :: forall b. b -> b
    let
789
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793
	try_me inst = ReduceMe		-- Reduce as far as we can.  Don't stop at
					-- dicts; the idea is to get rid of as many type
					-- variables as possible, and we don't want to stop
					-- at (say) Monad (ST s), because that reduces
					-- immediately, with no constraint on s.
794
    in
795
    simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds		`thenM` \ (_, _, constrained_dicts) ->
796
797

	-- Next, figure out the tyvars we will quantify over
798
799
    zonkTcTyVarsAndFV (varSetElems tau_tvs)	`thenM` \ tau_tvs' ->
    tcGetGlobalTyVars				`thenM` \ gbl_tvs ->
800
    let
801
	constrained_tvs = tyVarsOfInsts constrained_dicts
802
	qtvs = (tau_tvs' `minusVarSet` oclose (fdPredsOfInsts constrained_dicts) gbl_tvs)
803
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809
			 `minusVarSet` constrained_tvs
    in

	-- The first step may have squashed more methods than
	-- necessary, so try again, this time knowing the exact
	-- set of type variables to quantify over.
	--
810
	-- We quantify only over constraints that are captured by qtvs;
811
	-- these will just be a subset of non-dicts.  This in contrast
812
	-- to normal inference (using isFreeWhenInferring) in which we quantify over
813
	-- all *non-inheritable* constraints too.  This implements choice
814
	-- (B) under "implicit parameter and monomorphism" above.
815
816
817
818
	--
	-- Remember that we may need to do *some* simplification, to
	-- (for example) squash {Monad (ST s)} into {}.  It's not enough
	-- just to float all constraints
819
    mappM zonkInst wanteds			`thenM` \ wanteds' ->
820
    let
821
822
        try_me inst | isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst = Free
	            | otherwise                 = ReduceMe
823
    in
824
    reduceContext doc try_me [] wanteds'	`thenM` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
825
826
    ASSERT( no_improvement )
    ASSERT( null irreds )
827
	-- No need to loop because simpleReduceLoop will have
828
829
	-- already done any improvement necessary

830
831
    extendLIEs frees				`thenM_`
    returnM (varSetElems qtvs, binds)
832
833
\end{code}

834
835
836
837
838
839
840

%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{tcSimplifyToDicts}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

841
842
843
844
On the LHS of transformation rules we only simplify methods and constants,
getting dictionaries.  We want to keep all of them unsimplified, to serve
as the available stuff for the RHS of the rule.

845
The same thing is used for specialise pragmas. Consider
846

847
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849
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851
852
853
854
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856
857
858
	f :: Num a => a -> a
	{-# SPECIALISE f :: Int -> Int #-}
	f = ...

The type checker generates a binding like:

	f_spec = (f :: Int -> Int)

and we want to end up with

	f_spec = _inline_me_ (f Int dNumInt)

859
But that means that we must simplify the Method for f to (f Int dNumInt)!
860
861
So tcSimplifyToDicts squeezes out all Methods.

862
863
864
865
866
IMPORTANT NOTE:  we *don't* want to do superclass commoning up.  Consider

	fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b
	{-# RULES "foo"  fromIntegral = id :: Int -> Int #-}

867
Here, a=b=Int, and Num Int is a superclass of Integral Int. But we *dont*
868
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870
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872
873
874
875
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878
879
want to get

	forall dIntegralInt.
	fromIntegral Int Int dIntegralInt (scsel dIntegralInt) = id Int

because the scsel will mess up matching.  Instead we want

	forall dIntegralInt, dNumInt.
	fromIntegral Int Int dIntegralInt dNumInt = id Int

Hence "DontReduce NoSCs"

880
\begin{code}
881
882
883
tcSimplifyToDicts :: [Inst] -> TcM (TcDictBinds)
tcSimplifyToDicts wanteds
  = simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds		`thenM` \ (frees, binds, irreds) ->
884
	-- Since try_me doesn't look at types, we don't need to
885
	-- do any zonking, so it's safe to call reduceContext directly
886
    ASSERT( null frees )
887
888
    extendLIEs irreds		`thenM_`
    returnM binds
889

890
  where
891
    doc = text "tcSimplifyToDicts"
892
893

	-- Reduce methods and lits only; stop as soon as we get a dictionary
894
895
    try_me inst	| isDict inst = DontReduce NoSCs
		| otherwise   = ReduceMe
896
897
\end{code}

898

899
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903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918

tcSimplifyBracket is used when simplifying the constraints arising from
a Template Haskell bracket [| ... |].  We want to check that there aren't
any constraints that can't be satisfied (e.g. Show Foo, where Foo has no
Show instance), but we aren't otherwise interested in the results.
Nor do we care about ambiguous dictionaries etc.  We will type check
this bracket again at its usage site.

\begin{code}
tcSimplifyBracket :: [Inst] -> TcM ()
tcSimplifyBracket wanteds
  = simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds		`thenM_`
    returnM ()

  where
    doc     = text "tcSimplifyBracket"
    try_me inst	= ReduceMe
\end{code}


919
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921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{Filtering at a dynamic binding}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

When we have
	let ?x = R in B

we must discharge all the ?x constraints from B.  We also do an improvement
929
step; if we have ?x::t1 and ?x::t2 we must unify t1, t2.
930
931
932
933
934
935

Actually, the constraints from B might improve the types in ?x. For example

	f :: (?x::Int) => Char -> Char
	let ?x = 3 in f 'c'

936
then the constraint (?x::Int) arising from the call to f will
937
force the binding for ?x to be of type Int.
938
939

\begin{code}
940
tcSimplifyIPs :: [Inst]		-- The implicit parameters bound here
941
942
943
944
945
946
	      -> [Inst]		-- Wanted
	      -> TcM TcDictBinds
tcSimplifyIPs given_ips wanteds
  = simpl_loop given_ips wanteds	`thenM` \ (frees, binds) ->
    extendLIEs frees			`thenM_`
    returnM binds
947
  where
948
949
    doc	     = text "tcSimplifyIPs" <+> ppr given_ips
    ip_set   = mkNameSet (ipNamesOfInsts given_ips)
950

951
	-- Simplify any methods that mention the implicit parameter
952
953
    try_me inst | isFreeWrtIPs ip_set inst = Free
		| otherwise		   = ReduceMe
954
955

    simpl_loop givens wanteds
956
957
      = mappM zonkInst givens		`thenM` \ givens' ->
        mappM zonkInst wanteds		`thenM` \ wanteds' ->
958

959
        reduceContext doc try_me givens' wanteds'    `thenM` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
960
961
962

        if no_improvement then
	    ASSERT( null irreds )
963
	    returnM (frees, binds)
964
	else
965
966
	    simpl_loop givens' (irreds ++ frees)	`thenM` \ (frees1, binds1) ->
	    returnM (frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1)
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
\end{code}


%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection[binds-for-local-funs]{@bindInstsOfLocalFuns@}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

When doing a binding group, we may have @Insts@ of local functions.
For example, we might have...
\begin{verbatim}
let f x = x + 1	    -- orig local function (overloaded)
    f.1 = f Int	    -- two instances of f
    f.2 = f Float
 in
    (f.1 5, f.2 6.7)
\end{verbatim}
The point is: we must drop the bindings for @f.1@ and @f.2@ here,
where @f@ is in scope; those @Insts@ must certainly not be passed
upwards towards the top-level.	If the @Insts@ were binding-ified up
there, they would have unresolvable references to @f@.

We pass in an @init_lie@ of @Insts@ and a list of locally-bound @Ids@.
For each method @Inst@ in the @init_lie@ that mentions one of the
@Ids@, we create a binding.  We return the remaining @Insts@ (in an
@LIE@), as well as the @HsBinds@ generated.

\begin{code}
996
bindInstsOfLocalFuns ::	[Inst] -> [TcId] -> TcM TcMonoBinds
997

998
bindInstsOfLocalFuns wanteds local_ids
999
  | null overloaded_ids
1000
	-- Common case
1001
1002
  = extendLIEs wanteds		`thenM_`
    returnM EmptyMonoBinds
1003
1004

  | otherwise
1005
  = simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds		`thenM` \ (frees, binds, irreds) ->
1006
    ASSERT( null irreds )
1007
1008
    extendLIEs frees		`thenM_`
    returnM binds
1009
1010
1011
  where
    doc		     = text "bindInsts" <+> ppr local_ids
    overloaded_ids   = filter is_overloaded local_ids
1012
    is_overloaded id = isOverloadedTy (idType id)
1013
1014

    overloaded_set = mkVarSet overloaded_ids	-- There can occasionally be a lot of them
1015
						-- so it's worth building a set, so that
1016
1017
						-- lookup (in isMethodFor) is faster

1018
    try_me inst | isMethodFor overloaded_set inst = ReduceMe
1019
		| otherwise		          = Free
1020
\end{code}
1021

1022

1023
1024
%************************************************************************
%*									*
1025
\subsection{Data types for the reduction mechanism}
1026
1027
1028
%*									*
%************************************************************************

1029
1030
The main control over context reduction is here

1031
\begin{code}
1032
data WhatToDo
1033
1034
 = ReduceMe		-- Try to reduce this
			-- If there's no instance, behave exactly like
1035
1036
			-- DontReduce: add the inst to
			-- the irreductible ones, but don't
1037
1038
			-- produce an error message of any kind.
			-- It might be quite legitimate such as (Eq a)!
1039

1040
 | DontReduce WantSCs		-- Return as irreducible
1041
1042
1043

 | DontReduceUnlessConstant	-- Return as irreducible unless it can
				-- be reduced to a constant in one step
1044

1045
 | Free			  -- Return as free
1046

1047
1048
1049
reduceMe :: Inst -> WhatToDo
reduceMe inst = ReduceMe

1050
1051
data WantSCs = NoSCs | AddSCs	-- Tells whether we should add the superclasses
				-- of a predicate when adding it to the avails
1052
\end{code}
1053
1054
1055
1056



\begin{code}
1057
type Avails = FiniteMap Inst Avail
1058

1059
data Avail
1060
1061
  = IsFree		-- Used for free Insts
  | Irred		-- Used for irreducible dictionaries,
1062
1063
			-- which are going to be lambda bound

1064
  | Given TcId 		-- Used for dictionaries for which we have a binding
1065
			-- e.g. those "given" in a signature
1066
	  Bool		-- True <=> actually consumed (splittable IPs only)
1067
1068

  | NoRhs 		-- Used for Insts like (CCallable f)
1069
1070
			-- where no witness is required.

1071
  | Rhs 		-- Used when there is a RHS
1072
1073
	TcExpr	 	-- The RHS
	[Inst]		-- Insts free in the RHS; we need these too
1074

1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
  | Linear 		-- Splittable Insts only.
	Int		-- The Int is always 2 or more; indicates how
			-- many copies are required
	Inst 		-- The splitter
	Avail		-- Where the "master copy" is

  | LinRhss		-- Splittable Insts only; this is used only internally
			-- 	by extractResults, where a Linear 
			--	is turned into an LinRhss
	[TcExpr]	-- A supply of suitable RHSs

1086
pprAvails avails = vcat [sep [ppr inst, nest 2 (equals <+> pprAvail avail)]
1087
			| (inst,avail) <- fmToList avails ]
1088
1089
1090
1091

instance Outputable Avail where
    ppr = pprAvail

1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
pprAvail NoRhs	       	= text "<no rhs>"
pprAvail IsFree	       	= text "Free"
pprAvail Irred	       	= text "Irred"
pprAvail (Given x b)   	= text "Given" <+> ppr x <+> 
		 	  if b then text "(used)" else empty
pprAvail (Rhs rhs bs)   = text "Rhs" <+> ppr rhs <+> braces (ppr bs)
pprAvail (Linear n i a) = text "Linear" <+> ppr n <+> braces (ppr i) <+> ppr a
pprAvail (LinRhss rhss) = text "LinRhss" <+> ppr rhss
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
\end{code}

Extracting the bindings from a bunch of Avails.
The bindings do *not* come back sorted in dependency order.
We assume that they'll be wrapped in a big Rec, so that the
dependency analyser can sort them out later

The loop startes
\begin{code}
1109
extractResults :: Avails
1110
	       -> [Inst]		-- Wanted
1111
	       -> TcM (TcDictBinds, 	-- Bindings
1112
1113
			  [Inst],	-- Irreducible ones
			  [Inst])	-- Free ones
1114

1115
1116
extractResults avails wanteds
  = go avails EmptyMonoBinds [] [] wanteds
1117
  where
1118
    go avails binds irreds frees [] 
1119
      = returnM (binds, irreds, frees)
1120

1121
    go avails binds irreds frees (w:ws)
1122
      = case lookupFM avails w of
1123
1124
	  Nothing    -> pprTrace "Urk: extractResults" (ppr w) $
			go avails binds irreds frees ws
1125

1126
1127
1128
	  Just NoRhs  -> go avails		 binds irreds     frees     ws
	  Just IsFree -> go (add_free avails w)  binds irreds     (w:frees) ws
	  Just Irred  -> go (add_given avails w) binds (w:irreds) frees     ws
1129

1130
	  Just (Given id _) -> go avails new_binds irreds frees ws
1131
			    where
1132
1133
1134
1135
			       new_binds | id == instToId w = binds
					 | otherwise        = addBind binds w (HsVar id)
		-- The sought Id can be one of the givens, via a superclass chain
		-- and then we definitely don't want to generate an x=x binding!
1136

1137
1138
1139
1140
	  Just (Rhs rhs ws') -> go (add_given avails w) new_binds irreds frees (ws' ++ ws)
			     where
				new_binds = addBind binds w rhs

1141
	  Just (Linear n split_inst avail)	-- Transform Linear --> LinRhss
1142
1143
	    -> get_root irreds frees avail w		`thenM` \ (irreds', frees', root_id) ->
	       split n (instToId split_inst) root_id w	`thenM` \ (binds', rhss) ->
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
	       go (addToFM avails w (LinRhss rhss))
		  (binds `AndMonoBinds` binds')
		  irreds' frees' (split_inst : w : ws)

	  Just (LinRhss (rhs:rhss))		-- Consume one of the Rhss
1149
1150
1151
1152
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		-> go new_avails new_binds irreds frees ws
		where		
		   new_binds  = addBind binds w rhs
		   new_avails = addToFM avails w (LinRhss rhss)

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    get_root irreds frees (Given id _) w = returnM (irreds, frees, id)
    get_root irreds frees Irred	       w = cloneDict w	`thenM` \ w' ->
					   returnM (w':irreds, frees, instToId w')
    get_root irreds frees IsFree       w = cloneDict w	`thenM` \ w' ->
					   returnM (irreds, w':frees, instToId w')
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    add_given avails w 
	| instBindingRequired w = addToFM avails w (Given (instToId w) True)
	| otherwise		= addToFM avails w NoRhs
	-- NB: make sure that CCallable/CReturnable use NoRhs rather
	--	than Given, else we end up with bogus bindings.

    add_free avails w | isMethod w = avails
		      | otherwise  = add_given avails w
	-- NB: Hack alert!  
	-- Do *not* replace Free by Given if it's a method.
	-- The following situation shows why this is bad:
	--	truncate :: forall a. RealFrac a => forall b. Integral b => a -> b
	-- From an application (truncate f i) we get
	--	t1 = truncate at f
	--	t2 = t1 at i
	-- If we have also have a second occurrence of truncate, we get
	--	t3 = truncate at f
	--	t4 = t3 at i
	-- When simplifying with i,f free, we might still notice that
	--   t1=t3; but alas, the binding for t2 (which mentions t1)
	--   will continue to float out!
	-- (split n i a) returns: n rhss
	--			  auxiliary bindings
	--			  1 or 0 insts to add to irreds


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split :: Int -> TcId -> TcId -> Inst 
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      -> TcM (TcDictBinds, [TcExpr])
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-- (split n split_id root_id wanted) returns
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--	* a list of 'n' expressions, all of which witness 'avail'
--	* a bunch of auxiliary bindings to support these expressions
--	* one or zero insts needed to witness the whole lot
--	  (maybe be zero if the initial Inst is a Given)
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--
-- NB: 'wanted' is just a template

split n split_id root_id wanted
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  = go n
  where
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    ty      = linearInstType wanted
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    pair_ty = mkTyConApp pairTyCon [ty,ty]
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    id      = instToId wanted
    occ     = getOccName id
    loc     = getSrcLoc id
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    go 1 = returnM (EmptyMonoBinds, [HsVar root_id])
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    go n = go ((n+1) `div` 2)		`thenM` \ (binds1, rhss) ->
	   expand n rhss		`thenM` \ (binds2, rhss') ->
	   returnM (binds1 `AndMonoBinds` binds2, rhss')
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	-- (expand n rhss) 
	-- Given ((n+1)/2) rhss, make n rhss, using auxiliary bindings
	--  e.g.  expand 3 [rhs1, rhs2]
	--	  = ( { x = split rhs1 },
	--	      [fst x, snd x, rhs2] )
    expand n rhss
	| n `rem` 2 == 0 = go rhss 	-- n is even
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	| otherwise  	 = go (tail rhss)	`thenM` \ (binds', rhss') ->
			   returnM (binds', head rhss : rhss')
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	where
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	  go rhss = mapAndUnzipM do_one rhss	`thenM` \ (binds', rhss') ->
		    returnM (andMonoBindList binds', concat rhss')
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	  do_one rhs = newUnique 			`thenM` \ uniq -> 
		       tcLookupId fstName		`thenM` \ fst_id ->
		       tcLookupId sndName		`thenM` \ snd_id ->
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		       let 
			  x = mkUserLocal occ uniq pair_ty loc
		       in
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		       returnM (VarMonoBind x (mk_app split_id rhs),
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				    [mk_fs_app fst_id ty x, mk_fs_app snd_id ty x])

mk_fs_app id ty var = HsVar id `TyApp` [ty,ty] `HsApp` HsVar var

mk_app id rhs = HsApp (HsVar id) rhs

addBind binds inst rhs = binds `AndMonoBinds` VarMonoBind (instToId inst) rhs
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\end{code}


%************************************************************************
%*									*
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\subsection[reduce]{@reduce@}
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%*									*
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%************************************************************************

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When the "what to do" predicate doesn't depend on the quantified type variables,
matters are easier.  We don't need to do any zonking, unless the improvement step
does something, in which case we zonk before iterating.

The "given" set is always empty.
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\begin{code}
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