# Better sharing of join points

Here is a diagnosis of a major perf regression in `text`

, discussed in this comment of #19557 (closed)

## Diagnosis: join-point inlining

Suppose we have this (I know this isn't the way Stream is actually defined!):

`data Stream a = MkStream (T a -> T a) !Size`

and the definition

```
f x = let step = step-fun[x]
in MkStream step (case blah of { A -> s1; B -> s2 })
```

where `step-fun[x]`

is a big blob of code mentioning x.

Since `MkStream`

is strict we'll get this:

```
f x = let step = step-fun[x]
in join $j s = MkStream step s
in case blah of
A -> $j s1
B -> $j s2
```

And since the RHS of $j is small, we inline it:

```
f x = let step = step-fun[x]
in case blah of
A -> MkStream step s1
B -> MkStream step s2
```

Now suppose we have

```
g x = case f x of
Stream ustep usize -> unstream-code[ustep,usize]
```

where `unstream-code`

is a big blob of code mentioning `step`

and `size`

.
We hope to inline `f`

and eliminate the `Stream`

:

```
g x = let step = step-fun[x]
in case (case blah of { A -> MkStream step s1; B -> MkStream step s2 }) of
Stream ustep usize -> unstream-code[ustep,usize]
```

Again case-of-case fires making a join point for the big `unstream-code`

:

```
g x = let step = step-fun[x]
in join $j ustep usize = unstream-code[ustep,usize]
in case blah of
A -> $j step s1
B -> $j step s2
```

We have successfully cancelled the case on `Stream`

with the `Stream`

constructor.
But **DISASTER** we have *lambda-abstracted over step*. In the body of

`$j`

,
`ustep`

is always `step`

, but GHC doesn't see that, and hence can't inline
`step = step-fun[x]`

into `$j`

. This completely messes up the benefits of fusion.This is precisely what happens in the repro case for this ticket. The fact that it happens in GHC 9.0 but not in 8.10 is something of a fluke. All the transformations above are perfectly reasonable, and ones that 8.10 will do.

## What do to about it

Consider this transformation, above:

```
join $j s = MkStream step s
in case blah of
A -> $j s1
B -> $j s2
===> inline $j, since RHS is small
case blah of
A -> MkStream step s1
B -> MkStream step s2
```

This looks innocuous enough, but suppose these two expressions are consumed by

` case <hole> of MkStream a b -> rhs[a,b]`

If we put the two above expressions in the hole we'll get

```
join $j2 a b = rhs[a,b]
in join $j s = case MkStream step s of MkStream a b -> $j2 a b
in case blah of
A -> $j s1
B -> $j s2
and
join $j2 a b = rhs[a,b]
in case blah of
A -> case MkStream step s1 of MkStream a b -> $j2 a b
B -> case MkStream step s2 of MkStream a b -> $j2 a b
```

Crucially, in the first one the join-point we created to avoid duplicating `rhs`

is used
only once, so we can inline it thus:

```
join $j s = rhs[step,2]
in case blah of
A -> $j s1
B -> $j s2
```

and lo! we can now inline `step`

into `rhs`

. Not so with the second, where `$j2`

appears twice.

So one idea is this:

- In
`preInlineUnconditionally`

only inline a join point if- It occurs exactly once, or
- Its RHS is trivial, or
- Its RHS is a jump to another join point

## Creating join points

We also need to take care when *creating* join points. E.g.

```
case (case blah of { p1 -> rhs1; ...; pn -> rhsn}) of
(a,b) -> MkStream step[a] s[b]
```

In `Simplify.mkDupableAlt`

we current refrain from generating a join point if the case alternative is small. But here we *want* to generate

```
join $j a b = MkStream step[a] s[b]
in
case blah of
p1 -> case rhs1 of (a,b) -> $j a b
...
pn -> case rhsn of (a,b) -> $j a b
```

for the reasons above.