TcSimplify.lhs 65.8 KB
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%
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% (c) The GRASP/AQUA Project, Glasgow University, 1992-1998
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%
\section[TcSimplify]{TcSimplify}

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\begin{code}
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module TcSimplify (
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	tcSimplifyInfer, tcSimplifyInferCheck,
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	tcSimplifyCheck, tcSimplifyRestricted,
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	tcSimplifyToDicts, tcSimplifyIPs, tcSimplifyTop,
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	tcSimplifyDeriv, tcSimplifyDefault,
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	bindInstsOfLocalFuns
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    ) where

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#include "HsVersions.h"
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import {-# SOURCE #-} TcUnify( unifyTauTy )

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import HsSyn		( MonoBinds(..), HsExpr(..), andMonoBinds, andMonoBindList )
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import TcHsSyn		( TcExpr, TcId,
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			  TcMonoBinds, TcDictBinds
			)
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import TcMonad
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import Inst		( lookupInst, LookupInstResult(..),
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			  tyVarsOfInst, predsOfInsts, predsOfInst, newDicts,
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			  isDict, isClassDict, isLinearInst, linearInstType,
			  isStdClassTyVarDict, isMethodFor, isMethod,
			  instToId, tyVarsOfInsts,  cloneDict,
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			  ipNamesOfInsts, ipNamesOfInst, dictPred,
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			  instBindingRequired, instCanBeGeneralised,
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			  newDictsFromOld, newMethodAtLoc,
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			  getDictClassTys, isTyVarDict,
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			  instLoc, pprInst, zonkInst, tidyInsts, tidyMoreInsts,
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			  Inst, LIE, pprInsts, pprInstsInFull,
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			  mkLIE, lieToList
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			)
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import TcEnv		( tcGetGlobalTyVars, tcGetInstEnv, tcLookupGlobalId )
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import InstEnv		( lookupInstEnv, classInstEnv, InstLookupResult(..) )
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import TcMType		( zonkTcTyVarsAndFV, tcInstTyVars, checkAmbiguity )
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import TcType		( TcTyVar, TcTyVarSet, ThetaType, TyVarDetails(VanillaTv),
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			  mkClassPred, isOverloadedTy, mkTyConApp,
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			  mkTyVarTy, tcGetTyVar, isTyVarClassPred, mkTyVarTys,
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			  tyVarsOfPred, isIPPred, isInheritablePred, predHasFDs )
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import Id		( idType, mkUserLocal )
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import Var		( TyVar )
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import Name		( getOccName, getSrcLoc )
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import NameSet		( NameSet, mkNameSet, elemNameSet )
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import Class		( classBigSig )
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import FunDeps		( oclose, grow, improve, pprEquationDoc )
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import PrelInfo		( isNumericClass, isCreturnableClass, isCcallishClass, 
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			  splitName, fstName, sndName )
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import Subst		( mkTopTyVarSubst, substTheta, substTy )
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import TysWiredIn	( unitTy, pairTyCon )
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import VarSet
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import FiniteMap
import Outputable
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import ListSetOps	( equivClasses )
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import Util		( zipEqual )
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import List		( partition )
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import CmdLineOpts
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\end{code}


%************************************************************************
%*									*
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\subsection{NOTES}
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%*									*
%************************************************************************

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	--------------------------------------
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		Notes on quantification
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	--------------------------------------
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Suppose we are about to do a generalisation step.
We have in our hand

	G	the environment
	T	the type of the RHS
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	C	the constraints from that RHS
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The game is to figure out

	Q	the set of type variables over which to quantify
	Ct	the constraints we will *not* quantify over
	Cq	the constraints we will quantify over

So we're going to infer the type

	forall Q. Cq => T

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and float the constraints Ct further outwards.
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Here are the things that *must* be true:

 (A)	Q intersect fv(G) = EMPTY			limits how big Q can be
 (B)	Q superset fv(Cq union T) \ oclose(fv(G),C)	limits how small Q can be

(A) says we can't quantify over a variable that's free in the
environment.  (B) says we must quantify over all the truly free
variables in T, else we won't get a sufficiently general type.  We do
not *need* to quantify over any variable that is fixed by the free
vars of the environment G.

	BETWEEN THESE TWO BOUNDS, ANY Q WILL DO!

Example:	class H x y | x->y where ...

	fv(G) = {a}	C = {H a b, H c d}
			T = c -> b

	(A)  Q intersect {a} is empty
	(B)  Q superset {a,b,c,d} \ oclose({a}, C) = {a,b,c,d} \ {a,b} = {c,d}

	So Q can be {c,d}, {b,c,d}

Other things being equal, however, we'd like to quantify over as few
variables as possible: smaller types, fewer type applications, more
constraints can get into Ct instead of Cq.


-----------------------------------------
We will make use of

  fv(T)	 	the free type vars of T

  oclose(vs,C)	The result of extending the set of tyvars vs
		using the functional dependencies from C

  grow(vs,C)	The result of extend the set of tyvars vs
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		using all conceivable links from C.
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		E.g. vs = {a}, C = {H [a] b, K (b,Int) c, Eq e}
		Then grow(vs,C) = {a,b,c}

		Note that grow(vs,C) `superset` grow(vs,simplify(C))
		That is, simplfication can only shrink the result of grow.

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Notice that
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   oclose is conservative one way:      v `elem` oclose(vs,C) => v is definitely fixed by vs
   grow is conservative the other way:  if v might be fixed by vs => v `elem` grow(vs,C)


-----------------------------------------

Choosing Q
~~~~~~~~~~
Here's a good way to choose Q:

	Q = grow( fv(T), C ) \ oclose( fv(G), C )

That is, quantify over all variable that that MIGHT be fixed by the
call site (which influences T), but which aren't DEFINITELY fixed by
G.  This choice definitely quantifies over enough type variables,
albeit perhaps too many.

Why grow( fv(T), C ) rather than fv(T)?  Consider

	class H x y | x->y where ...
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	T = c->c
	C = (H c d)

  If we used fv(T) = {c} we'd get the type

	forall c. H c d => c -> b

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  And then if the fn was called at several different c's, each of
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  which fixed d differently, we'd get a unification error, because
  d isn't quantified.  Solution: quantify d.  So we must quantify
  everything that might be influenced by c.

Why not oclose( fv(T), C )?  Because we might not be able to see
all the functional dependencies yet:

	class H x y | x->y where ...
	instance H x y => Eq (T x y) where ...

	T = c->c
	C = (Eq (T c d))

  Now oclose(fv(T),C) = {c}, because the functional dependency isn't
  apparent yet, and that's wrong.  We must really quantify over d too.


There really isn't any point in quantifying over any more than
grow( fv(T), C ), because the call sites can't possibly influence
any other type variables.



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	--------------------------------------
		Notes on ambiguity
	--------------------------------------
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It's very hard to be certain when a type is ambiguous.  Consider

	class K x
	class H x y | x -> y
	instance H x y => K (x,y)

Is this type ambiguous?
	forall a b. (K (a,b), Eq b) => a -> a

Looks like it!  But if we simplify (K (a,b)) we get (H a b) and
now we see that a fixes b.  So we can't tell about ambiguity for sure
without doing a full simplification.  And even that isn't possible if
the context has some free vars that may get unified.  Urgle!

Here's another example: is this ambiguous?
	forall a b. Eq (T b) => a -> a
Not if there's an insance decl (with no context)
	instance Eq (T b) where ...

You may say of this example that we should use the instance decl right
away, but you can't always do that:

	class J a b where ...
	instance J Int b where ...

	f :: forall a b. J a b => a -> a

(Notice: no functional dependency in J's class decl.)
Here f's type is perfectly fine, provided f is only called at Int.
It's premature to complain when meeting f's signature, or even
when inferring a type for f.



However, we don't *need* to report ambiguity right away.  It'll always
show up at the call site.... and eventually at main, which needs special
treatment.  Nevertheless, reporting ambiguity promptly is an excellent thing.

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So here's the plan.  We WARN about probable ambiguity if
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	fv(Cq) is not a subset of  oclose(fv(T) union fv(G), C)

(all tested before quantification).
That is, all the type variables in Cq must be fixed by the the variables
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in the environment, or by the variables in the type.
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Notice that we union before calling oclose.  Here's an example:

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	class J a b c | a b -> c
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	fv(G) = {a}

Is this ambiguous?
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	forall b c. (J a b c) => b -> b
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Only if we union {a} from G with {b} from T before using oclose,
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do we see that c is fixed.
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It's a bit vague exactly which C we should use for this oclose call.  If we
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don't fix enough variables we might complain when we shouldn't (see
the above nasty example).  Nothing will be perfect.  That's why we can
only issue a warning.


Can we ever be *certain* about ambiguity?  Yes: if there's a constraint

	c in C such that fv(c) intersect (fv(G) union fv(T)) = EMPTY

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then c is a "bubble"; there's no way it can ever improve, and it's
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certainly ambiguous.  UNLESS it is a constant (sigh).  And what about
the nasty example?

	class K x
	class H x y | x -> y
	instance H x y => K (x,y)

Is this type ambiguous?
	forall a b. (K (a,b), Eq b) => a -> a

Urk.  The (Eq b) looks "definitely ambiguous" but it isn't.  What we are after
is a "bubble" that's a set of constraints

	Cq = Ca union Cq'  st  fv(Ca) intersect (fv(Cq') union fv(T) union fv(G)) = EMPTY

Hence another idea.  To decide Q start with fv(T) and grow it
by transitive closure in Cq (no functional dependencies involved).
Now partition Cq using Q, leaving the definitely-ambiguous and probably-ok.
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The definitely-ambiguous can then float out, and get smashed at top level
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(which squashes out the constants, like Eq (T a) above)


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	--------------------------------------
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		Notes on principal types
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    class C a where
      op :: a -> a
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    f x = let g y = op (y::Int) in True

Here the principal type of f is (forall a. a->a)
but we'll produce the non-principal type
    f :: forall a. C Int => a -> a


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		Notes on implicit parameters
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Question 1: can we "inherit" implicit parameters
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Consider this:

	f x = (x::Int) + ?y
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where f is *not* a top-level binding.
From the RHS of f we'll get the constraint (?y::Int).
There are two types we might infer for f:
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	f :: Int -> Int

(so we get ?y from the context of f's definition), or
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	f :: (?y::Int) => Int -> Int

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At first you might think the first was better, becuase then
?y behaves like a free variable of the definition, rather than
having to be passed at each call site.  But of course, the WHOLE
IDEA is that ?y should be passed at each call site (that's what
dynamic binding means) so we'd better infer the second.

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BOTTOM LINE: when *inferring types* you *must* quantify 
over implicit parameters. See the predicate isFreeWhenInferring.
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Question 2: type signatures
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
BUT WATCH OUT: When you supply a type signature, we can't force you
to quantify over implicit parameters.  For example:
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	(?x + 1) :: Int

This is perfectly reasonable.  We do not want to insist on

	(?x + 1) :: (?x::Int => Int)

That would be silly.  Here, the definition site *is* the occurrence site,
so the above strictures don't apply.  Hence the difference between
tcSimplifyCheck (which *does* allow implicit paramters to be inherited)
and tcSimplifyCheckBind (which does not).
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What about when you supply a type signature for a binding?
Is it legal to give the following explicit, user type 
signature to f, thus:
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	f :: Int -> Int
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	f x = (x::Int) + ?y
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At first sight this seems reasonable, but it has the nasty property
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that adding a type signature changes the dynamic semantics.
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Consider this:
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	(let f x = (x::Int) + ?y
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 	 in (f 3, f 3 with ?y=5))  with ?y = 6

		returns (3+6, 3+5)
vs
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	(let f :: Int -> Int
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	     f x = x + ?y
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	 in (f 3, f 3 with ?y=5))  with ?y = 6

		returns (3+6, 3+6)

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Indeed, simply inlining f (at the Haskell source level) would change the
dynamic semantics.
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Nevertheless, as Launchbury says (email Oct 01) we can't really give the
semantics for a Haskell program without knowing its typing, so if you 
change the typing you may change the semantics.

To make things consistent in all cases where we are *checking* against
a supplied signature (as opposed to inferring a type), we adopt the
rule: 

	a signature does not need to quantify over implicit params.

[This represents a (rather marginal) change of policy since GHC 5.02,
which *required* an explicit signature to quantify over all implicit
params for the reasons mentioned above.]

But that raises a new question.  Consider 

	Given (signature)	?x::Int
	Wanted (inferred)	?x::Int, ?y::Bool

Clearly we want to discharge the ?x and float the ?y out.  But
what is the criterion that distinguishes them?  Clearly it isn't
what free type variables they have.  The Right Thing seems to be
to float a constraint that
	neither mentions any of the quantified type variables
	nor any of the quantified implicit parameters

See the predicate isFreeWhenChecking.
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Question 3: monomorphism
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
There's a nasty corner case when the monomorphism restriction bites:
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	z = (x::Int) + ?y

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The argument above suggests that we *must* generalise
over the ?y parameter, to get
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	z :: (?y::Int) => Int,
but the monomorphism restriction says that we *must not*, giving
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	z :: Int.
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Why does the momomorphism restriction say this?  Because if you have

	let z = x + ?y in z+z

you might not expect the addition to be done twice --- but it will if
we follow the argument of Question 2 and generalise over ?y.



Possible choices
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(A) Always generalise over implicit parameters
    Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
	be generalised

    Consequences:
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	* Inlining remains valid
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	* No unexpected loss of sharing
	* But simple bindings like
		z = ?y + 1
	  will be rejected, unless you add an explicit type signature
	  (to avoid the monomorphism restriction)
		z :: (?y::Int) => Int
		z = ?y + 1
	  This seems unacceptable

(B) Monomorphism restriction "wins"
    Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
	be generalised
    Always generalise over implicit parameters *except* for bindings
	that fall under the monomorphism restriction

    Consequences
	* Inlining isn't valid in general
	* No unexpected loss of sharing
	* Simple bindings like
		z = ?y + 1
	  accepted (get value of ?y from binding site)

(C) Always generalise over implicit parameters
    Bindings that fall under the monomorphism restriction can't
	be generalised, EXCEPT for implicit parameters
    Consequences
	* Inlining remains valid
	* Unexpected loss of sharing (from the extra generalisation)
	* Simple bindings like
		z = ?y + 1
	  accepted (get value of ?y from occurrence sites)


Discussion
~~~~~~~~~~
None of these choices seems very satisfactory.  But at least we should
decide which we want to do.
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It's really not clear what is the Right Thing To Do.  If you see
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	z = (x::Int) + ?y
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would you expect the value of ?y to be got from the *occurrence sites*
of 'z', or from the valuue of ?y at the *definition* of 'z'?  In the
case of function definitions, the answer is clearly the former, but
less so in the case of non-fucntion definitions.   On the other hand,
if we say that we get the value of ?y from the definition site of 'z',
then inlining 'z' might change the semantics of the program.
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Choice (C) really says "the monomorphism restriction doesn't apply
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to implicit parameters".  Which is fine, but remember that every
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innocent binding 'x = ...' that mentions an implicit parameter in
the RHS becomes a *function* of that parameter, called at each
use of 'x'.  Now, the chances are that there are no intervening 'with'
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clauses that bind ?y, so a decent compiler should common up all
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those function calls.  So I think I strongly favour (C).  Indeed,
one could make a similar argument for abolishing the monomorphism
restriction altogether.
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BOTTOM LINE: we choose (B) at present.  See tcSimplifyRestricted
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%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{tcSimplifyInfer}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

tcSimplify is called when we *inferring* a type.  Here's the overall game plan:

    1. Compute Q = grow( fvs(T), C )
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    2. Partition C based on Q into Ct and Cq.  Notice that ambiguous
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       predicates will end up in Ct; we deal with them at the top level
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    3. Try improvement, using functional dependencies
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    4. If Step 3 did any unification, repeat from step 1
       (Unification can change the result of 'grow'.)

Note: we don't reduce dictionaries in step 2.  For example, if we have
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Eq (a,b), we don't simplify to (Eq a, Eq b).  So Q won't be different
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after step 2.  However note that we may therefore quantify over more
type variables than we absolutely have to.

For the guts, we need a loop, that alternates context reduction and
improvement with unification.  E.g. Suppose we have

	class C x y | x->y where ...
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and tcSimplify is called with:
	(C Int a, C Int b)
Then improvement unifies a with b, giving
	(C Int a, C Int a)

If we need to unify anything, we rattle round the whole thing all over
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again.
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\begin{code}
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tcSimplifyInfer
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	:: SDoc
	-> TcTyVarSet		-- fv(T); type vars
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	-> LIE			-- Wanted
	-> TcM ([TcTyVar],	-- Tyvars to quantify (zonked)
		LIE,		-- Free
		TcDictBinds,	-- Bindings
		[TcId])		-- Dict Ids that must be bound here (zonked)
\end{code}
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\begin{code}
tcSimplifyInfer doc tau_tvs wanted_lie
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  = inferLoop doc (varSetElems tau_tvs)
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	      (lieToList wanted_lie)	`thenTc` \ (qtvs, frees, binds, irreds) ->
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	-- Check for non-generalisable insts
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    mapTc_ addCantGenErr (filter (not . instCanBeGeneralised) irreds)	`thenTc_`

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    returnTc (qtvs, mkLIE frees, binds, map instToId irreds)
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inferLoop doc tau_tvs wanteds
  =   	-- Step 1
    zonkTcTyVarsAndFV tau_tvs		`thenNF_Tc` \ tau_tvs' ->
    mapNF_Tc zonkInst wanteds		`thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
    tcGetGlobalTyVars			`thenNF_Tc` \ gbl_tvs ->
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    let
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 	preds = predsOfInsts wanteds'
	qtvs  = grow preds tau_tvs' `minusVarSet` oclose preds gbl_tvs
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	try_me inst
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	  | isFreeWhenInferring qtvs inst = Free
	  | isClassDict inst 		  = DontReduceUnlessConstant	-- Dicts
	  | otherwise	    		  = ReduceMe 			-- Lits and Methods
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    in
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		-- Step 2
    reduceContext doc try_me [] wanteds'    `thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
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		-- Step 3
    if no_improvement then
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	returnTc (varSetElems qtvs, frees, binds, irreds)
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    else
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	-- If improvement did some unification, we go round again.  There
	-- are two subtleties:
	--   a) We start again with irreds, not wanteds
	-- 	Using an instance decl might have introduced a fresh type variable
	--	which might have been unified, so we'd get an infinite loop
	--	if we started again with wanteds!  See example [LOOP]
	--
	--   b) It's also essential to re-process frees, because unification
	--      might mean that a type variable that looked free isn't now.
	--
	-- Hence the (irreds ++ frees)

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	-- However, NOTICE that when we are done, we might have some bindings, but
	-- the final qtvs might be empty.  See [NO TYVARS] below.
				
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	inferLoop doc tau_tvs (irreds ++ frees)	`thenTc` \ (qtvs1, frees1, binds1, irreds1) ->
	returnTc (qtvs1, frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1, irreds1)
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\end{code}
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Example [LOOP]

	class If b t e r | b t e -> r
	instance If T t e t
	instance If F t e e
	class Lte a b c | a b -> c where lte :: a -> b -> c
	instance Lte Z b T
	instance (Lte a b l,If l b a c) => Max a b c

Wanted:	Max Z (S x) y

Then we'll reduce using the Max instance to:
	(Lte Z (S x) l, If l (S x) Z y)
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and improve by binding l->T, after which we can do some reduction
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on both the Lte and If constraints.  What we *can't* do is start again
with (Max Z (S x) y)!

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[NO TYVARS]

	class Y a b | a -> b where
	    y :: a -> X b
	
	instance Y [[a]] a where
	    y ((x:_):_) = X x
	
	k :: X a -> X a -> X a

	g :: Num a => [X a] -> [X a]
	g xs = h xs
	    where
	    h ys = ys ++ map (k (y [[0]])) xs

The excitement comes when simplifying the bindings for h.  Initially
try to simplify {y @ [[t1]] t2, 0 @ t1}, with initial qtvs = {t2}.
From this we get t1:=:t2, but also various bindings.  We can't forget
the bindings (because of [LOOP]), but in fact t1 is what g is
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polymorphic in.  

The net effect of [NO TYVARS] 
633

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\begin{code}
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isFreeWhenInferring :: TyVarSet -> Inst	-> Bool
isFreeWhenInferring qtvs inst
  =  isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst			-- Constrains no quantified vars
638
  && all isInheritablePred (predsOfInst inst)	-- And no implicit parameter involved
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						-- (see "Notes on implicit parameters")

isFreeWhenChecking :: TyVarSet	-- Quantified tyvars
	 	   -> NameSet	-- Quantified implicit parameters
		   -> Inst -> Bool
isFreeWhenChecking qtvs ips inst
  =  isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst
  && isFreeWrtIPs    ips inst

isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst = not (tyVarsOfInst inst `intersectsVarSet` qtvs)
isFreeWrtIPs     ips inst = not (any (`elemNameSet` ips) (ipNamesOfInst inst))
650
\end{code}
651

652

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%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{tcSimplifyCheck}
%*									*
%************************************************************************
658

659
@tcSimplifyCheck@ is used when we know exactly the set of variables
660
we are going to quantify over.  For example, a class or instance declaration.
661
662

\begin{code}
663
tcSimplifyCheck
664
	 :: SDoc
665
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	 -> [TcTyVar]		-- Quantify over these
	 -> [Inst]		-- Given
667
	 -> LIE			-- Wanted
668
	 -> TcM (LIE,		-- Free
669
		 TcDictBinds)	-- Bindings
670

671
-- tcSimplifyCheck is used when checking expression type signatures,
672
-- class decls, instance decls etc.
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--
-- NB: we psss isFree (not isFreeAndInheritable) to tcSimplCheck
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-- It's important that we can float out non-inheritable predicates
-- Example:		(?x :: Int) is ok!
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--
-- NB: tcSimplifyCheck does not consult the
--	global type variables in the environment; so you don't
--	need to worry about setting them before calling tcSimplifyCheck
681
tcSimplifyCheck doc qtvs givens wanted_lie
682
  = tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs
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		 givens wanted_lie	`thenTc` \ (qtvs', frees, binds) ->
    returnTc (frees, binds)
  where
    get_qtvs = zonkTcTyVarsAndFV qtvs


-- tcSimplifyInferCheck is used when we know the constraints we are to simplify
-- against, but we don't know the type variables over which we are going to quantify.
-- This happens when we have a type signature for a mutually recursive group
tcSimplifyInferCheck
693
	 :: SDoc
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	 -> TcTyVarSet		-- fv(T)
	 -> [Inst]		-- Given
	 -> LIE			-- Wanted
	 -> TcM ([TcTyVar],	-- Variables over which to quantify
		 LIE,		-- Free
		 TcDictBinds)	-- Bindings

tcSimplifyInferCheck doc tau_tvs givens wanted_lie
702
  = tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs givens wanted_lie
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  where
	-- Figure out which type variables to quantify over
	-- You might think it should just be the signature tyvars,
	-- but in bizarre cases you can get extra ones
	-- 	f :: forall a. Num a => a -> a
	--	f x = fst (g (x, head [])) + 1
	--	g a b = (b,a)
	-- Here we infer g :: forall a b. a -> b -> (b,a)
	-- We don't want g to be monomorphic in b just because
	-- f isn't quantified over b.
    all_tvs = varSetElems (tau_tvs `unionVarSet` tyVarsOfInsts givens)

    get_qtvs = zonkTcTyVarsAndFV all_tvs	`thenNF_Tc` \ all_tvs' ->
	       tcGetGlobalTyVars		`thenNF_Tc` \ gbl_tvs ->
	       let
	          qtvs = all_tvs' `minusVarSet` gbl_tvs
			-- We could close gbl_tvs, but its not necessary for
720
			-- soundness, and it'll only affect which tyvars, not which
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			-- dictionaries, we quantify over
	       in
	       returnNF_Tc qtvs
\end{code}

Here is the workhorse function for all three wrappers.

728
\begin{code}
729
tcSimplCheck doc get_qtvs givens wanted_lie
730
  = check_loop givens (lieToList wanted_lie)	`thenTc` \ (qtvs, frees, binds, irreds) ->
731

732
	-- Complain about any irreducible ones
733
    complainCheck doc givens irreds		`thenNF_Tc_`
734

735
	-- Done
736
    returnTc (qtvs, mkLIE frees, binds)
737

738
  where
739
740
    ip_set = mkNameSet (ipNamesOfInsts givens)

741
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743
744
    check_loop givens wanteds
      =		-- Step 1
    	mapNF_Tc zonkInst givens	`thenNF_Tc` \ givens' ->
    	mapNF_Tc zonkInst wanteds	`thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
745
746
    	get_qtvs 			`thenNF_Tc` \ qtvs' ->

747
748
749
750
 		    -- Step 2
    	let
 	    -- When checking against a given signature we always reduce
 	    -- until we find a match against something given, or can't reduce
751
752
 	    try_me inst | isFreeWhenChecking qtvs' ip_set inst = Free
 			| otherwise  			       = ReduceMe
753
754
    	in
    	reduceContext doc try_me givens' wanteds'	`thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
755

756
757
758
759
760
761
 		    -- Step 3
    	if no_improvement then
 	    returnTc (varSetElems qtvs', frees, binds, irreds)
    	else
 	    check_loop givens' (irreds ++ frees) 	`thenTc` \ (qtvs', frees1, binds1, irreds1) ->
 	    returnTc (qtvs', frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1, irreds1)
762
763
764
\end{code}


765
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769
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772
%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{tcSimplifyRestricted}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

\begin{code}
tcSimplifyRestricted 	-- Used for restricted binding groups
773
			-- i.e. ones subject to the monomorphism restriction
774
	:: SDoc
775
	-> TcTyVarSet		-- Free in the type of the RHSs
776
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781
782
	-> LIE			-- Free in the RHSs
	-> TcM ([TcTyVar],	-- Tyvars to quantify (zonked)
		LIE,		-- Free
		TcDictBinds)	-- Bindings

tcSimplifyRestricted doc tau_tvs wanted_lie
  = 	-- First squash out all methods, to find the constrained tyvars
783
   	-- We can't just take the free vars of wanted_lie because that'll
784
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787
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	-- have methods that may incidentally mention entirely unconstrained variables
	--  	e.g. a call to 	f :: Eq a => a -> b -> b
	-- Here, b is unconstrained.  A good example would be
	--	foo = f (3::Int)
	-- We want to infer the polymorphic type
	--	foo :: forall b. b -> b
    let
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	wanteds = lieToList wanted_lie
	try_me inst = ReduceMe		-- Reduce as far as we can.  Don't stop at
					-- dicts; the idea is to get rid of as many type
					-- variables as possible, and we don't want to stop
					-- at (say) Monad (ST s), because that reduces
					-- immediately, with no constraint on s.
797
    in
798
    simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds		`thenTc` \ (_, _, constrained_dicts) ->
799
800

	-- Next, figure out the tyvars we will quantify over
801
802
    zonkTcTyVarsAndFV (varSetElems tau_tvs)	`thenNF_Tc` \ tau_tvs' ->
    tcGetGlobalTyVars				`thenNF_Tc` \ gbl_tvs ->
803
    let
804
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	constrained_tvs = tyVarsOfInsts constrained_dicts
	qtvs = (tau_tvs' `minusVarSet` oclose (predsOfInsts constrained_dicts) gbl_tvs)
806
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			 `minusVarSet` constrained_tvs
    in

	-- The first step may have squashed more methods than
	-- necessary, so try again, this time knowing the exact
	-- set of type variables to quantify over.
	--
813
	-- We quantify only over constraints that are captured by qtvs;
814
	-- these will just be a subset of non-dicts.  This in contrast
815
	-- to normal inference (using isFreeWhenInferring) in which we quantify over
816
	-- all *non-inheritable* constraints too.  This implements choice
817
	-- (B) under "implicit parameter and monomorphism" above.
818
819
820
821
	--
	-- Remember that we may need to do *some* simplification, to
	-- (for example) squash {Monad (ST s)} into {}.  It's not enough
	-- just to float all constraints
822
823
    mapNF_Tc zonkInst (lieToList wanted_lie)	`thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
    let
824
825
        try_me inst | isFreeWrtTyVars qtvs inst = Free
	            | otherwise                 = ReduceMe
826
827
828
829
    in
    reduceContext doc try_me [] wanteds'	`thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
    ASSERT( no_improvement )
    ASSERT( null irreds )
830
	-- No need to loop because simpleReduceLoop will have
831
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833
834
835
	-- already done any improvement necessary

    returnTc (varSetElems qtvs, mkLIE frees, binds)
\end{code}

836
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838
839
840
841
842

%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{tcSimplifyToDicts}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

843
844
845
846
On the LHS of transformation rules we only simplify methods and constants,
getting dictionaries.  We want to keep all of them unsimplified, to serve
as the available stuff for the RHS of the rule.

847
The same thing is used for specialise pragmas. Consider
848

849
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851
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853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
	f :: Num a => a -> a
	{-# SPECIALISE f :: Int -> Int #-}
	f = ...

The type checker generates a binding like:

	f_spec = (f :: Int -> Int)

and we want to end up with

	f_spec = _inline_me_ (f Int dNumInt)

861
But that means that we must simplify the Method for f to (f Int dNumInt)!
862
863
So tcSimplifyToDicts squeezes out all Methods.

864
865
866
867
868
IMPORTANT NOTE:  we *don't* want to do superclass commoning up.  Consider

	fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b
	{-# RULES "foo"  fromIntegral = id :: Int -> Int #-}

869
Here, a=b=Int, and Num Int is a superclass of Integral Int. But we *dont*
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want to get

	forall dIntegralInt.
	fromIntegral Int Int dIntegralInt (scsel dIntegralInt) = id Int

because the scsel will mess up matching.  Instead we want

	forall dIntegralInt, dNumInt.
	fromIntegral Int Int dIntegralInt dNumInt = id Int

Hence "DontReduce NoSCs"

882
\begin{code}
883
tcSimplifyToDicts :: LIE -> TcM ([Inst], TcDictBinds)
884
tcSimplifyToDicts wanted_lie
885
  = simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds		`thenTc` \ (frees, binds, irreds) ->
886
	-- Since try_me doesn't look at types, we don't need to
887
	-- do any zonking, so it's safe to call reduceContext directly
888
    ASSERT( null frees )
889
890
    returnTc (irreds, binds)

891
  where
892
    doc = text "tcSimplifyToDicts"
893
    wanteds = lieToList wanted_lie
894
895

	-- Reduce methods and lits only; stop as soon as we get a dictionary
896
897
    try_me inst	| isDict inst = DontReduce NoSCs
		| otherwise   = ReduceMe
898
899
\end{code}

900

901
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903
904
905
906
907
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909
910
%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection{Filtering at a dynamic binding}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

When we have
	let ?x = R in B

we must discharge all the ?x constraints from B.  We also do an improvement
911
step; if we have ?x::t1 and ?x::t2 we must unify t1, t2.
912
913
914
915
916
917

Actually, the constraints from B might improve the types in ?x. For example

	f :: (?x::Int) => Char -> Char
	let ?x = 3 in f 'c'

918
then the constraint (?x::Int) arising from the call to f will
919
force the binding for ?x to be of type Int.
920
921

\begin{code}
922
tcSimplifyIPs :: [Inst]		-- The implicit parameters bound here
923
924
	      -> LIE
	      -> TcM (LIE, TcDictBinds)
925
926
tcSimplifyIPs given_ips wanted_lie
  = simpl_loop given_ips wanteds	`thenTc` \ (frees, binds) ->
927
    returnTc (mkLIE frees, binds)
928
  where
929
    doc	     = text "tcSimplifyIPs" <+> ppr given_ips
930
    wanteds  = lieToList wanted_lie
931
    ip_set   = mkNameSet (ipNamesOfInsts given_ips)
932

933
	-- Simplify any methods that mention the implicit parameter
934
935
    try_me inst | isFreeWrtIPs ip_set inst = Free
		| otherwise		   = ReduceMe
936
937
938
939

    simpl_loop givens wanteds
      = mapNF_Tc zonkInst givens		`thenNF_Tc` \ givens' ->
        mapNF_Tc zonkInst wanteds		`thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
940

941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
        reduceContext doc try_me givens' wanteds'    `thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->

        if no_improvement then
	    ASSERT( null irreds )
	    returnTc (frees, binds)
	else
	    simpl_loop givens' (irreds ++ frees)	`thenTc` \ (frees1, binds1) ->
	    returnTc (frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1)
949
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966
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971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
\end{code}


%************************************************************************
%*									*
\subsection[binds-for-local-funs]{@bindInstsOfLocalFuns@}
%*									*
%************************************************************************

When doing a binding group, we may have @Insts@ of local functions.
For example, we might have...
\begin{verbatim}
let f x = x + 1	    -- orig local function (overloaded)
    f.1 = f Int	    -- two instances of f
    f.2 = f Float
 in
    (f.1 5, f.2 6.7)
\end{verbatim}
The point is: we must drop the bindings for @f.1@ and @f.2@ here,
where @f@ is in scope; those @Insts@ must certainly not be passed
upwards towards the top-level.	If the @Insts@ were binding-ified up
there, they would have unresolvable references to @f@.

We pass in an @init_lie@ of @Insts@ and a list of locally-bound @Ids@.
For each method @Inst@ in the @init_lie@ that mentions one of the
@Ids@, we create a binding.  We return the remaining @Insts@ (in an
@LIE@), as well as the @HsBinds@ generated.

\begin{code}
bindInstsOfLocalFuns ::	LIE -> [TcId] -> TcM (LIE, TcMonoBinds)

bindInstsOfLocalFuns init_lie local_ids
981
  | null overloaded_ids
982
983
984
985
	-- Common case
  = returnTc (init_lie, EmptyMonoBinds)

  | otherwise
986
  = simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds		`thenTc` \ (frees, binds, irreds) ->
987
    ASSERT( null irreds )
988
    returnTc (mkLIE frees, binds)
989
990
991
992
  where
    doc		     = text "bindInsts" <+> ppr local_ids
    wanteds	     = lieToList init_lie
    overloaded_ids   = filter is_overloaded local_ids
993
    is_overloaded id = isOverloadedTy (idType id)
994
995

    overloaded_set = mkVarSet overloaded_ids	-- There can occasionally be a lot of them
996
						-- so it's worth building a set, so that
997
998
						-- lookup (in isMethodFor) is faster

999
    try_me inst | isMethodFor overloaded_set inst = ReduceMe
1000
		| otherwise		          = Free
1001
\end{code}
1002

1003

1004
1005
%************************************************************************
%*									*
1006
\subsection{Data types for the reduction mechanism}
1007
1008
1009
%*									*
%************************************************************************

1010
1011
The main control over context reduction is here

1012
\begin{code}
1013
data WhatToDo
1014
1015
 = ReduceMe		-- Try to reduce this
			-- If there's no instance, behave exactly like
1016
1017
			-- DontReduce: add the inst to
			-- the irreductible ones, but don't
1018
1019
			-- produce an error message of any kind.
			-- It might be quite legitimate such as (Eq a)!
1020

1021
 | DontReduce WantSCs		-- Return as irreducible
1022
1023
1024

 | DontReduceUnlessConstant	-- Return as irreducible unless it can
				-- be reduced to a constant in one step
1025

1026
 | Free			  -- Return as free
1027

1028
1029
1030
reduceMe :: Inst -> WhatToDo
reduceMe inst = ReduceMe

1031
1032
data WantSCs = NoSCs | AddSCs	-- Tells whether we should add the superclasses
				-- of a predicate when adding it to the avails
1033
\end{code}
1034
1035
1036
1037



\begin{code}
1038
type Avails = FiniteMap Inst Avail
1039

1040
data Avail
1041
1042
  = IsFree		-- Used for free Insts
  | Irred		-- Used for irreducible dictionaries,
1043
1044
			-- which are going to be lambda bound

1045
  | Given TcId 		-- Used for dictionaries for which we have a binding
1046
			-- e.g. those "given" in a signature
1047
	  Bool		-- True <=> actually consumed (splittable IPs only)
1048
1049

  | NoRhs 		-- Used for Insts like (CCallable f)
1050
1051
			-- where no witness is required.

1052
  | Rhs 		-- Used when there is a RHS
1053
1054
	TcExpr	 	-- The RHS
	[Inst]		-- Insts free in the RHS; we need these too
1055

1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
  | Linear 		-- Splittable Insts only.
	Int		-- The Int is always 2 or more; indicates how
			-- many copies are required
	Inst 		-- The splitter
	Avail		-- Where the "master copy" is

  | LinRhss		-- Splittable Insts only; this is used only internally
			-- 	by extractResults, where a Linear 
			--	is turned into an LinRhss
	[TcExpr]	-- A supply of suitable RHSs

1067
pprAvails avails = vcat [sep [ppr inst, nest 2 (equals <+> pprAvail avail)]
1068
			| (inst,avail) <- fmToList avails ]
1069
1070
1071
1072

instance Outputable Avail where
    ppr = pprAvail

1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
pprAvail NoRhs	       	= text "<no rhs>"
pprAvail IsFree	       	= text "Free"
pprAvail Irred	       	= text "Irred"
pprAvail (Given x b)   	= text "Given" <+> ppr x <+> 
		 	  if b then text "(used)" else empty
pprAvail (Rhs rhs bs)   = text "Rhs" <+> ppr rhs <+> braces (ppr bs)
pprAvail (Linear n i a) = text "Linear" <+> ppr n <+> braces (ppr i) <+> ppr a
pprAvail (LinRhss rhss) = text "LinRhss" <+> ppr rhss
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
\end{code}

Extracting the bindings from a bunch of Avails.
The bindings do *not* come back sorted in dependency order.
We assume that they'll be wrapped in a big Rec, so that the
dependency analyser can sort them out later

The loop startes
\begin{code}
1090
extractResults :: Avails
1091
	       -> [Inst]		-- Wanted
1092
1093
1094
	       -> NF_TcM (TcDictBinds, 	-- Bindings
			  [Inst],	-- Irreducible ones
			  [Inst])	-- Free ones
1095

1096
1097
extractResults avails wanteds
  = go avails EmptyMonoBinds [] [] wanteds
1098
  where
1099
1100
    go avails binds irreds frees [] 
      = returnNF_Tc (binds, irreds, frees)
1101

1102
    go avails binds irreds frees (w:ws)
1103
      = case lookupFM avails w of
1104
1105
	  Nothing    -> pprTrace "Urk: extractResults" (ppr w) $
			go avails binds irreds frees ws
1106

1107
1108
1109
	  Just NoRhs  -> go avails		 binds irreds     frees     ws
	  Just IsFree -> go (add_free avails w)  binds irreds     (w:frees) ws
	  Just Irred  -> go (add_given avails w) binds (w:irreds) frees     ws
1110

1111
	  Just (Given id _) -> go avails new_binds irreds frees ws
1112
			    where
1113
1114
1115
1116
			       new_binds | id == instToId w = binds
					 | otherwise        = addBind binds w (HsVar id)
		-- The sought Id can be one of the givens, via a superclass chain
		-- and then we definitely don't want to generate an x=x binding!
1117

1118
1119
1120
1121
	  Just (Rhs rhs ws') -> go (add_given avails w) new_binds irreds frees (ws' ++ ws)
			     where
				new_binds = addBind binds w rhs

1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
	  Just (Linear n split_inst avail)	-- Transform Linear --> LinRhss
	    -> get_root irreds frees avail w		`thenNF_Tc` \ (irreds', frees', root_id) ->
	       split n (instToId split_inst) root_id w	`thenNF_Tc` \ (binds', rhss) ->
	       go (addToFM avails w (LinRhss rhss))
		  (binds `AndMonoBinds` binds')
		  irreds' frees' (split_inst : w : ws)

	  Just (LinRhss (rhs:rhss))		-- Consume one of the Rhss
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
		-> go new_avails new_binds irreds frees ws
		where		
		   new_binds  = addBind binds w rhs
		   new_avails = addToFM avails w (LinRhss rhss)

1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
    get_root irreds frees (Given id _) w = returnNF_Tc (irreds, frees, id)
    get_root irreds frees Irred	       w = cloneDict w	`thenNF_Tc` \ w' ->
					   returnNF_Tc (w':irreds, frees, instToId w')
    get_root irreds frees IsFree       w = cloneDict w	`thenNF_Tc` \ w' ->
					   returnNF_Tc (irreds, w':frees, instToId w')
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    add_given avails w 
	| instBindingRequired w = addToFM avails w (Given (instToId w) True)
	| otherwise		= addToFM avails w NoRhs
	-- NB: make sure that CCallable/CReturnable use NoRhs rather
	--	than Given, else we end up with bogus bindings.

    add_free avails w | isMethod w = avails
		      | otherwise  = add_given avails w
	-- NB: Hack alert!  
	-- Do *not* replace Free by Given if it's a method.
	-- The following situation shows why this is bad:
	--	truncate :: forall a. RealFrac a => forall b. Integral b => a -> b
	-- From an application (truncate f i) we get
	--	t1 = truncate at f
	--	t2 = t1 at i
	-- If we have also have a second occurrence of truncate, we get
	--	t3 = truncate at f
	--	t4 = t3 at i
	-- When simplifying with i,f free, we might still notice that
	--   t1=t3; but alas, the binding for t2 (which mentions t1)
	--   will continue to float out!
	-- (split n i a) returns: n rhss
	--			  auxiliary bindings
	--			  1 or 0 insts to add to irreds


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split :: Int -> TcId -> TcId -> Inst 
      -> NF_TcM (TcDictBinds, [TcExpr])
-- (split n split_id root_id wanted) returns
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--	* a list of 'n' expressions, all of which witness 'avail'
--	* a bunch of auxiliary bindings to support these expressions
--	* one or zero insts needed to witness the whole lot
--	  (maybe be zero if the initial Inst is a Given)
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--
-- NB: 'wanted' is just a template

split n split_id root_id wanted
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  = go n
  where
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    ty      = linearInstType wanted
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    pair_ty = mkTyConApp pairTyCon [ty,ty]
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    id      = instToId wanted
    occ     = getOccName id
    loc     = getSrcLoc id
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    go 1 = returnNF_Tc (EmptyMonoBinds, [HsVar root_id])
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    go n = go ((n+1) `div` 2)		`thenNF_Tc` \ (binds1, rhss) ->
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	   expand n rhss		`thenNF_Tc` \ (binds2, rhss') ->
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	   returnNF_Tc (binds1 `AndMonoBinds` binds2, rhss')
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	-- (expand n rhss) 
	-- Given ((n+1)/2) rhss, make n rhss, using auxiliary bindings
	--  e.g.  expand 3 [rhs1, rhs2]
	--	  = ( { x = split rhs1 },
	--	      [fst x, snd x, rhs2] )
    expand n rhss
	| n `rem` 2 == 0 = go rhss 	-- n is even
	| otherwise  	 = go (tail rhss)	`thenNF_Tc` \ (binds', rhss') ->
			   returnNF_Tc (binds', head rhss : rhss')
	where
	  go rhss = mapAndUnzipNF_Tc do_one rhss	`thenNF_Tc` \ (binds', rhss') ->
		    returnNF_Tc (andMonoBindList binds', concat rhss')

	  do_one rhs = tcGetUnique 			`thenNF_Tc` \ uniq -> 
chak's avatar
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		       tcLookupGlobalId fstName		`thenNF_Tc` \ fst_id ->
		       tcLookupGlobalId sndName		`thenNF_Tc` \ snd_id ->
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		       let 
			  x = mkUserLocal occ uniq pair_ty loc
		       in
		       returnNF_Tc (VarMonoBind x (mk_app split_id rhs),
				    [mk_fs_app fst_id ty x, mk_fs_app snd_id ty x])

mk_fs_app id ty var = HsVar id `TyApp` [ty,ty] `HsApp` HsVar var

mk_app id rhs = HsApp (HsVar id) rhs

addBind binds inst rhs = binds `AndMonoBinds` VarMonoBind (instToId inst) rhs
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\end{code}


%************************************************************************
%*									*
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\subsection[reduce]{@reduce@}
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%*									*
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%************************************************************************

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When the "what to do" predicate doesn't depend on the quantified type variables,
matters are easier.  We don't need to do any zonking, unless the improvement step
does something, in which case we zonk before iterating.

The "given" set is always empty.
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\begin{code}
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simpleReduceLoop :: SDoc
	 	 -> (Inst -> WhatToDo)		-- What to do, *not* based on the quantified type variables
		 -> [Inst]			-- Wanted
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		 -> TcM ([Inst],		-- Free
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			 TcDictBinds,
			 [Inst])		-- Irreducible

simpleReduceLoop doc try_me wanteds
  = mapNF_Tc zonkInst wanteds			`thenNF_Tc` \ wanteds' ->
    reduceContext doc try_me [] wanteds'	`thenTc` \ (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds) ->
    if no_improvement then
	returnTc (frees, binds, irreds)
    else
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	simpleReduceLoop doc try_me (irreds ++ frees)	`thenTc` \ (frees1, binds1, irreds1) ->
	returnTc (frees1, binds `AndMonoBinds` binds1, irreds1)
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\end{code}
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\begin{code}
reduceContext :: SDoc
	      -> (Inst -> WhatToDo)
	      -> [Inst]			-- Given
	      -> [Inst]			-- Wanted
	      -> NF_TcM (Bool, 		-- True <=> improve step did no unification
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			 [Inst],	-- Free
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			 TcDictBinds,	-- Dictionary bindings
			 [Inst])	-- Irreducible

reduceContext doc try_me givens wanteds
  =
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    traceTc (text "reduceContext" <+> (vcat [
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	     text "----------------------",
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	     doc,
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	     text "given" <+> ppr givens,
	     text "wanted" <+> ppr wanteds,
	     text "----------------------"
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	     ]))					`thenNF_Tc_`

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        -- Build the Avail mapping from "givens"
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    foldlNF_Tc addGiven emptyFM givens			`thenNF_Tc` \ init_state ->
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        -- Do the real work
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    reduceList (0,[]) try_me wanteds init_state		`thenNF_Tc` \ avails ->
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	-- Do improvement, using everything in avails
	-- In particular, avails includes all superclasses of everything
    tcImprove avails					`thenTc` \ no_improvement ->
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    extractResults avails wanteds			`thenNF_Tc` \ (binds, irreds, frees) ->

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    traceTc (text "reduceContext end" <+> (vcat [
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	     text "----------------------",
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	     doc,
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	     text "given" <+> ppr givens,
	     text "wanted" <+> ppr wanteds,
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	     text "----",
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	     text "avails" <+> pprAvails avails,
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	     text "frees" <+> ppr frees,
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	     text "no_improvement =" <+> ppr no_improvement,
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	     text "----------------------"
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	     ])) 					`thenNF_Tc_`
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    returnTc (no_improvement, frees, binds, irreds)