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Fix thunk update ordering

Ben Gamari requested to merge wip/tsan/fix-thunk-update into master

Previously we attempted to ensure soundness of concurrent thunk update by synchronizing on the access of the thunk's info table pointer field. This was believed to be sufficient since the indirectee (which may expose a closure allocated by another core) would not be examined until the info table pointer update is complete.

However, it turns out that this can result in data races in the presence of multiple threads racing a update a single thunk. For instance, consider this interleaving under the old scheme:

            Thread A                             Thread B
            ---------                            ---------
    t=0     Enter t
      1     Push update frame
      2     Begin evaluation

      4     Pause thread
      5     t.indirectee=tso
      6     Release

      7     ... (e.g. GC)

      8     Resume thread
      9     Finish evaluation
      10    Relaxed t.indirectee=x

      11                                         Load
      12                                         Acquire fence
      13                                         Inspect t.indirectee

      14    Release

Here Thread A enters thunk t but is soon paused, resulting in t being lazily blackholed at t=6. Then, at t=10 Thread A finishes evaluation and updates t.indirectee with a relaxed store.

Meanwhile, Thread B enters the blackhole. Under the old scheme this would introduce an acquire-fence but this would only synchronize with Thread A at t=6. Consequently, the result of the evaluation, x, is not visible to Thread B, introducing a data race.

We fix this by treating the indirectee field as we do all other mutable fields. This means we must always access this field with acquire-loads and release-stores.

See #23185. Broken out from !10957 (closed)

Edited by Ben Gamari

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