Visible type application
This re-working of the typechecker algorithm is based on the paper "Visible type application", by Richard Eisenberg, Stephanie Weirich, and Hamidhasan Ahmed, to be published at ESOP'16. This patch introduces -XTypeApplications, which allows users to say, for example `id @Int`, which has type `Int -> Int`. See the changes to the user manual for details. This patch addresses tickets #10619, #5296, #10589.